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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Put your technology leadership in writing

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1517
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Page(s): 1518
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  • Special Issue on Silicon Germanium—Advanced Technology, Modeling, and Design

    Page(s): 1519 - 1521
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  • Scaling of SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    Page(s): 1522 - 1538
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (801 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Scaling has been the principal driving force behind the successful technology innovations of the past half-century. This paper investigates the impacts of scaling on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), which have recently emerged as a strong contender for RF and mixed-signal applications. The impacts of scaling on key performance metrics such as speed and noise are explored, and both theory and data show that scaling, both vertical and lateral, has mostly beneficial effects on these metrics. However, it is shown that the scaled devices are increasingly vulnerable to device reliability issues due to increased electric field and operation current density. Bipolar transistor scaling rules are reviewed and compared with accumulated reported data for verification. A review of scaling limits suggests that bipolar scaling has not reached the physical fundamental limit yet, promising a continued improvement of bipolar performance in the foreseeable future. View full abstract»

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  • Status and Direction of Communication Technologies - SiGe BiCMOS and RFCMOS

    Page(s): 1539 - 1558
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    We present the status and direction of silicon semiconductor technologies targeted for applications such as wireless, networking, instrumentation, and storage markets. Various technological aspects for multiple branches of RF foundry technologies that are based on the standard foundry compatible CMOS node are discussed - SiGe BiCMOS HP ("high performance") tailored to high-frequency applications, SiGe BiCMOS WL ("cost performance") tailored to wireless/storage applications, and RF-CMOS optimized for low-cost consumer applications. Future opportunities and challenges for advancement in RF technologies are described in light of CMOS and SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor scaling. In addition, we discuss the maturity of SiGe BiCMOS by looking at the levels of integration and manufacturability. View full abstract»

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  • On the Potential of SiGe HBTs for Extreme Environment Electronics

    Page(s): 1559 - 1582
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    "Extreme environments" represents an important niche market for electronics and spans the operation of electronic components in surroundings lying outside the domain of conventional commercial, or even military, specifications. Such extreme environments would include, for instance, operation to very low temperatures (e.g., to 77 K or even 4.2 K), operation at very high temperatures (e.g., to 200°C or even 300°C), and operation in a radiation-rich environment (e.g., space). We argue that the unique bandgap-engineered features of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors offer great potential to simultaneously satisfy all three extreme environment applications, potentially with little or no process modification, ultimately providing compelling cost advantages at the IC and system level. View full abstract»

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  • Noise in SiGe HBT RF Technology: Physics, Modeling, and Circuit Implications

    Page(s): 1583 - 1597
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (595 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an overview of the physics, modeling, and circuit implications of RF broad-band noise, low-frequency noise, and oscillator phase noise in SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) RF technology. The ability to simultaneously achieve high cutoff frequency (fT), low base resistance (rb), and high current gain (β) using Si processing underlies the low levels of low-frequency 1/f noise, RF noise, and phase noise of SiGe HBTs. We first examine the RF noise sources in SiGe HBTs and the RF noise parameters as a function of SiGe profile design, transistor biasing, sizing, and operating frequency, and then show a low-noise amplifier design example to bridge the gap between device and circuit level understandings. We then examine the low-frequency noise in SiGe HBTs and develop a methodology to determine the highest tolerable low-frequency 1/f noise for a given RF application. The upconversion of 1/f noise, base resistance thermal noise, and shot noises to phase noise is examined using circuit simulations, which show that the phase noise corner frequency in SiGe HBT oscillators is typically much smaller than the 1/f corner frequency measured under dc biasing. The implications of SiGe profile design, transistor sizing, biasing, and technology scaling are examined for all three types of noises. View full abstract»

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  • SiGe Radio Frequency ICs for Low-Power Portable Communication

    Page(s): 1598 - 1623
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    The range and impact of SiGe bipolar and BiCMOS technologies on wireless transceivers for portable telephony and data communications are surveyed. SiGe technology enables transceiver designs that compare favorably with competing technologies such as RF CMOS or III-Vs, with advantages in design cycle time and performance versus cost. As wireless devices continue to increase in complexity using conventional battery technology as the power source, the desire to reduce current consumption in future transceivers continues to favor SiGe technology. Examples are drawn from contemporary wireless communications ICs. The performance of on-chip passive components in silicon technologies are also reviewed in this paper. Greater understanding of the limitations of passive devices coupled with improved models for their performance are leading to circuits offering wider RF dynamic range at ever higher operating frequencies. The innovations in on-chip passive design and construction currently being pioneered in mixed-signal SiGe technologies are enabling circuits operating deep into millimeter-wave frequency bands (i.e., well above 30 GHz). In addition, sophisticated on-chip magnetic components combined with deep submicrometer SiGe active devices in a transceiver front end are envisioned that enable single-volt SiGe circuits, with even lower current consumption than is achievable today. Relevant examples from the recent literature are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Compliance Testing of a SiGe WCDMA Receiver IC With Integrated Analog Baseband

    Page(s): 1624 - 1636
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    A 2.7-3.3 V 32-mA SiGe direct-conversion wide-band code division multiple access (WCDMA) receiver IC integrating the RF front-end and analog baseband on a single chip has been completed and measured. Analog performance specifications for the design were driven by the 3GPP specifications. To close the loop from 3GPP specifications to IC design specifications to hardware performance results, a subset of compliance tests for both the analog as well as the digital 3GPP specifications was performed. The IC design includes a bypassable low-noise amplifier (LNA), a quadrature direct-downconverter, an automatically tuned channel-select filter, wide dynamic-range baseband amplifiers, and a serial digital interface. Power-saving modes allow the LNA to be powered down when the input signal is sufficiently large, reducing current consumption to 23 mA. In addition, the entire Q-channel signal path can be optionally powered down during control-channel monitoring, further reducing current draw to 17 mA nominal. The IC showed full compliance with the static channel 3GPP specification tests performed, including all analog/RF compliance tests and a set of DPCH_Ec/Ior sensitivity tests from 12.2 through 384 kb/s as measured with a software baseband processor. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Phased Array Systems in Silicon

    Page(s): 1637 - 1655
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2793 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Silicon offers a new set of possibilities and challenges for RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave applications. While the high cutoff frequencies of the SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and the ever-shrinking feature sizes of MOSFETs hold a lot of promise, new design techniques need to be devised to deal with the realities of these technologies, such as low breakdown voltages, lossy substrates, low-Q passives, long interconnect parasitics, and high-frequency coupling issues. As an example of complete system integration in silicon, this paper presents the first fully integrated 24-GHz eight-element phased array receiver in 0.18-μm silicon-germanium and the first fully integrated 24-GHz four-element phased array transmitter with integrated power amplifiers in 0.18-μm CMOS. The transmitter and receiver are capable of beam forming and can be used for communication, ranging, positioning, and sensing applications. View full abstract»

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  • Smart Phased Array SoCs: A Novel Application for Advanced SiGe HBT BiCMOS Technology

    Page(s): 1656 - 1668
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    As BiCMOS IC technology continues to advance in scaling and performance, new applications are continually enabled. One such concept is a smart phased array system on a chip (SoC). The combination of high-performance SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) bipolar devices, well-characterized RF/analog passive components, and dense CMOS digital technology provides the capability to create large multielement, electronically tunable phased arrays with onboard processing intelligence, inside a single die. This SoC will have superior characteristics of lower cost, weight, and size as compared to the large multichip, multitechnology, and multipackage systems in deployment today. Furthermore, using reconfigurable logic and embedded memory, this SoC has the advantage of dynamic software and digital signal processing engine updates, without expensive redesigns of the chip. This publication will describe the necessary ingredients to create such an SoC as well as relevant applications of smart phased arrays that require an SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology. Potential markets for this technology include communications systems, weather tracking, radio astronomy, automotive radar, cellular basestation capacity improvement, satellite and aerial resource imaging, ground-level airplane collision avoidance, as well as military tracking and guidance systems. View full abstract»

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  • SiGe HBT Microprocessor Core Test Vehicle

    Page(s): 1669 - 1678
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    A major impediment to the continuation of Moore's Law in the years to come is the performance of interconnections in ICs at high frequencies. Microprocessors are using a greater portion of their clock cycle charging and discharging interconnections. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) provide a fast track technology for the exploration of the effect of interconnections on high-speed computer design. Industry has pursued low-k dielectrics to decrease wire capacitance. Cu metallization has been used to reduce wire resistance which becomes important as the wire dimensions are scaled down. These are not the only issues for high-frequency interconnections. Some other high-frequency issues include coupling, transmission line propagation, skin effects, and dielectric and substrate loss. These phenomena cause signal attenuation, noise, and dispersion in addition to delay. In the limit of zero device delay, interconnection delay will remain in addition to these problems. Wire shortening has been possible using more layers of interconnections, but this approach may be reaching its limit. An unconventional approach, three-dimensional (3-D) integration, attempts to shorten wiring through increased circuit component placement flexibility. The approach considered here for 3-D integration uses wafer-to-wafer aligning and bonding, wafer thinning and deep, high-aspect-ratio Cu via formation. This provides an intimate interconnection between CPU components and an extremely wide path to memory that would be infeasible in conventional or multichip module packaging. This combination of SiGe HBT BiCMOS and 3-D chip stack technologies enables small computing engines in the 16-32-GHz range. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Greenleaf W. Pickard

    Page(s): 1679 - 1681
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    In 1926, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) awarded its Medal of Honor to Greenleaf Whittier Pickard. The award was in recognition of his contributions to research on crystal detectors, antennas, wave propagation, and noise suppression. During his long career, he was a leader in the creation of the radio engineering profession and a prolific author of research papers published in the Proceedings of the IEEE. He served as the second president of the IRE during 1913. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the IEEE Proceedings

    Page(s): 1682 - 1684
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  • IEEE Member Digital Library [advertisement]

    Page(s): c3
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE check out our October issue

    Page(s): c4
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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University