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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • AlInGaAs 0.8- \mu\hbox {m} High-Power Semiconductor Lasers With Delta-Doped Resonant Tunneling Quantum Wells

    Page(s): 1105 - 1114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    In this paper, we describe a new structure design for producing low-threshold high-efficiency and high-brightness 0.807-$muhbox m$lasers. In this structure, we incorporate a self-discriminating weak optical confinement asymmetrical waveguide, and an active region based on single or double AlInGaAs quantum well (QW) with Te n-type$delta$-doping. Optimized coupling between the$delta$-doping layer and the double QW, along with waveguide and doping profile optimization, yields$J_ th=140 hbox A/cm^-2$per QW, a far-field angle of$sim hbox 24^circ$, and$M^2$close to one. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrafast Gain Dynamics in Quantum-Dot Amplifiers: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Investigations

    Page(s): 1115 - 1123
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    Ultrafast gain dynamics in an optical amplifier with an active layer of self-organized quantum dots (QDs) emitting near 1.3$muhbox m$is characterized experimentally in a pump-probe experiment and modeled theoretically on the basis of QD Maxwell–Bloch equations. Experiment and theory are in good agreement and show ultrafast subpicoseconds gain recovery followed by a slower 5 ps recovery. This behavior is found to be mainly caused by longitudinal optical phonon scattering and strongly dependents on electronic structure and confinement energy of the dots. A low amplitude-phase coupling ($alpha$factor) is theoretically predicted and demonstrated in the experiments. The fundamental analysis reveals the underlying physical processes and indicates limitations to QD-based devices. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Fabrication of Low Beam Divergence and High Kink-Free Power Lasers

    Page(s): 1124 - 1130
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    We report the design and fabrication of high performance high power lasers with emission wavelength from 800 to 1000 nm using a novel wafer structure, in which a graded V-shape layer was incorporated, to reduce the vertical far field (wafer growth direction) and to suppress higher order mode lasing. The structure offers the freedom to independently design the vertical far field and optical overlap with the quantum wells. An extremely low far field can be achieved, which still retains high optical overlap, allowing a low threshold current to be maintained. In addition, the structure can greatly enhance the laser kink-free power by suppressing or even completely eliminating higher order mode lasing, an extremely desirable property for high power single mode lasers. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of Electrically Driven Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Lasers

    Page(s): 1131 - 1141
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    We demonstrate room-temperature low-threshold-current lasing action from electrically driven wavelength-scale high-quality photonic crystal lasers having large spontaneous emission factors by solving the theoretical and technical constraints laid upon by the additional requirement of the current injection. The ultrasmall cavity is electrically pulse pumped through a submicron-size semiconductor “wire” at the center of the mode with minimal degradation of the quality factor. In addition, to better utilize the low mobility of the hole, we employ a doping structure that is inverted from the conventional semiconductors. Rich lasing actions and their various characteristics are experimentally measured in the single-cell and three-cell photonic crystal cavities. Several relevant measurements are compared with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain computations based on the actual fabricated structural parameters. The electrically driven photonic crystal laser, which is a small step toward a “practical” form of the single photon source, represents a meaningful achievement in the field of photonic crystal devices and photonic integrated circuits as well as of great interest to the quantum electrodynamics and quantum information communities. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Frequency Division and Multiplication Using an Optically Injected Semiconductor Laser

    Page(s): 1142 - 1147
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductor lasers is applied for microwave frequency division. Optical injection is used to drive a slave laser into the dynamical period-two state. A fundamental microwave frequency and its subharmonic are generated in the power spectrum. Both frequencies will be simultaneously locked when an external microwave near either frequency is applied on the bias. In our experiment, precise microwave frequency division is demonstrated by modulating the laser at the fundamental of 18.56 GHz. A locked subharmonic at 9.28 GHz with a low phase variance of 0.007$hbox rad^2$is obtained from a 10-dBm input. A large locking range of 0.61 GHz is measured under a 4-dBm modulation. Similarly, precise frequency multiplication is demonstrated by modulating at 9.65 GHz. At an input power of$-$5 dBm, a multiplied signal at 19.30 GHz is obtained with a phase variance of 0.027$hbox rad^2$and a locking range of 0.22 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Mode-Locking Dynamics in Electrically Driven Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    Page(s): 1148 - 1156
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    We develop a novel description of electrically driven vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers (VECSELs) mode-locked by saturable absorber mirrors. Our approach is based on an analytical solution of the bidirectional traveling-wave equations for fundamental transverse mode operation. The resulting time-domain equations describe the evolution of the electric fields and carrier-densities at the quantum-well layers of the emitter and absorber structures which are coupled through delayed boundary conditions. For the design considered, we obtain stable mode-locked pulses of few tens of picoseconds at 15-GHz repetition rate in agreement with recently reported experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Behavioral Model of a Self-Mixing Laser Diode Sensor

    Page(s): 1157 - 1167
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    The spectral properties of a laser diode are modified when the optical beam is back-scattered into the active cavity of the laser. Based on the use of this optical feedback, the self-mixing effect has been demonstrated to be suitable for sensing applications. This is an emerging technique enabling notably displacement, distance and/or velocity measurements to be performed. However, the self-mixing signal shape is strongly modified by the strength of the back-scattering and by nonlinear phenomena governing the global behavior of the laser diode. This makes signal processing rather challenging. In this paper, a new high-level model is proposed to represent the self-mixing phenomenon and to simplify the solution of nonlinear equations involved in this problem. This model is represented by schematic block diagrams commonly used for the description of complex systems in the domains of nonlinear mechanics, telecommunications, sensors, actuators, etc. This approach will allow the use of powerful and standard simulation tools such as Spice, VHDL-AMS or MATLAB/Simulink to develop new methods for signal processing of optical feedback interferometers, notably in the case of displacements measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Mutual Injection Locking of Two Individual \hbox {Nd:}\hbox {YVO}_{4} Lasers

    Page(s): 1168 - 1175
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    We studied mutual injection locking of two individual continuous-wave$hbox Nd:hbox YVO_4$lasers that were coupled through an external section. The two lasers lased at the same wavelength with a stable output power and interference fringes with high contrast ratio in the combined beam profile showed good mutual coherence of the two lasers. Mutual injection locking was also achieved without active stabilization for individual lasers with a large cavity length difference and low$Q$-factors. The calculated combined output power under symmetric pumping agreed with the experimental results. Even when output couplings of individual lasers are not optimized, the output coupling of the combining section can be optimized to make the extracted power very close to the sum of maximum powers that can be extracted from individual free running lasers under optimal output coupling. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Bragg Gratings Induced in Erbium-Doped Fiber at Phase-Modulated Beams' Coupling

    Page(s): 1176 - 1180
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    We present the results of an experimental study of dynamic amplitude and phase Bragg gratings induced in a heavy-doped erbium fiber at the wavelengths 1532 and 1538 nm under the 980-nm pumping. The technique of two phase-modulated beams' coupling was applied for an experimental measurement of the changes in refractive index and gain accompanying the gratings' formation in the fiber, and an analysis based on the Kramers–Kronig Relations for the fiber absorption/gain spectra and two-pass amplifying was performed for modeling these changes. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of Equal Power Divider Using 4-Branch Waveguide

    Page(s): 1181 - 1187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A numerical model of an equal power divider based on the 4-branch single-mode waveguide is proposed. This proposed design does not require extra fabrication process and supplementary structure modification compared to other typical multibranch waveguides. The condition of uniform output power distribution can be easily obtained by adjusting the branching angle between the inner and the outer branches without introducing excess scattering loss. Similar design procedures can also be used when other power dividing ratios or operating wavelengths are specified. In our study, all the four output ports' power is uniform for both TE and TM mode within a difference of less than 0.1 dB. The bandwidth with an output power dividing ratio variation value smaller than 0.3 dB is found to be nearly 350 Å, which is sufficient for wavelength division multiplexing systems where erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are used. View full abstract»

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  • The Interaction of Laser and Photoconductor in a Continuous-Wave Terahertz Photomixer

    Page(s): 1188 - 1196
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    The interaction of laser and photoconductor in an optical heterodyne conversion scheme is studied in detail. A dc biased photoconductor excited by two continuous-wave (CW) laser beams with a difference in their central frequencies falling in the terahertz spectrum is considered as the core element in all photoconductive photomixing structures. For this configuration the continuity equations for the electron and hole densities are solved in their general form along with the appropriate boundary conditions to find photocurrent distribution inside the photoconductor. It is shown that in a CW terahertz photomixing scheme the resulting photocurrent contains a dc component and a terahertz component. It is also shown that the amplitude and the phase of the terahertz component of the photocurrent are functions of the applied bias, physical parameters of the photoconductor, parameters of the lasers, and photomixer configuration. The dependency of the photocurrent on all of these parameters is explored in detail for a typical photomixer made of low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductor. View full abstract»

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  • Design of an Integrated Optical Switch Based on Liquid Crystal Infiltration

    Page(s): 1197 - 1202
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    We present the design and simulation of a novel Fabry–PÉrot optical switch based on liquid crystal infiltration integrated in a high index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguide. Careful optimization of the cavity geometry allows designing a device with a resonance peak transmission of 95% and a resonance peak linewidth of 1.7 nm. This kind of device is designed to be fully CMOS compatible and can be used as a building block of a more complex integrated optical circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum Theory Analysis of Twin-Photon Beams Generated by Parametric Fluorescence

    Page(s): 1203 - 1212
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    Integrated nonlinear optic devices for generation of twin photon beams are expected to be a key device for the development of quantum information techniques. This paper presents a systematic quantum theory analysis on generation of twin photons by parametric fluorescence and properties of the twin photon beams. The analysis uses multimode-pair description including phase mismatched cases. Full description of the quantum states of the twin photon beams is obtained. Mathematical expressions for photon numbers, photon beam powers, efficiency, wavelength bandwidth, and photon correlation are deduced. Numerical data are given for several types degenerate and nondegenerate quasi-phase matched$hbox LiNbO_3$waveguide twin-photon generation devices. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics information for authors

    Page(s): c3
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University