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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Front cover] IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control - Aug. 2005 Vol. 52 No. 8

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 3
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  • Table of Contents - Vol. 52 No. 8

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 4 - 5
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  • Information for Contributors with Multimedia Addition

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1193 - 1197
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  • A multimedia example

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1198
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  • Call for Papers - Special Issue on Modeling, Optimization and Design of Acoustic Devices

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1199
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  • Frequency shifts in a piezoelectric body due to a surface mass layer with consideration of the layer stiffness

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1200 - 1203
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Shifts of resonant frequencies of a three-dimensional piezoelectric body of an arbitrary shape due to the addition of a thin layer of mass to its surface are studied. A first-order perturbation integral is obtained for the frequency shifts. The result generalizes that of a previous paper by considering the effect of the stiffness of the mass layer, in addition to its inertial effect. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigation on resonant vibrations of piezoceramic annular disks

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1204 - 1216
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1089 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study, vibration characteristics of thin piezoceramic annular disks with stress-free boundary conditions are investigated by theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental measurement. The non-axisymmetric, out-of-plane (transverse), and axisymmetric in-plane (tangential and radial extensional) vibration modes are discussed in detail in terms of resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and electrical currents. Two optical techniques, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) and laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV), as well as the electrical impedance measurement are used to validate the analytical results. Both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the transverse and tangential vibration modes cannot be determined by the impedance analysis; hence, only resonant frequencies of extensional vibration modes are presented from the impedance analyzer. The LDV system is used to measure the resonant frequencies of transverse vibrations. However, both the transverse and extensional vibration modes and resonant frequencies of piezoceramic annular disks are obtained by the AF-ESPI method, and the interferometric fringes are produced instantly by a video recording system. Numerical results obtained by finite-element calculations are compared with those from theoretical analysis and experimental measurements. It is shown that the theoretical predictions of resonant frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes agree well with the experimental results. Good agreement between the predicted and measured electrical impedance also is found. The dependence of resonant frequencies and dynamic electromechanical coupling coefficients on the inner-to-outer radius ratio also is analyzed and discussed in this study. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant vibration investigations for piezoceramic disks and annuli by using the equivalent constant method

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1217 - 1228
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the equivalent constant method to investigate the transverse vibration of piezoceramic disks and annuli. By comparing the characteristic equations of resonant frequencies between isotropic and piezoceramic disks, the named equivalent Poisson's ratio /spl nu/~ is derived, then the transverse vibration characteristic equation can be expressed as a single formulation for these two materials. To verify this method, characteristic equations of transverse vibration for piezoceramic disks and annuli with many different boundary conditions are discussed and calculated for resonant frequencies. Numerical calculations based on the finite-element method (FEM) also are performed, and the results agree rather well with the theoretical predictions. With the aid of the relations between frequency parameter and equivalent Poisson's ratio in explicit form, the other application of equivalent Poisson's ratio is the inverse evaluation of material constants. The laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) and impedance analyzer are used to experimentally obtain the resonant frequencies of transverse and radial extensional vibrations, respectively. By the experimental results for the traction-free piezoceramic disk, the planar Poisson's ratio v/sub p/ and planar electromechanical coupling coefficient k/sub p/ are determined. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical measurement of a high-frequency, high-capacitance piezoceramic resonator with resistive electrodes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1229 - 1238
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (825 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In a thin and large area PZT-ceramics piezoresonator (PR) with relatively low resonance impedance, caused by high-frequency resonance and high PR capacitance, the effect of electrode resistivity and parasitic resistive and inductive elements in the measurement fixture results in significant distortion of the measured thickness-mode (longitudinal TL, shear TS) resonance response-resonance frequency shifts and characteristics deformation. This distortion may not allow the precise measurement of the PR characteristic frequencies, quality factor, and electromechanical coupling coefficient so essential to a complete PR and material characterization. A theoretical description of the "energy-trap" phenomena in a thickness-vibrating PR with resistive electrodes is presented. To interpret electrical measurements, the electromechanical model, including for completeness both the PR with resistive electrodes (as a system with distributed parameters) and the measurement fixture, is developed. The method of two contact points on the electrode provides deep sharpening and exact determination of the PR resonance. For the optimal disposition of the contact fingers, the resonance bandwidth of a real PR with resistive electrodes is even more pointed than that for the ideal PR. View full abstract»

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  • Micromachined acoustic wave resonator isolated from substrate

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1239 - 1246
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1020 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes high Q, free-standing, narrow beam supported film bulk acoustic-wave resonators (FBARs) fabricated with silicon micromachining. The resonators are composed of metal/ZnO/metal/Si/sub x/N/sub y/ (or metal/ZnO/metal) composite layers, which are suspended by narrow Si/sub x/N/sub y//metal (or metal) beams to minimize energy leakage to the substrate. A layer of 0.5-/spl mu/m thick parylene deposited and patterned over the Si/sub x/N/sub y//metal (or metal) beams is proven to enhance the sturdiness of the free-standing structure greatly. The highest Q (quality) factors we have obtained with this new structure are 1,587 and 769 at 2.7 and 5.1 GHz, respectively. This paper also describes the effect of removing the silicon-nitride support layer (to form air-backed FBARs that do not use any supporting layer below or above piezoelectric the ZnO layer sandwiched by two metal layers). The electromechanical coupling constant (K/sup 2//sub t/) is improved from 3.2% to 6.8% when a 0.9-/spl mu/m thick silicon-nitride support layer is removed. View full abstract»

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  • Low voltage surface transverse wave oscillators for the next generation CMOS technology

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1247 - 1252
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design and performance of voltage controlled surface transverse wave oscillators (VCSTWO) in the lower Gigahertz frequency range, operating on supply and tuning voltages in the 1.2 to 3.3 V range, and suitable for direct interfacing with the next generation CMOS circuits are presented. By applying the "boost" principle, as used in direct current (DC)-DC converters, to the design of the sustaining amplifier, the VCSTWO outputs are switched between 0 V and a positive peak value, exceeding the supply voltage U/sub s/, to provide safe CMOS-circuit switching while keeping the radio frequency (RF)/DC efficiency to a maximum for low DC power consumption. The investigated 1.0 and 2.5 GHz VCSTWO is a varactor tuned feedback-loop oscillator stabilized with two-port surface transverse wave (STW) resonators. Each VCSTWO has a DC-coupled, high-impedance switched output to drive the CMOS circuit directly, and an additional sinusoidal 50 /spl Omega/ high-power reference output available for other low-noise system applications. Phase noise levels in the -103 to -115 dBc/Hz range at 1 kHz carrier offset are achieved with 1.0 GHz VCSTWO at a RF/DC efficiency in the 21 to 29% range. The 2.5 GHz prototypes demonstrate phase noise levels in the -97 to -102 dBc/Hz range at 1 kHz carrier offset, and efficiencies range between 8 and 15%. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancements to GPS operations and clock evaluations using a "total" Hadamard deviation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1253 - 1261
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a method based on the total deviation approach whereby we improve the confidence of the estimation of the Hadamard deviation that is used primarily in Global Positioning System (GPS) operations. The Hadamard-total deviation described in this paper provides a significant improvement in confidence indicated by an increase of 1.3 to 3.4 times the one degree of freedom of the plain Hadamard deviation at the longest averaging time. The new Hadamard-total deviation is slightly negatively biased with respect to the usual Hadamard deviation, and /spl tau/ values are restricted to less than or equal to T/3, to be consistent with the usual Hadamard's definition. We give a method of automatically removing bias by a power-law detection scheme. We review the relationship between Kalman filter parameters and the Hadamard and Allan variances, illustrate the operational problems associated with estimating these parameters, and discuss how the Hadamard-total variance can improve management of present and future GPS satellite clocks. View full abstract»

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  • A digital beamformer for high-frequency annular arrays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1262 - 1269
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (963 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital transmit and receive beamformers for a 45-MHz, 7-element annular array are described. The transmit beamformer produces 0- to 80-Vpp monocycle pulses with a timing error of less than /spl plusmn/125 ps. Up to four adjustable transmit focal zones can be selected. The dynamic receive beamformer uses a variable frequency sampling technique in which the frequency of analog-to-digital conversion on each channel is adjusted as the signals are received. The variable frequency clock signals required to trigger analog-to-digital conversion are obtained using a pair of high-frequency field-programmable gate arrays and a precision quartz oscillator. The gate arrays are also used to sum the digitized signals. A maximum receive beamformer timing error of less than /spl plusmn/900 ps was obtained on each channel. The performance of the combined transmit and receive beamformer was tested by imaging wire phantoms. Images of CD-1 mice were also generated. The system produced images with a dynamic range of 60 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Focused beam control for ultrasound surgery with spherical-section phased array: sound field calculation and genetic optimization algorithm

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1270 - 1290
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study aims at a sound field calculation for the spherical-section phased array and an optimization algorithm for the focus patterns of phased array ultrasound surgery. An efficient field calculation formula represented as an explicit expression is derived by the strategies of projection and binomial expansion. An optimization algorithm based on genetic algorithm is constructed by the suitable fitness function and the selection strategies. The simulation results of 256-element spherical-section phased array show the capability of controlling focus accurately and effectively with the combined method made up of the explicit expression method and the genetic optimization algorithm. The simulation results of single focus, multiple foci, on-axial focus, and off-axial focus further convince the feasibility of three-dimensional (3-D) focus steering with excellent acoustic performances. A single focus with the focus dimension of 1.25 mm /spl times/ 1.25 mm /spl times/ 7 mm and with the intensity of 6080 W/cm/sup 2/ is formed. The multiple-focus pattern can enlarge the treatment volume 22 times larger than that of single focus with a sonication. In addition, a comparison between the explicit expression approach and the point source approach testifies to the applicability of the explicit expression approach. The experiment and simulation results of 16-element array actually confirm the feasibility of the combined method. View full abstract»

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  • Microembolic signal characterization using adaptive chirplet expansion

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1291 - 1299
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The adaptive chirplet expansion (ACE) is proposed to characterize high-intensity, transient signals from circulating microemboli. The nonnegative adaptive spectrogram based on the ACE gives a compact representation of the microembolic signal (MES) in joint-time, frequency domain. The mean instantaneous power (MIP) and mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) of MES are estimated from the adaptive spectrogram. Then, several important characteristics of MES, such as embolus-to-blood ratio (EBR), half width maximum (HWM), and embolic signal onset (ESO), are computed from the MIP, and the frequency modulation is examined in the MIF. To validate the new method, we improved the simulation model of the audio Doppler ultrasound signal. Some MESs together with a Doppler ultrasound signal from carotid blood flow are simulated in the simulation study. As a comparison, the adaptive Gabor expansion (AGE) also is implemented on these simulated signals. The experimental results of the simulation study show that the new method, based on the ACE, outperforms the AGE-based method in MES characterization. The consistent conclusion has been confirmed by the clinical study on some clinical MESs. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of an ultrasonic echo-tracking method for measurements of arterial wall movements in two dimensions

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1300 - 1311
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (659 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The longitudinal movement of blood vessel walls has so far gained little or no attention, as it has been presumed that these movements are of a negligible magnitude. However, modern high-resolution ultrasound scanners can demonstrate that the inner layers of the arterial wall exhibit considerable movements in the longitudinal direction. This paper evaluates a new, noninvasive, echo-tracking technique, which simultaneously can track both the radial and the longitudinal movements of the arterial wall with high resolution in vivo. Initially, the method is evaluated in vitro using a specially designed ultrasound phantom, which is attached to and moved by an X-Y system, the movement of which was compared with two high-resolution triangulation lasers. The results show an inaccuracy of 2.5% full scale deflection (fsd), reproducibility of 12 /spl mu/m and a resolution of 5 /spl mu/m, which should be more than sufficient for in vivo studies. The ability of the method is also demonstrated in a limited in vivo study in which a preselected part of the inner vessel wall of the right common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer is tracked in two dimensions over many cardiac cycles. The results show well reproducible x-y movement loops in which the recorded radial and longitudinal movements both are of the magnitude millimetre. View full abstract»

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  • Motion artifact reduction for IVUS-based thermal strain imaging

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1312 - 1319
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1015 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thermal strain imaging (TSI) using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has the potential to identify lipid pools within rupture-prone arterial plaques and serve as a valuable supplement to current IVUS systems in diagnosing acute coronary syndromes. The major challenge for in vivo application of TSI will be cardiac motion, including bulk motion and tissue deformation. Simulations based on an artery model, including a lipid-filled plaque, demonstrate that effective bulk motion compensation can be achieved within a certain motion range using spatial interpolation. We also propose a practical imaging scheme to minimize mechanical strains caused by tissue deformation based on a linear least squares fitting strategy. This scheme was tested on clinical data by artificially superimposing thermal displacements corresponding to different temperature rises. Results suggest a 1-2/spl deg/C temperature rise is required to detect lipids in an atherosclerotic plaque in vivo. View full abstract»

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  • A new imaging strategy using wideband transient response of ultrasound contrast agents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1320 - 1329
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1314 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-resolution clinical systems operating near 15 MHz are becoming more available; however, they lack sensitive harmonic imaging modes for ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) detection, primarily due to limited bandwidth. When a UCA is driven to nonlinear oscillation, a very wideband acoustic transient response is produced that extends beyond 15 MHz. We propose a novel strategy using two separate transducers at widely separated frequencies and arranged confocally to simultaneously excite and receive acoustic transients from UCAs. Experiments were performed to demonstrate that this new mode shows similar resolution, higher echo amplitudes, and greatly reduced attenuation compared to transmission at a higher frequency, and superior resolution compared to transmission and reception at a lower frequency. The proposed method is shown to resolve two 200 /spl mu/m tubes with centers separated by 400//spl mu/m. Strong acoustic transients were detected for rarefaction-first 1-cycle pulses with peak-negative pressures above 300 kPa. The results of this work may lead to uses in flow and/or targeted imaging in applications requiring very high sensitivity to contrast agents. View full abstract»

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  • A system for simultaneously measuring contact force, ultrasound, and position information for use in force-based correction of freehand scanning

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1330 - 1342
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1184 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During freehand ultrasound imaging, the sonographer places the ultrasound probe on the patient's skin. This paper describes a system that simultaneously records the position of the probe, the contact force between the probe and skin, and the ultrasound image. The system consists of an ultrasound machine, a probe, a force sensor, an optical localizer, and a host computer. Two new calibration methods are demonstrated: a temporal calibration to determine the time delay between force and position measurements, and a gravitational calibration to remove the effect of gravity on the recorded force. Measurements made with the system showed good agreement with those obtained from a standard materials testing machine. The system's uses include three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging, force-based deformation correction of ultrasound images, and indentation testing. View full abstract»

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  • A traveling-wave, modified ring linear piezoelectric microactuator with enclosed piezoelectric elements - the "scream" actuator

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1343 - 1353
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1183 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A 1.8 cc silent bidirectional traveling-wave, self-moving linear microactuator is shown to be capable of generating a sliding velocity of 0.22 m/s and sliding force of 1.1 N. Through the use of computational analysis in the actuator's design, the vibration characteristics were improved in order to obtain a better actuator. The generation of a radial traveling wave about the circumference of the actuator, akin to a ring, is shown to exist despite the unusual shape, and the presence of traveling wave motion along the output face also is shown to exist. By using short-time sinusoidal signals, slider displacements as small as 82 nm were obtained from the actuator, and by using direct current (DC) input, displacements of up to /spl plusmn/107 nm were obtained, suggesting a way to obtain subnanometer positioning accuracy over arbitrary sliding distances. By reversing the phase between the paired driving signals, the direction of motion was reversed at up to 300 Hz; the slider displacement and velocity was found to be inversely proportional to the phase-reversal rate, and the slider's peak velocity and maximum thrust force were directly proportional to the phase between the driving signals. The output force and velocity of the actuator was fairly insensitive to the input frequency, giving measurable motion between 132.5 and 141.5 kHz, but was sensitive to the input voltage, requiring at least 38 V input for operation, and was approximately quadratically dependent on the applied preload centered about 2.25 N. View full abstract»

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  • Interferometric detection in picosecond ultrasonics for nondestructive testing of submicrometric opaque multilayered samples: TiN/AlCu/TiN/Ti/Si

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1354 - 1359
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An experimental investigation of nanometric thin films by a picosecond ultrasonic technique is presented. A photoelastic model is used with an interferometric device, combined with ultrafast optical pump and probe setup, to measure the thicknesses of submicrometric layers made of TiN, Ti, and AlCu deposited on silicon (Si) wafers. The results are in good agreement with ellipsometry measurements showing that the picosecond ultrasonic technique can give accurate results even when the reflectance signal is very low. Additional important results are first, that the adhesion of the TiN surface film is probed by processing both the frequency and the damping of the oscillation of a resonance acoustic mode; and second, the presence of a thin buried TiN layer under an opaque AlCu film is highlighted by the interferometric setup. View full abstract»

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  • Design of ultrasonic transmitters with defined frequency characteristics for wireless pressure sensing in injection molding

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1360 - 1371
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1187 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new mechanical wireless data transmission technique using ultrasonic waves as the information carrier for on-line injection mold cavity pressure measurement. Ultrasonic transmitters with specific frequency characteristics were designed, modeled, simulated, and prototyped for pressure data retrieval from an enclosed machine environment, as well as for sensor identification in a sensor matrix configuration. The effects of the front layer and bonding layer of the transmitter on the overall sensor frequency characteristics were investigated, using an equivalent circuit model. The optimal layer thickness was determined for the design of transmitters with specific dominant resonant frequency and narrow bandwidth. Experimental results were in good agreement with the analysis, thus confirming the design approach. View full abstract»

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  • A diffraction-based optical method for the detection of in-plane motion of Lamb waves

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1372 - 1377
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a laser optical technique that allows the detection of in-plane motion of Lamb waves. This interference-based laser optical technique includes a tiny square indentation with a width of about 30 /spl mu/ on the sample surface and a relatively simple optical arrangement. The current technique is applied for the detection of in-plane motions of Lamb waves propagating in a 70-/spl mu/. thick brass plate. Measurement of S/sub 0/ mode dominated by in-plane motion in the low fd (frequency times thickness) regime is successfully demonstrated with the current technique. With the indentation replaced by a microreflector in a microelectromechanical (MEMS) structure, this technique is applicable for the detection of in-plane motion in MEMS structures. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of the thermal sensitivity of surface acoustic waves excited under a periodic grating of electrodes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1378 - 1383
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (274 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The prediction of the temperature sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices still requires improvement because the nature of the implemented surface modes and the devices' complexity strongly change from the early basic Rayleigh-wave-based devices. To address this problem, a theoretical analysis and a numerical tool have been developed to predict the thermal dispersion of general electro-acoustic devices. The proposed model accounts for the electrode contribution to the frequency-temperature law. The computed thermal sensitivities are compared to experimental results for different kinds of substrates and waves. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk