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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept.-Oct. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1 - 1134
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Analysis and evaluation of charge-balancing circuits on performance, reliability, and lifetime of supercapacitor systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1135 - 1141
    Cited by:  Papers (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electric double-layer capacitors (ELDCs), are electrical energy storage devices, which offer high power density, extremely high cycling capability, and mechanical robustness. Due to their electrical performance, supercapacitors have a high potential to be used in industrial applications. To improve the performance, reliability, and lifetime of these capacitors, charge-balancing circuits are employed. In this paper, different equalization concepts are analyzed and evaluated. In addition, a simulation approach for the design of supercapacitor systems is proposed. As an example, results from an automotive application are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A multidomain model of planar electro-active polymer actuators

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1142 - 1148
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dielectric electro-active polymers (EAPs) have a significant deformation response to electrical stimulation. The ease of fabrication of these materials makes them very suitable for product-integrated actuators. Existing electromechanical models do not fully integrate all aspects of the physical behavior needed to design such actuator systems. This paper presents a fully integrated, multidomain model for such EAP actuators, combining the electrostatic properties of the electrical circuit with the compliant electrodes, the actual force output in the translation direction, nonlinear elastic behavior, and damping of the polymer material. The capabilities of the developed model are discussed and verified with laboratory experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of torque components in brushless permanent-magnet machines through numerical analysis of the electromagnetic field

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1149 - 1158
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the calculation of torque in brushless (BL) alternating current motors a local method is proposed, based on the Maxwell stress theory and the filtered contributions due to the harmonics of the magnetic vector potential in the motor air gap. By considering the space fundamental field only, the method can efficiently estimate the average synchronous torque for a variety or motor topologies, including concentrated winding designs. For BL direct current motor analysis a global method is introduced, based on the virtual work principle expressed in terms of energy components in various motor regions. The method leads to simplifications in the average torque calculation and enables the direct identification of the cogging and ripple components. The mathematical procedures have been validated against experiments and other numerical techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-axis maglev nanopositioner for precision manufacturing and manipulation applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1159 - 1167
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a six-axis magnetic-levitation (maglev) stage capable of precision positioning down to several nanometers. This stage has a simple and compact mechanical structure advantageous to meet the performance requirements in the next-generation nanomanufacturing. It uses the minimum number of linear actuators required to generate all six axis motions. In this paper, we describe the electromechanical design, modeling, and control, and the electronic instrumentation to control this maglev system. The stage has a light moving-part mass of 0.2126 kg. It is capable of generating translation of 300 μm in the x, y, and z axes, and rotation of 3 mrad about the three orthogonal axes. The stage demonstrates position resolution better than 5 nm rms and position noise less than 2 nm rms. Experimental results presented in this paper show that the stage can carry, orient, and precisely position a payload as heavy as 0.4 kg. The pull-out force was found to be 8.08 N in the vertical direction. Furthermore, under a load variation of 0.14 N, the nanopositioner recovers its regulated position within 0.6 s. All these experimental results match quite closely with the calculated values because of the accurate plant model and robust controller design. This device can be used as a positioning stage for numerous applications, including photolithography for semiconductor manufacturing, microscopic scanning, fabrication and assembly of nanostructures, and microscale rapid prototyping. View full abstract»

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  • Compact permanent-magnet generator for hybrid vehicle applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1168 - 1177
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1912 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drivetrains an electrical generator is coupled onto the shaft of an internal-combustion engine (ICE) in order to process either the entire or a given fraction of the traction power required by the vehicle wheels. As such an ICE-driven generator is being confined within the vehicle hood and is exposed to heating resulting from ICE operation, high compactness, totally enclosed construction, and suitable machine cooling arrangement become challenging targets the generator design must deal with. Due to unique characteristics such as higher torque per volume and higher efficiency compared to other machine topologies, the axial-field permanent-magnet machine topology was selected for a 15-kW-at-4500-r/min-rated generator prototype that would be utilized in a demonstrator of an HEV drive train. This paper describes the original solutions adopted for the design of such an HEV generator and reports experimental results taken from the prototype machine. View full abstract»

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  • Winding short circuits in the switched reluctance drive

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1178 - 1184
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The switched reluctance drive is known to be fault tolerant, but it is not fault free. This paper takes an in-depth look at winding short circuits in this particular machine. Modeling and testing complement a theoretical analysis. Two cases need to be distinguished, one where a complete pole is shorted, and one where a few turns are shorted. Pole short circuits lead to torque reduction that can be easily compensated for with increased current. With few turns shorted, the impact on overall torque may actually be negligible, however, significant currents may circulate through the shorted turns, the worst case being with a single turn shorted with a zero resistance. These results are discussed with a view toward possible remediation schemes aside from simply turning off the faulted phase. View full abstract»

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  • An advanced technique for detecting inter-laminar stator core faults in large electric machines

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1185 - 1193
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An advanced technique for detecting incipient inter-laminar insulation failure in stator cores of large electric machines is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is an offline method based on low flux stator core excitation that employs a new probe. An iron-core probe is placed in the wedge depression area of the stator and scanned axially to detect the variation in the measured flux due to a fault. Two fault indicators that provide clear indication on fault severity and location are proposed in this paper. A 120-MW ac machine stator was tested under a number of intentionally inserted fault conditions using portable field equipment recently developed. The experimental results show that the fault existence, location, and severity can be determined reliably using the proposed scheme. It is also shown that the fault detection sensitivity and reliability, inspection speed, and user convenience are significantly enhanced. View full abstract»

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  • Transient analysis of self-excited induction Generator with electronic load controller (ELC) supplying static and dynamic loads

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1194 - 1204
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a transient analysis of a self-excited induction generator (SEIG) with electronic load controller (ELC) used in stand-alone micro-hydro power generation employing uncontrolled turbines. In view of the need to feed both dynamic [three-phase induction motor (IM)] and static loads from such systems, the transient behavior due to switching in of such loads is of interest and is carried out here. A composite mathematical model of the total system has been developed by combining the modeling of prime mover, SEIG, ELC, and load. Simulated results are compared with the experimental ones, obtained on a developed prototype of an SEIG-ELC system for the starting of an IM and switching in a resistive load. For the starting of an IM, a star/delta starter is used to avoid inrush current. Harmonic analysis is carried out to find total harmonic distortion of the terminal voltage and current to assess its power quality. View full abstract»

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  • Simple nonlinear magnetic analysis for permanent-magnet motors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1205 - 1214
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a simple nonlinear magnetic analysis for a surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous motor as an assistant design tool of finite-element analysis (FEA). The equivalent magnetic circuit of the motor used in the proposed analysis is composed of the saturable permeance tips in the stator teeth for considering the local magnetic saturation. As a result, the proposed analysis is capable of calculating the flux distribution and the torque characteristics in the presence of magnetic saturation. The effectiveness of the proposed analysis is verified by comparing with three-dimensional (3-D) FEA in terms of the analytical accuracy. The computation time is greatly reduced as short as 1.5 s while the 3-D FEA requires as much as 32 min for the same evaluation. View full abstract»

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  • A passive EMI filter for preventing high-frequency leakage current from flowing through the grounded inverter heat sink of an adjustable-speed motor drive system

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1215 - 1223
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on the high-frequency leakage current flowing through the grounded heat sink of a voltage-source pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) inverter in an adjustable-speed motor drive system. A passive electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter is proposed, designed, and tested for a 200-V 3.7-kW drive system. This filter does require access to the ungrounded motor neutral point. An equivalent common-mode circuit for the drive system equipped with the EMI filter is derived from experimental waveforms along with theoretical discussions. Experimental results verify that the EMI filter is viable and effective in eliminating both heat-sink and motor-frame leakage currents from the drive system. View full abstract»

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  • SRM power converter for operation with high demagnetization voltage

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1224 - 1231
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Torque output of switched reluctance machines (SRMs) can be increased by operating with high demagnetization voltage, especially for high speeds. This is first illustrated using computed results obtained from dynamic simulation. A power converter with the capability of providing increased demagnetization voltage is then presented. The converter operation is analyzed, ratings of various components are derived, and a controller for regulating the additional demagnetization voltage is designed. Experimental results illustrate expected operation of the converter, and improved performance of the overall SRM drive in terms of increased torque and power output. View full abstract»

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  • High-dynamic four-quadrant switched reluctance drive based on DITC

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1232 - 1242
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the development of a four-quadrant switched reluctance machine (SRM) drive for high dynamic applications. Comprehensive fundamentals and analysis for operating switched reluctance machines in four quadrants are presented. The drive is designed based on a high dynamic control strategy called Direct Instantaneous Torque Control (DITC). The functionality of DITC is discussed in detail for both motoring and generating operation. A methodology to generate switching functions directly by the hysteresis torque controllers for SRMs is proposed. The proposed controller was prototyped and tested on a digital signal processor/field-programmable gate array development platform. High dynamic operation in both motoring and generating mode and the transition between these modes are validated by experimental results presented at the end of this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Direct torque control schemes for split-phase induction machine

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1243 - 1254
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, direct torque control (DTC) algorithms for a split-phase induction machine (SPIM) are established. An SPIM has two sets of three-phase stator windings, with a shift of thirty electrical degrees between them. The significant contributions of this paper are: 1) two new methods of DTC technique for an SPIM are developed, called Resultant Flux Control Method and Individual Flux Control Method and 2) advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. High torque ripple is a disadvantage for three-phase DTC. It is found that torque ripple in an SPIM can be significantly reduced without increasing the switching frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a dynamic voltage compensator with reduced switch-count and absence of energy storage system

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1255 - 1262
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The utilization of dynamic voltage restorers to protect sensitive loads against short-term voltage disturbances has been proven to be a competitive solution in medium- and high-power applications. For low-power applications further cost reductions are required to make the technology even more competitive, although just a few numbers of studies have already been conducted in this area. This paper discusses the design and operation of a three-phase dynamic voltage compensator, including control strategies for the converters. The proposed topology and control strategies are evaluated through simulation studies based on measured data, selected by the IEEE Power Quality Task Force for the characterization of power quality events and device performance evaluation, along with disturbances recorded in a steel plant, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. An experimental implementation of the compensator is developed to allow a better evaluation of specific and critical operating modes, such as the forced commutation of the bypass thyristors and inverter operation. View full abstract»

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  • An approach to regulating the DC-link voltage of a voltage-source BTB system during power line faults

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1263 - 1271
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A voltage-source back-to-back system for the purpose of achieving power flow control and/or line-frequency change in transmission systems has the attractive features of reliable and continuous operation, even during power line faults. However, an overvoltage appearing across the dc link during the faults should be limited to as low a value as possible because it does affect the power device ratings. This paper proposes a dc-link voltage regulator for effectively suppressing the overvoltage during power line faults. This regulator is characterized by compensating for a time delay inherent in each current controller, and for a power flow imbalance occurring during power line faults. The validity of the proposed regulator is confirmed by theory and computer simulation. View full abstract»

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  • A detailed comparison of system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1272 - 1280
    Cited by:  Papers (121)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, four different system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) are analyzed and tested, with particular focus on the methods used to acquire the necessary energy during a voltage sag. Comparisons are made between two topologies that can be realized with a minimum amount of energy storage, with energy taken from the grid during the voltage sag, and two topologies that take energy from stored energy devices during the voltage sag. Experimental tests using a 10-kVA DVR show that the no-energy storage concept is feasible, but an improved performance can be achieved for certain voltage sags using stored energy topologies. The results of this comparison rank the no-storage topology with a passive shunt converter on the load side first, followed by the stored energy topology with a constant dc-link voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Design and control of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1281 - 1291
    Cited by:  Papers (407)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a step-by-step procedure for designing the LCL filter of a front-end three-phase active rectifier. The primary goal is to reduce the switching frequency ripple at a reasonable cost, while at the same time achieving a high-performance front-end rectifier (as characterized by a rapid dynamic response and good stability margin). An example LCL filter design is reported and a filter has been built and tested using the values obtained from this design. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of the design procedure both for the LCL filter and for the rectifier controller. The system is stable and the grid current harmonic content is low both in the lowand high-frequency ranges. Moreover, the good agreement that was obtained between simulation and experimental results validates the proposed approach. Hence, the design procedure and the simulation model provide a powerful tool to design an LCL-filter-based active rectifier while avoiding trial-and-error procedures that can result in having to build several filter prototypes. View full abstract»

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  • A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1292 - 1306
    Cited by:  Papers (810)  |  Patents (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single-phase grid; 3) whether they utilizes a transformer (either line or high frequency) or not; and 4) the type of grid-connected power stage. Various inverter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against demands, lifetime, component ratings, and cost. Finally, some of the topologies are pointed out as the best candidates for either single PV module or multiple PV module applications. View full abstract»

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  • New self-driven synchronous rectification system for converters with a symmetrically driven transformer

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1307 - 1315
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Synchronous rectification (SR) is mandatory to achieve good efficiencies with low output voltages. If the transformer is driven asymmetrically without dead times, self-driven SR (SDSR) is a very interesting solution. However, if the transformer is driven symmetrically, the synchronous rectifiers are off during the dead times and, as a consequence, the efficiency is lowered. This paper deals with a new SDSR system that keeps the rectifiers on even during the dead times. Thus, it can be used to obtain very low output voltages, such as 1.5 V, with quite good efficiency. Moreover, it can be used over a wide input voltage range. The new system is implemented in a prototype in order to measure the real efficiency that can be achieved with the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Corona-discharge-initiated mine explosions

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1316 - 1322
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that lightning has initiated methane explosions in abandoned and sealed areas of underground coal mines. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) investigated several of these occurrences within recent years. The investigated explosions occurred at significant depths, ranging from 700 to 1200 ft. Data from the National Lightning Detection Network indicated a strong correlation between the times and locations of the explosions with those of specific lightning strikes. This paper proposes that corona discharge from a steel borehole casing is the most likely mechanism responsible for these ignitions. A recently investigated mine explosion and fire at a depth greater than 1000 ft was selected for this study. Computer simulations were performed, using data collected at the mine site. CDEGS software from Safe Engineering Services & Technologies, Ltd. and MaxwellSV from Ansoft Corporation were used for the simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of circuit breaker failure modes on the reliability of the gold book standard network

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1323 - 1328
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The failure modes of circuit breakers have a significant impact on individual load point reliability levels of industrial power systems. This paper presents and discusses the significant variations in the frequency and duration of load point interruptions in the IEEE Gold Book Standard Network Configuration due to changes in circuit breaker failure modes. The reliability analysis was based on the zone-branch reliability methodology. Five case studies with different percentages of open- and short-circuit failure modes of circuit breakers and fuses will be presented and discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of manual versus automatic transfer switching on the reliability levels of an industrial plant

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1329 - 1334
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Detailed reliability modeling and analysis of industrial plants provides an estimate of the frequency and duration of load point interruptions. The duration of repair and switching activities necessary to restore a unique power system configuration to a normal operating state from an outage state has a significant impact on the power system reliability levels of industrial power systems. This paper presents and discusses the significant variations in the frequency and duration of load point interruptions at an industrial plant due to manual and automatic switching activities. Three case studies with different percentages of open- and short-circuit failure modes of circuit breakers and fuses will also be presented and discussed for both manual and automatic switching restoration activities. View full abstract»

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  • A critical approach to measure streaming current: case of fuels flowing through conductive and insulating polymer pipes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1335 - 1342
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrostatic charge generation phenomenon in the case of hydrocarbons flowing through pipes has been studied for a long time. The charge generation depends on the nature of both the liquid and the solid. Because of the introduction of new plastic materials and due to fuel composition evolution, it became necessary to perform a comprehensive study of the subject in the particular case of an automotive environment. The streaming current measurement permits one to characterize charge generation when a fuel flows through a plastic pipe. However, this measurement must be carefully managed. In this paper, we are working on the validity and the accuracy of such measurements. The case of conductive and insulating pipes, and the double-layer development influence, are analyzed and discussed. In particular, we give a detailed methodology in order to measure reliable streaming currents and to wisely derive the space-charge density at the wall (ρw). Experimental results are presented for some solid/liquid couples. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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