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Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2005

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Learning prosthetic vision: a virtual-reality study

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 249 - 255
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Acceptance of prosthetic vision will be heavily dependent on the ability of recipients to form useful information from such vision. Training strategies to accelerate learning and maximize visual comprehension would need to be designed in the light of the factors affecting human learning under prosthetic vision. Some of these potential factors were examined in a visual acuity study using the Landolt C optotype under virtual-reality simulation of prosthetic vision. Fifteen normally sighted subjects were tested for 10-20 sessions. Potential learning factors were tested at p<0.05 with regression models. Learning was most evident across-sessions, though 17% of sessions did express significant within-session trends. Learning was highly concentrated toward a critical range of optotype sizes, and subjects were less capable in identifying the closed optotype (a Landolt C with no gap, forming a closed annulus). Training for implant recipients should target these critical sizes and the closed optotype to extend the limit of visual comprehension. Although there was no evidence that image processing affected overall learning, subjects showed varying personal preferences. View full abstract»

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  • Feature detection in motor cortical spikes by principal component analysis

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 256 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Principal component analysis was performed on recorded neural spike trains in rats' motor cortices when rats were involved in real-time control tasks using brain-machine interfaces. The rat with implanted microelectrode array was placed in a conditioning chamber, but freely moving, to decide which one of the two paddles should be activated to shift the cue light to the center. It is found that the principal component feature vectors revealed the importance of individual neurons and windows of time in the decision making process. In addition, one of the first principal components has much higher discriminative capability than others, although it represents only a small percentage of the total variance in the data. Using one to six principal components with a Bayes classifier achieved classification accuracy comparable to that obtained by a more sophisticated high performance support vector classifier. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless multichannel biopotential recording using an integrated FM telemetry circuit

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 263 - 271
    Cited by:  Papers (86)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a four-channel telemetric microsystem featuring on-chip alternating current amplification, direct current baseline stabilization, clock generation, time-division multiplexing, and wireless frequency-modulation transmission of microvolt- and millivolt-range input biopotentials in the very high frequency band of 94-98 MHz over a distance of ∼0.5 m. It consists of a 4.84-mm2 integrated circuit, fabricated using a 1.5-μm double-poly double-metal n-well standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process, interfaced with only three off-chip components on a custom-designed printed-circuit board that measures 1.7×1.2×0.16 cm3, and weighs 1.1 g including two miniature 1.5-V batteries. We characterize the microsystem performance, operating in a truly wireless fashion in single-channel and multichannel operation modes, via extensive benchtop and in vitro tests in saline utilizing two different micromachined neural recording microelectrodes, while dissipating ∼2.2 mW from a 3-V power supply. Moreover, we demonstrate successful wireless in vivo recording of spontaneous neural activity at 96.2 MHz from the auditory cortex of an awake marmoset monkey at several transmission distances ranging from 10 to 50 cm with signal-to-noise ratios in the range of 8.4-9.5 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Power feasibility of implantable digital spike sorting circuits for neural prosthetic systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 272 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (50)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (659 KB)  

    A new class of neural prosthetic systems aims to assist disabled patients by translating cortical neural activity into control signals for prosthetic devices. Based on the success of proof-of-concept systems in the laboratory, there is now considerable interest in increasing system performance and creating implantable electronics for use in clinical systems. A critical question that impacts system performance and the overall architecture of these systems is whether it is possible to identify the neural source of each action potential (spike sorting) in real-time and with low power. Low power is essential both for power supply considerations and heat dissipation in the brain. In this paper we report that state-of-the-art spike sorting algorithms are not only feasible using modern complementary metal oxide semiconductor very large scale integration processes, but may represent the best option for extracting large amounts of data in implantable neural prosthetic interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • A heuristic fuzzy logic approach to EMG pattern recognition for multifunctional prosthesis control

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 280 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (108)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1613 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a heuristic fuzzy logic approach to multiple electromyogram (EMG) pattern recognition for multifunctional prosthesis control. Basic signal statistics (mean and standard deviation) are used for membership function construction, and fuzzy c-means (FCMs) data clustering is used to automate the construction of a simple amplitude-driven inference rule base. The result is a system that is transparent to, and easily "tweaked" by, the prosthetist/clinician. Other algorithms in current literature assume a longer period of unperceivable delay, while the system we present has an update rate of 45.7 ms with little postprocessing time, making it suitable for real-time application. Five subjects were investigated (three with intact limbs, one with a unilateral transradial amputation, and one with a unilateral transradial limb-deficiency from birth). Four subjects were used for system offline analysis, and the remaining intact-limbed subject was used for system real-time analysis. We discriminated between four EMG patterns for subjects with intact limbs, and between three patterns for limb-deficient subjects. Overall classification rates ranged from 94% to 99%. The fuzzy algorithm also demonstrated success in real-time classification, both during steady state motions and motion state transitioning. This functionality allows for seamless control of multiple degrees-of-freedom in a multifunctional prosthesis. View full abstract»

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  • A model to predict accommodations needed by disabled persons

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 292 - 301
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, several approaches to assist employers in the accommodation process for disabled employees are discussed and a mathematical model is proposed to assist employers in predicting the accommodation level needed by an individual with a mobility-related disability. This study investigates the validity and reliability of this model in assessing the accommodation level needed by individuals utilizing data collected from twelve individuals with mobility-related disabilities. Based on the results of the statistical analyses, this proposed model produces a feasible preliminary measure for assessing the accommodation level needed for persons with mobility-related disabilities. Suggestions for practical application of this model in an industrial setting are addressed. View full abstract»

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  • An EMG-to-force processing approach for determining ankle muscle forces during normal human gait

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 302 - 310
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (273 KB)  

    Muscle forces move our limbs. These forces must be estimated with indirect techniques, as direct measurements are neither generally possible nor practical. An electromyography (EMG)-to-force processing technique was developed. Ankle joint moments and, by extension, ankle muscle forces were calculated. The ankle moment obtained by inverse dynamics was calculated for ten normal adults during free speed gait. There was close correlation between inverse dynamics ankle moments and moments determined by the EMG-to-force processing approach. Muscle forces were determined. The gait peak Achilles tendon force occurred in late single limb support. Peak force observed (2.9 kN) closely matched values obtained where force transducers were used to obtain in vivo muscle forces (2.6 kN). The EMG-to-force processing model presented here appears to be a practical means to determine in vivo muscle forces. View full abstract»

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  • Robotic techniques for upper limb evaluation and rehabilitation of stroke patients

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 311 - 324
    Cited by:  Papers (83)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1391 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents two robot devices for use in the rehabilitation of upper limb movements and reports the quantitative parameters obtained to characterize the rate of improvement, thus allowing a precise monitoring of patient's recovery. A one degree of freedom (DoF) wrist manipulator and a two-DoF elbow-shoulder manipulator were designed using an admittance control strategy; if the patient could not move the handle, the devices completed the motor task. Two groups of chronic post-stroke patients (G1 n=7, and G2 n=9) were enrolled in a three week rehabilitation program including standard physical therapy (45 min daily) plus treatment by means of robot devices, respectively, for wrist and elbow-shoulder movements (40 min, twice daily). Both groups were evaluated by means of standard clinical assessment scales and a new robot measured evaluation metrics that included an active movement index quantifying the patient's ability to execute the assigned motor task without robot assistance, the mean velocity, and a movement accuracy index measuring the distance of the executed path from the theoretic one. After treatment, both groups improved their motor deficit and disability. In G1, there was a significant change in the clinical scale values (p<0.05) and range of motion wrist extension (p<0.02). G2 showed a significant change in clinical scales (p<0.01), in strength (p<0.05) and in the robot measured parameters (p<0.01). The relationship between robot measured parameters and the clinical assessment scales showed a moderate and significant correlation (r>0.53 p<0.03). Our findings suggest that robot-aided neurorehabilitation may improve the motor outcome and disability of chronic post-stroke patients. The new robot measured parameters may provide useful information about the course of treatment and its effectiveness at discharge. View full abstract»

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  • Customized interactive robotic treatment for stroke: EMG-triggered therapy

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 325 - 334
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB)  

    A system for electromyographic (EMG) triggering of robot-assisted therapy (dubbed the EMG game) for stroke patients is presented. The onset of a patient's attempt to move is detected by monitoring EMG in selected muscles, whereupon the robot assists her or him to perform point-to-point movements in a horizontal plane. Besides delivering customized robot-assisted therapy, the system can record signals that may be useful to better understand the process of recovery from stroke. Preliminary experiments aimed at testing the proposed system and gaining insight into the potential of EMG-triggered, robot-assisted therapy are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental results using force-feedback cueing in robot-assisted stroke therapy

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 335 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1513 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability among adults in the United States. Behaviors such as learned nonuse hinder hemiplegic stroke survivors from the full use of both arms in activities of daily living. Active force-feedback cues, designed to restrain the use of the less-affected arm, were embedded into a meaningful driving simulation environment to create robot-assisted therapy device, driver's simulation environment for arm therapy (SEAT). The study hypothesized that force-feedback control mode could "motivate" stroke survivors to increase the productive use of their impaired arm throughout a bilateral steering task, by providing motivating feedback and reinforcement cues to reduce the overuse of the less-affected arm. Experimental results demonstrate that the force cues counteracted the tendency of hemiplegic subjects to produce counter-productive torques only during bilateral steering tasks (p<0.05) that required the movement of their impaired arm in steering directions up and against gravity. Impaired arm activity was quantified in terms of torques due to the measured tangential forces on the split-steering wheel of driver's SEAT during bilateral steering. Results were verified using surface electromyograms recorded from key muscles in the impaired arm. View full abstract»

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  • A rehabilitation robot with force-position hybrid fuzzy controller: hybrid fuzzy control of rehabilitation robot

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 349 - 358
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of this study was to design a robot system for assisting in the rehabilitation of patients with neuromuscular disorders by performing various facilitation movements. The robot should be able to guide patient's wrist to move along planned linear or circular trajectories. A hybrid position/force controller incorporating fuzzy logic was developed to constrain the movement in the desired direction and to maintain a constant force along the moving direction. The controller was stable in the application range of movements and forces. Offline analyses of data were used to quantitatively assess the progress of rehabilitation. The results show that the robot could guide the upper limbs of subjects in linear and circular movements under predefined external force levels and apply a desired force along the tangential direction of the movements. View full abstract»

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  • Joint angle control by FES using a feedback error learning controller

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 359 - 371
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (915 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The feedback error learning (FEL) scheme was studied for a functional electrical stimulation (FES) controller. This FEL controller was a hybrid regulator with a feedforward and a feedback controller. The feedforward controller learned the inverse dynamics of a controlled object from feedback controller outputs while control. A four-layered neural network and the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller were used for each controller. The palmar/dorsi-flexion angle of the wrist was controlled in both computer simulation and FES experiments. Some controller parameters, such as the learning speed coefficient and the number of neurons, were determined in simulation using an artificial forward model of the wrist. The forward model was prepared by using a neural network that can imitate responses of subject's wrist to electrical stimulation. Then, six able-bodied subjects' wrist was controlled with the FEL controller by delivering stimuli to one antagonistic muscle pair. Results showed that the FEL controller functioned as expected and performed better than the conventional PID controller adjusted by the Chien, Hrones and Reswick method for a fast movement with the cycle period of 2 s, resulting in decrease of the average tracking error and shortened delay in the response. Furthermore, learning iteration was shortened if the feedforward controller had been trained in advance with the artificial forward model. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface (BCI): feature selection by regression improves performance

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 372 - 379
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (443 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    People can learn to control electroencephalogram (EEG) features consisting of sensorimotor rhythm amplitudes and can use this control to move a cursor in one or two dimensions to a target on a screen. In the standard one-dimensional application, the cursor moves horizontally from left to right at a fixed rate while vertical cursor movement is continuously controlled by sensorimotor rhythm amplitude. The right edge of the screen is divided among 2-6 targets, and the user's goal is to control vertical cursor movement so that the cursor hits the correct target when it reaches the right edge. Up to the present, vertical cursor movement has been a linear function of amplitude in a specific frequency band [i.e., 8-12 Hz (mu) or 18-26 Hz (beta)] over left and/or right sensorimotor cortex. The present study evaluated the effect of controlling cursor movement with a weighted combination of these amplitudes in which the weights were determined by an regression algorithm on the basis of the user's past performance. Analyses of data obtained from a representative set of trained users indicated that weighted combinations of sensorimotor rhythm amplitudes could support cursor control significantly superior to that provided by a single feature. Inclusion of an interaction term further improved performance. Subsequent online testing of the regression algorithm confirmed the improved performance predicted by the offline analyses. The results demonstrate the substantial value for brain-computer interface applications of simple multivariate linear algorithms. In contrast to many classification algorithms, such linear algorithms can easily incorporate multiple signal features, can readily adapt to changes in the user's control of these features, and can accommodate additional targets without major modifications. View full abstract»

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  • Patient-cooperative strategies for robot-aided treadmill training: first experimental results

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 380 - 394
    Cited by:  Papers (149)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1443 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Task-oriented repetitive movements can improve motor performance in patients with neurological or orthopaedic lesions. The application of robotics and automation technology can serve to assist, enhance, evaluate, and document neurological and orthopedic rehabilitation. This paper deals with the application of "patient-cooperative" techniques to robot-aided gait rehabilitation of neurological disorders. We define patient-cooperative to mean that, during movement, the technical system takes into account the patient's intention and voluntary efforts rather than imposing any predefined movements or inflexible strategies. It is hypothesized that such cooperative robotic approaches can improve the therapeutic outcome compared to classical rehabilitation strategies. New cooperative strategies are presented that detect the patient's voluntary efforts. First, this enables the patient increased freedom of movement by a certain amount of robot compliance. Second, the robot behavior adapts to the existing voluntary motor abilities. And third, the robotic system displays and improves the patient contribution by visual biofeedback. Initial experimental results are presented to evaluate the basic principle and technical function of proposed approaches. Further improvements of the technical design and additional clinical testing is required to prove whether the therapeutic outcome can be enhanced by such cooperative strategies. View full abstract»

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  • Compensation of magnetic disturbances improves inertial and magnetic sensing of human body segment orientation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 395 - 405
    Cited by:  Papers (100)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a complementary Kalman filter design to estimate orientation of human body segments by fusing gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer signals from miniature sensors. Ferromagnetic materials or other magnetic fields near the sensor module disturb the local earth magnetic field and, therefore, the orientation estimation, which impedes many (ambulatory) applications. In the filter, the gyroscope bias error, orientation error, and magnetic disturbance error are estimated. The filter was tested under quasi-static and dynamic conditions with ferromagnetic materials close to the sensor module. The quasi-static experiments implied static positions and rotations around the three axes. In the dynamic experiments, three-dimensional rotations were performed near a metal tool case. The orientation estimated by the filter was compared with the orientation obtained with an optical reference system Vicon. Results show accurate and drift-free orientation estimates. The compensation results in a significant difference (p<0.01) between the orientation estimates with compensation of magnetic disturbances in comparison to no compensation or only gyroscopes. The average static error was 1.4° (standard deviation 0.4) in the magnetically disturbed experiments. The dynamic error was 2.6° root means square. View full abstract»

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  • The use of splines to calculate jerk for a lifting task involving chronic lower back pain patients

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 406 - 414
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Motion differences in a repetitive lifting task have been described previously using differences in the timing of body angle changes during the lift. These timing changes relied on small differences of motion and are difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder jerk (rate of change of acceleration) in a repetitive lifting task as an alternative parameter to detect differences of motion between controls and chronic lower back pain (CLBP) patients and to measure the impact of a rehabilitation program on jerk. The jerk calculation was a noisy measure, since jerk is the third derivative of position; consequently a simulation was performed to evaluate smoothing methods. Woltring's generalized cross-validation spline produced the best estimates of the third derivative and was fit to subject data. The root mean square (rms) amplitude of jerk was used for comparison. Significant group differences were found. CLBP patients performed lifts with lower jerk values than controls and, as the task progressed, both groups increased jerk. After completion of a rehabilitation program, CLBP patients performed lifts with greater rms jerk. In general, patients performed lifts with lower jerk values than controls, suggesting that pain impacts lifting style. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of nerve block by high-frequency sinusoidal electrical current based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 415 - 422
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency sinusoidal electrical current was simulated using a lumped circuit model of the unmyelinated axon based on Hodgkin-Huxley equations. Axons of different diameters (1-20 μm) can be blocked when the stimulation frequency is above 4 kHz. At higher frequency, a higher stimulation intensity is needed to block nerve conduction. Larger diameter axons have a lower threshold intensity for conduction block. High-frequency sinusoidal electrical currents are less effective in blocking nerve conduction than biphasic square pulses of the same frequency. The activation of potassium channels, rather than inactivation of sodium channels, is the possible mechanism underlying the nerve conduction block of the unmyelinated axon induced by high-frequency biphasic (sinusoidal or square pulse) stimulation. This simulation study, which provides more information about the axonal conduction block induced by high-frequency sinusoidal currents, can guide future animal experiments, as well as optimize stimulation waveforms for electrical nerve block in possible clinical applications. View full abstract»

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  • Ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 423 - 427
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (553 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The measurement of ground reaction forces is important in the biomechanical analysis of gait and other motor activities. Many applications require full ambulatory measurement of these forces, but this is not supported by current measurement systems. We propose the use of two six-degrees-of-freedom force and moment sensors under each shoe, which enables the ambulatory measurement of ground reaction forces and centers of pressure (CoP). The feasibility of this method is illustrated by experimental results in a healthy subject, using a force plate as a reference. The ground reaction forces and CoP recordings show good correspondence when they are evaluated for forces above 40 N and when it is simply assumed that the sensors are flat on the ground when they are loaded. The root mean square (rms) difference of the magnitude of the ground reaction force over 12 gait trials was 15±2 N, corresponding to 1.9±0.3% of the maximum ground reaction force magnitude. The rms difference of the horizontal component of the ground reaction force was 3±2 N, corresponding to 0.4±0.2% of the maximum ground reaction force magnitude and to 2±1% of the maximum of the horizontal component of the ground reaction force. The rms distance between both CoP recordings is 2.9±0.4 mm, corresponding to 1.1±0.2% of the length of the shoe, when the trajectories are optimally aligned. View full abstract»

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  • Detecting the onset of hyper-reflexive bladder contractions from the electrical activity of the pudendal nerve

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 428 - 435
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Individuals with a spinal cord injury or neurological disorders may develop involuntary bladder contractions at low volumes (bladder hyper-reflexia), which can lead to significant health problems. Present devices can inhibit unwanted contractions through continuous stimulation, but do not enable conditional stimulation only at the onset of bladder contractions. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between the electrical activity of the pudendal nerve trunk (PNT) and bladder pressure during hyper-reflexive bladder contractions and to determine whether PNT activity could be used to detect the contractions. Bladder pressure and PNT electroneurogram (ENG) were recorded in eight adult male cats. The PNT ENG activity increased at the onset of a bladder contraction and the activity during bladder contractions was greater than during the intercontraction interval (p<0.001). Three algorithms were developed to detect the onset of a bladder contraction from the PNT ENG activity. A cumulative sum (CUSUM) algorithm performed better than either a constant threshold or a dynamic threshold algorithm, and enabled detection of reflex bladder contractions from the PNT ENG an average of 1.2 s after the contraction started with an average increase in pressure 7.1 cmH2·O when evaluated on data not used to set detection parameters. These data demonstrated that recordings from the PNT could be used to detect hyper-reflexive bladder contractions and provide a signal to control closed-loop inhibitory stimulation. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 436
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  • IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering Information for authors

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on the rehabilitative and neural aspects of biomedical engineering.

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Editor-in-Chief
Paul Sajda
Columbia University