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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1685
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): 1686
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  • Special Issue on Blue Sky Electronic Technologies

    Page(s): 1687 - 1690
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  • Solid-State Lighting: Toward Superior Illumination

    Page(s): 1691 - 1703
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Solid-state lighting technology is now emerging as a cost-competitive,energy-efficient alternative to conventional electrical lighting. We review the history of lighting, discuss the benefits and challenges of the solid-state lighting technologies, and compare two approaches for generating white light from solid-state sources based on phosphor LEDs (which could be considered as solid-state replacement of fluorescent tubes) and multichip LED lamps,which offer many advantages, such as chromaticity control, better light quality,and higher efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Optical and Interferometric Lithography - Nanotechnology Enablers

    Page(s): 1704 - 1721
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    Interferometric lithography (IL), the interference of a small number of coherent optical beams, is a powerful technique for the fabrication of a wide array of samples of interest for nanoscience and nanotechnology. The techniques and limits of IL are discussed with particular attention to the smallest scales achievable. With immersion techniques, the smallest pattern size for a single exposure is a half-pitch of λ/4n where λ is the optical wavelength and n is the refractive index of the immersion material. Currently with a 193-nm excimer laser source and H2O immersion, this limiting dimension is ∼34 nm. With nonlinear spatial frequency multiplication techniques, this limit is extended by factors of 1/2, 1/3, etc.-extending well into the nanoscale regime. IL provides an inexpensive, large-area capability as a result of its parallelism. Multiple exposures, multiple beams, and mix-and-match with other lithographies extend the range of applicability. Imaging IL provides an approach to arbitrary structures with comparable resolution. Numerous application areas, including nanoscale epitaxial growth for semiconductor heterostructures; nanofluidics for biological separations; nanomagnetics for increased storage density; nanophotonics including distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflectors, two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, metamaterials, and negative refractive index materials for enhanced optical interactions are briefly reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Terahertz Frequency Sensing and Imaging: A Time of Reckoning Future Applications?

    Page(s): 1722 - 1743
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1452 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, the field of terahertz (THz) science and technology has entered a completely new phase of unprecedented expansion that is generating ever growing levels of broad-based international attention. In particular,there have been important advances in state-of-the-art THz technology and very enthusiastic growth in research activities associated with related scientific and industrial applications. One can legitimately argue that the potential payoffs of THz sensing and imaging (THz S&I) to application areas such as defense, security, biology and medicine are the major drivers of this new phenomenon. However, there remain major science and technology "gaps" in the THz regime that must be reconciled before many of the perceived payoffs ever become realizable. Therefore, it is natural to ask the question "Is now the time for THz?" or rather, are these recent events just a repeat of previous cycles in THz overenthusiasm that have been witnessed during the last century? The main goal of this paper is to consider some of the most promising THz S&I applications within the specific context of their particular science and technology challenges in an attempt to credibly judge (or speculate on) their future potential. View full abstract»

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  • Metamaterials for High-Frequency Electronics

    Page(s): 1744 - 1752
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    Over the past half-decade, the fundamental physical properties of left-handed(LH) metamaterials (MMs) have been established both theoretically and experimentally,and several novel MM-based microwave applications with unique characteristics have already been proposed. This paper provides a recall of the main properties of MMs and an overview of their demonstrated applications and concepts. Moreover,it suggests numerous potential future applications and points out important challenges to meet to design MMs for the next generation of microwave and optical devices. View full abstract»

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  • Scenarios for Molecular-Level Signal Processing

    Page(s): 1753 - 1764
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    Several research efforts are being carried out in molecular electronics; both theory and experiment claim extraordinary findings for molecular devices. However, before practical molecular circuits can be implemented, we need to develop scenarios for information coding and transfer in molecular circuits able to operate at integration densities and speeds orders of magnitude higher than current ICs do. Initial attempts have been already proposed; however,a simple adaptation to methods being used in current microelectronics devices does not offer much hope at the atomistic and nanoscopic levels due to the large dissipation energy densities that would be generated. We have proposed two new paradigms to process and transmit information in molecular circuits that can defeat the heat dissipation problem. One is based on the characteristic vibrational behavior of molecules and clusters, and the other is based on the molecular electrostatic potentials. It is suggested that these two scenarios can be used for molecular signal processing and transfer in molecular circuits; a theoretical demonstration using computational techniques is presented for these two paradigms. View full abstract»

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  • Prospects for Quantum Dot Implementation of Adiabatic Quantum Computers for Intractable Problems

    Page(s): 1765 - 1771
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    Schemes are examined for implementing quantum computers to solve problems that cannot be solved in polynomial time on classical computers. Special attention is given to the newly proposed adiabatic quantum computation algorithms. We explore the ways in which the latter might be easier to implement than the more conventional approach. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Biological-Semiconductor Devices

    Page(s): 1772 - 1783
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    The advent of semiconductor devices with nanoscale dimensions creates the potential to integrate nanoelectronics and optoelectronic devices with a great variety of biological systems. Moreover, the advances in nanotechnology are opening the way to achieving direct electrical contact of nanoelectronic structures with electrically and electrochemically active subcellular structures-including ion channels, receptors, and transmembrane proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin. Direct electrical interfacing at the biomolecular level opens the possibility of monitoring and controlling critical biological functions and processes in unprecedented ways, and portends a vast array of possibilities such as new classes of prosthetic devices, medical monitoring devices, medical delivery systems, and patient monitoring systems, as well as other applications. This article describes the salient properties of relevant biological structures and nanostructures. Advances in integrating man-made nanostructures with biological structures, including biomolecules, are described as well as the properties,characteristics, and functions of integrated nanoelectronic-biological structures. Future directions based on these prototype systems are highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Nanoscale Engineering for Reducing Phase Noise in Electronic Devices

    Page(s): 1784 - 1814
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    An investigation of electronic 1/f noise in ultrasmall devices and systems is presented, focused on nanoscale engineering of electronic devices for low phase noise. The investigation is based on the quantum 1/f formulas. Nanotechnology raises new questions of electronic noise, since fluctuations are more important in smaller devices. Based on the quantum 1/f noise theory, we find that in a certain transition range of sizes this general law is suspended, but reappears for 1/f noise in the nanometer domain, where the transition from coherent to conventional quantum 1/f effect is complete. The coherent and conventional quantum 1/f effects and their connection are briefly derived. The resulting quantum 1/f formulas are used to derive the 1/f noise of GaN/AlGaN MODFETs, resonant tunneling diodes, bulk acoustic wave and surface acoustic wave quartz resonators, microelectromechanical systems resonators,and spin valves. They are also used to calculate phase noise in these devices and in oscillators based on them, from first principles along with some classical noise sources. Device optimization is thus facilitated for ultrasmall devices. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Transport in Molecular Self-Assembled Monolayer Devices

    Page(s): 1815 - 1824
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    A review on the mechanisms and characterization methods of electronic transport through self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is presented. Using SAMs of alkanethiols in a nanometer-scale-device structure, tunneling is unambiguously demonstrated as the main intrinsic conduction mechanism for defect-free large bandgap SAMs, exhibiting well-known temperature and length dependencies. In-elastic electron tunneling spectroscopy exhibits clear vibrational modes of the molecules in the device, presenting direct evidence of the presence of molecules in the device. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum Dot Photonic Crystal Light Sources

    Page(s): 1825 - 1838
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    The control and manipulation of light on a planar IC similar to that achieved for electrons in semiconductor chips on submicrometer and nanometerscales is an area of very active research today. While electronic device miniaturization is close to reaching its maximum possible potential, photonic devices have unique properties that have yet to be exploited. With increasing advances in nanofabrication techniques and the understanding of optical properties of semiconductors, several optical devices such as lasers, detectors, interferometers,and waveguides have been constantly shrinking in size. We have achieved very high speed integrated optical devices at 10-100-μm length scales. However, there is a need to further reduce the size of devices to make them competitive in size and cost to existing electronic devices and to utilize their potential and unique properties in a wide range of applications ranging from communications, displays to sensors. Photonic crystals have emerged as one of the best potential candidates that can achieve the goal of compact miniaturized photonic chips. In this paper, we describe the current efforts and advances made in the photonic crystal microcavity light sources and their future prospects. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual Computing Infrastructures for Nanoelectronics Simulation

    Page(s): 1839 - 1847
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (576 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The operational principles, components, and organization of a Grid-computing infrastructure called In-VIGO (standing for In Virtual Information Grid Organizations)are described. In-VIGO enables computational engineering and science in virtual information Grid organizations. Its distinctive feature is the extensive use of virtualization technologies to provide secure execution environments as needed by tools and users. This paper reviews and motivates the requirements of a cyber infrastructure for computational nanoelectronics. It then explains how such requirements are addressed by the In-VIGO middleware approach, which uses virtualized resources to build computational Grids. The architecture and key design aspects of its first deployed version-In-VIGO 1.0-are presented. It is operational and currently being used to enable the use of computational electronics tools over the Web. Aspects of the design and architecture of the next version of In-VIGO are also presented. It uses Web services standards and components, and lessons learned from In-VIGO 1.0. View full abstract»

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  • Hi-DRA: Intrusion Detection for Internet Security

    Page(s): 1848 - 1857
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    Intrusion detection systems monitor computer networks looking for evidence of malicious actions. Networks are complex systems, and a comprehensive intrusion detection solution has to be able to manage event streams with different content,speed, level of abstraction, and accessibility. Therefore, it is necessary to distribute intrusion detection sensors across multiple protected networks, manage their configuration as the security posture of the networks changes, and process the results of their analysis so that a high-level picture of the security state of the network can be provided to the administrators. This paper presents Hi-DRA, a network surveillance, analysis, and response system for high-speed WANs. The system provides a framework for the modular development of intrusion detection sensors in heterogeneous, high-speed environments. In addition, the system provides an infrastructure that supports the dynamic configuration of the sensors and the collection and interpretation of their results. The system, as a whole,is able to provide fine-grained monitoring across WANs and, at the same time,is able to correlate the results of the analysis of the different sensors into a high-level expressive description of security violations. View full abstract»

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  • Future Directions in Electronic Computing and Information Processing

    Page(s): 1858 - 1863
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    We are facing a slowing down of the evolution of microprocessor performance. This is part of a more general slowing down which is indicated by, among others, the fact that IBM has recently given up its PC market. By applying the principles of physics, we discuss some characteristic features of the current situation and consider if some exotic new technologies such as nanoelectronics or quantum computing would be able to save us from this slowdown. View full abstract»

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  • Surface High-Energy Laser

    Page(s): 1864 - 1873
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    We describe a design strategy for high-power solid-state laser oscillators using local correction of thermally induced optical distortion. This offers a potential for scaling lowest order Gaussian mode solid-state laser oscillators directly to high average power, e.g. >100 kW, while using a relatively simple near confocal ring resonator. The waste heat is necessarily produced in the gain region; however, the design strategy facilitates scaling by allowing the laser oscillator to function as though the waste heat was produced in a surface region external to the gain medium. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Benjamin G. Lamme

    Page(s): 1874 - 1877
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    In 1918, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) selected Benjamin Garver Lamme as the recipient of the Edison Medal. He was honored for his contributions to the design of electrical machinery. By then, he had been Chief Engineer of the Westinghouse Electric Company since 1903 and had earned a reputation as one of the foremost electrical power engineers of his generation. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Page(s): 1878 - 1879
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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Page(s): 1880
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  • Put your technology leadership in writing [call for papers]

    Page(s): c3
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE check out our November issue

    Page(s): c4
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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University