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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Time-Domain Cavity Oscillations Supported by a Temporally Dispersive Dielectric

    Page(s): 2465 - 2471
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    Forced time-domain oscillations in a cavity filled with a temporally dispersive polar dielectric are studied. The cavity is bounded by a singly connected closed perfect electric conductor surface$S$of rather arbitrary shape. A given source pumps a signal of finite duration to the cavity. Hence, the principle of causality is involved in the formulation of the problem. The temporal cavity oscillations are obtained as a self-consistent solution to the system of Maxwell's equations and Debye equation supplemented with appropriate initial conditions . Analytical solution is obtained by using the evolutionary approach to electromagnetics proposed and implemented recently. Temporal oscillations of the cavity modes are studied. Obtained results are compared with the finite-difference time-domain solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Characterization and Modeling of High Aspect Ratio Through-Wafer Interconnect Vias in Silicon Substrates

    Page(s): 2472 - 2480
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    In this paper, we present the detailed fabrication process, high-frequency characterization, and modeling of through-wafer copper-filled vias ranging from 50- to 70-$mu$m-in diameter on 400-$mu$m-thick silicon substrates. The high aspect ratio via-holes were fabricated by carefully optimizing the inductively coupled plasma deep reactive ion etching process. The high aspect ratio via-holes are completely filled with copper using a bottom-up electroplating approach. The fabricated vias were characterized using different resonating structures based on which the inductance and resistance of the filled via-holes are extracted. For a single 70-$mu$m via, the inductance and resistance are measured to be 254 pH and 0.1$Omega$, respectively. In addition, the effect of the physical arrangement and distribution in multiple-via configurations on the resulting inductance is also evaluated with double straightly aligned quadruple and diagonally aligned quadruple vias. Physical mechanisms of the dependence was depicted by electromagnetic simulation. An equivalent-circuit model is proposed and model parameters are extracted to provide good agreement. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Feedforward Amplifier Under “Maximum Output” Control Method for UMTS Downlink Transmitters

    Page(s): 2481 - 2486
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    An adaptive feedforward amplifier is implemented for a Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) downlink channel (2110–2170 MHz). An exhaustive characterization of the space of solution has corroborated the feedforward theoretical behavior. As a result, an alternative adjustment method is proposed, called “maximum output,” which entails maximizing a specific designed objective function. Besides this, an adaptive control system, based on distortion signal minimization architecture, has been fabricated in order to apply the designed method. The overall system performance achieves significant improvements such as 16.7 dB on the third-order intermodulation product, measured with a 5-MHz separated two-tone signal, 15 dB on the adjacent channel leakage ratio level and 2.7 dB on the output power level, both of them obtained with UMTS test model 1 (64 channels). The maximum output control method allows fulfilling any standard linearity specification while power efficiency is maximized so the desired tradeoff between linearity and efficiency is achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of Current Probe Transition From Grounded Coplanar to Substrate Integrated Rectangular Waveguides

    Page(s): 2487 - 2494
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    The transition between a grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) and a substrate integrated rectangular waveguide (SIRW) is investigated in this paper. The proposed scheme makes use of a current probe to transfer power between the two dissimilar transmission lines. A computer-aided-design-oriented analytical model is developed in order to optimize the geometrical dimensions of the transition. By using the GCPW instead of the microstrip line to interface the SIRW, substrate thickness can be increased without incurring a penalty due to transmission loss. Therefore, it is possible to achieve higher$Q$components. Experiments at 28 GHz show that an effective bandwidth of 10% can easily be obtained. The insertion loss is less than 0.73 dB over the bandwidth of interest. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic-Bandgap Layers for Broad-Band Suppression of TEM Modes in Power Planes

    Page(s): 2495 - 2505
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    A practical set of engineering design equations are derived for predicting stopband performance of electromagnetic-bandgap (EBG) structures within parallel power planes. The EBG circuits suppress the TEM-mode noise within parallel plates used within digital power distribution networks. Stopbands are realized over designed frequency bands of interest in the microwave spectrum. The mathematical relationships between the physical hardware and the electrical models are clearly stated. Several examples are given and proof-of-concept experiments are described and compared to the predicted results with good agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Narrow-Band Tunable Bandpass Filter Based on Varactor Loaded Electromagnetic-Bandgap Coplanar Waveguides

    Page(s): 2506 - 2514
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    A varactor-loaded resonator inserted between two Bragg reflectors has been implemented to design high-selectivity tunable bandpass filters. First, a mechanical tuning method is demonstrated. A varactor tunable bandpass filter is then implemented at 9 GHz, yielding good agreement between computational and experimental results. The tuning range reaches 3.5% with a loaded quality factor$Q_L =40$, a maximum insertion loss of 4.75 dB, and a return loss exceeding 20 dB. The theory is carefully explained, showing the importance of the parameters of the Bragg reflectors and of the resonator, in particular, the effect of diode-case parasitics and varactor position with respect to the resonator. A large-signal experimental analysis is done, showing a maximum allowable input power of a few dBm. Finally, possible filter improvements are discussed, and simulations with a microelectromechanical systems varactor are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Passive-Intermodulation Analysis Between Rough Rectangular Waveguide Flanges

    Page(s): 2515 - 2525
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    A new model is presented for the calculation of passive intermodulation (PIM) in waveguide connections. The model considers the roughness of interconnecting waveguide surfaces and the presence of an insulator layer (oxide and contaminants) on these metal surfaces. This results in the generation of a contact resistance, which can excite the PIM level. In particular, the case in which metal–insulator–metal regions are the PIM source is especially investigated. The intermodulation level response is calculated for different waveguide junction parameters like applied mechanical load, surface finish, or metal properties showing qualitative agreement with the measured data published by previous authors. View full abstract»

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  • Skin Effect Modeling Based on a Differential Surface Admittance Operator

    Page(s): 2526 - 2538
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    An important issue in high-frequency signal integrity prediction is the modeling of the skin effect of thick conductors. A new differential surface admittance concept is put forward allowing to replace the conductor by equivalent electric surface currents and to replace the material of the conductor by the material of the background medium the conductor is embedded in. This new concept is studied in detail for the two-dimensional TM case starting from the Dirichlet eigenfunctions of the cross section. Detailed expressions are derived for the important practical case of a rectangular cross section. Next, the differential surface admittance operator is exploited to determine the resistance and inductance matrices of a set of multiconductor lines. A first set of numerical results provides the reader with some insight into the behavior of the surface admittance matrix. A second set of results demonstrates the correctness and versatility of the new approach to determine inductance and resistance matrices. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Low-Pass Filters Using Defected Ground Structure

    Page(s): 2539 - 2545
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method to design low-pass filters (LPF) having a defected ground structure (DGS) and broadened transmission-line elements is proposed. The previously presented technique for obtaining a three-stage LPF using DGS by Lim is generalized to propose a method that can be applied in design$N$-pole LPFs for$ Nleq5$. As an example, a five-pole LPF having a DGS is designed and measured. Accurate curve-fitting results and the successive design process to determine the required size of the DGS corresponding to the LPF prototype elements are described. The proposed LPF having a DGS, called a DGS-LPF, includes transmission-line elements with very low impedance instead of open stubs in realizing the required shunt capacitance. Therefore, open stubs, tee- or cross-junction elements, and high-impedance line sections are not required for the proposed LPF, while they all have been essential in conventional LPFs. Due to the widely broadened transmission-line elements, the size of the DGS-LPF is compact. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of Bridged NRD-Guide Coupler for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Page(s): 2546 - 2551
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new nonradiative-dielectric (NRD)-guide directional coupler using two NRD waveguides interconnected with a bridge is proposed and demonstrated. Propagation constants of the bridged NRD-guide couplers are investigated with an electric-field integral-equation method, and modeling results show that there is a maximum of coupling coefficient when the thickness of the bridge is made around 0.68 of the plate separation. In this case, the coupling length is reduced approximately 60% and the bandwidth under the tolerance limits of$pm$0.5 dB of deviation for 3-dB coupling is nearly doubled with reference to its conventional counterparts. The use of a bridge not only improves the mechanical stability, but also makes the coupler performance reproducible. Experimental prototypes are fabricated with two 90$^circ$elbow bends that are used for the arms and the bridge-connected coupler section is terminated at both ends by tapered half-circle sections. A calibration procedure is used to remove mismatch effects between the NRD-guide and the rectangular waveguide in the measured results. Advantages of the new coupler as a passive component are shown for millimeter-wave integrated circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Waveguide Eigenanalysis by Wide-Band Finite-Element Model-Order Reduction

    Page(s): 2552 - 2558
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficient method for fast wide-band eigenmode analysis is presented in this paper. The finite-element solution space is projected to a subspace containing frequency-dependent information obtained at a single frequency by a Lanczos algorithm and modified perturbation theory, resulting in a single-point reduced-order model accurate over an extremely wide frequency range. A numerical procedure is developed to extract a desired mode from the reduced-order model for fast frequency sweep and is then applied to several practical problems, which demonstrate the solution accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • 26.5–30-GHz Resistive Mixer in 90-nm VLSI SOI CMOS Technology With High Linearity for WLAN

    Page(s): 2559 - 2565
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A resistive mixer with high linearity for wireless local area networks is presented in this paper. The fully integrated circuit is fabricated with a 90-nm very large scale integration silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology and has a very compact size of 0.38 mm$, times,$0.32 mm. Design guidelines are given to optimize the circuit performance. Analytical calculations and simulations with an SOI large-signal Berkeley simulation model show good agreement with measurements. At an RF of 27 GHz, an IF of 2.5 GHz and zero dc power consumption, a conversion loss of 9.7 dB, a single-sideband noise figure of 11.4 dB, and a high third-order intercept point at the input of 20 dBm are measured at a local-oscillator (LO) power of 10 dBm. At lower LO power of 0-dBm LO power, the loss is 10.3 dB. To the knowledge of the author, the circuit has by far the highest operation frequency reported to date for a resistive CMOS mixer. Furthermore, it provides the highest linearity for a CMOS mixer operating at such high frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • A 12–18-GHz Three-Pole RF MEMS Tunable Filter

    Page(s): 2566 - 2571
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) wide-band tunable filter designed for the 12–18-GHz frequency range. The coplanar-waveguide filter, fabricated on a glass substrate using loaded resonators with RF MEMS capacitive switches, results in a tuning range of 40% with very fine resolution, and return loss better than 10 dB for the whole tuning range. The relative bandwidth of the filter is$hbox5.7pm hbox0.4hbox%$over the tuning range and the size of the filter is 8 mm$, times ,4$mm. The insertion loss is 5.5 and 8.2 dB at 17.8 and 12.2 GHz, respectively, for a 2-$hboxkOmega/hboxsq$bias line. The loss improves to 4.5 and 6.8 dB at 17.8 and 12.2 GHz, respectively, if the bias line resistance is increased to 20$hboxkOmega/hboxsq$. The measured$ IIP_3$level is$≫$37 dBm for$Delta f ≫ 200$kHz. To our knowledge, this is the widest band planar tunable filter to date. View full abstract»

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  • Ferrite Coupled-Line Circulator With Reduced Length

    Page(s): 2572 - 2579
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method to design a circulator based on a ferrite coupled line (FCL) with reduced length is presented. This is achieved by appropriate matching networks. Using ferrite perturbation theory, we derive closed-form expressions for the required matching impedances and the resulting bandwidth of the matched device. Based on this analysis, a realistic design for a stripline FCL circulator is obtained, whose length is shorted by a factor of three. A microstrip FCL circulator with only half of the optimum length is designed and fabricated. Both simulation data and measurement results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of a circulator based on an FCL with reduced length. View full abstract»

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  • Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Stability of Microwave Amplifiers With Variable Termination Impedances

    Page(s): 2580 - 2586
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    New criteria to check conditional stability of microwave amplifiers with input and output terminations varying in pre-specified circular regions surrounding complex nominal values are proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions are provided both in terms of the immittance parameters$lambda_ ij$(i.e.,$ z_ ij, y_ ij, g_ ij,$or$ h_ ij$) and in terms of the scattering parameters$ s_ ij$. Proposed conditions can be easily implemented in any commercial computer-aided design tool and are suitable to be used as design goals within an optimization routine: this allows to optimize the tradeoff between stability constraints under termination variations and performance in a yield-oriented design flow. A case study, in which a distributed amplifier has been designed, shows the advantages of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable Impedance Transformer Using a Transmission Line With Variable Characteristic Impedance

    Page(s): 2587 - 2593
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    This paper proposes a new structure for a tunable impedance transformer. The proposed transformer consists of a quarter-wavelength transmission line with variable characteristic impedance. The operating principle of the variable characteristic impedance is based on the use of parallel combinations of multiple transmission lines and by controlling the line connection with RF switches. Multiple switches are inserted at the in/out terminals of each transmission line. Since a parallel microstrip transmission line has a unique structure that involves a partially removed ground plane under the conductor line, it is possible to realize a high characteristic impedance line with a wide linewidth. View full abstract»

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  • Stereoscopic Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging and Ranging

    Page(s): 2594 - 2599
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    This paper presents the first stereoscopic range measurements at a wavelength of 3.3 mm and discusses the accuracy of this new method. The synthesis of passive millimeter-wave imaging and stereoscopy combines the advantages of both principles, naturally looking high-contrast images and superior poor-weather performance (compared to visible and infrared wavelengths), as well as the passive ranging capability. Our setup using two antennas with a half-power beamwidth (HPBW) of 0.9$^circ$and a stereoscopic baseline of 1.15 m allows ranging with an accuracy of$approxhbox10hbox%$up to a distance of$approx$300 m. The range resolution improves with increasing stereoscopic baseline, lower radiometer noise, narrower antenna beams, and higher scene contrast. For scenes with sufficient contrast, the directional resolution is considerably better than the antenna HPBW. Thus, massive oversampling of the scene in the plane of the stereoscopic baseline is required. For our setup, an oversampling factor of 36 is optimal. Since additional ranging errors result from nonstationary scenes, fast scanning imagers should be applied. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Analysis of WDM Photonic Microwave Filters With Random Errors

    Page(s): 2600 - 2603
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    Several photonic microwave filters based on a set of optical carriers of different wavelength and a dispersive medium have been proposed to benefit from their flexibility and a variety of commercial wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) devices. However, practical implementations of such filters suffer random errors in the optical power and the wavelength of the optical sources. In this paper, the statistical analysis of the performance of photonic microwave filters based on multiple optical carriers (i.e., WDM) and a dispersive medium with random errors in amplitude and wavelength spacing between optical carriers is presented, showing that these errors translate in a residual sidelobe level dependent on the statistics of the random errors. An expression of the residual sidelobe level is derived. Finally, experimental results showing a good agreement with theory are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Multifrequency Waveguide Orthomode Transducer

    Page(s): 2604 - 2609
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    This paper presents the design and development of a multifrequency probe-coupled orthomode transducer (OMT) using a circular waveguide as the primary waveguide and a rectangular waveguide as the secondary waveguide. Design is presented for a common OMT operating at 6.6, 10.65, 18, and 21 GHz using four cascaded circular waveguide sections with different cross-sectional dimensions. An innovative design technique is used to minimize the inter-port coupling and to maximize the power in the dominant mode to get the required radiation performance at all the frequency bands using a common radiating aperture. The simulated and measured parameters of the OMT and the horn fed by this OMT have been presented. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of Gyrotron Phase-Correcting Mirrors Using Irradiance Moments

    Page(s): 2610 - 2615
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    A new approach using the moments of field amplitudes has been applied for phase-correcting mirror synthesis of a 110-GHz gyrotron internal mode converter. The synthesized mirrors have smooth profiles in contrast to the mirrors synthesized using the previously employed iteration method. The design has been checked using a physical optics propagation code with the result of a Gaussian output amplitude at the gyrotron window position. View full abstract»

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  • Lumped-Element Quadrature Power Splitters Using Mixed Right/Left-Handed Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 2616 - 2621
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design of lumped quadrature power splitters (LQPSs) based on unit cells of right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) synthetic transmission lines (TLs). The LQPSs include a lumped Wilkinson splitter, with phase-adjusting RH/LH TLs at the outputs. Two topologies, considered to be advantageous with regards to size and electric characteristics, are studied in detail. For these two, closed-form design equations are derived and the performances are analyzed by circuit simulations. The theory and simulation results are experimentally validated by monolithic-microwave integrated-circuit prototypes designed for a center frequency of 2.5 GHz. Both prototypes have performance that agree well with theory and design simulations. Within the frequency range of 2–3 GHz, the maximum amplitude and phase errors are less than 0.3 dB and 3$^circ$, respectively. All reflections and the isolation are better than$-$10 dB. The effective areas of the two prototypes are 900$, times,$700$mu$m$^2$and 720$, times,$520$mu$m$^2$, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric Slab Rotman Lens for Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Page(s): 2622 - 2627
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    A new form of a Rotman lens is proposed for microwave/millimeter-wave applications such as a collision-avoidance radar. The proposed lens can be described as a dielectric slab fed by slot lines. The new form is expected to show lower loss and lower mutual coupling than the conventional Rotman lenses fabricated with conducting plates at millimeter-wave frequency. Taking the field distribution inside the dielectric slab into account, the$ TE_0$mode was chosen to excite the dielectric slab lens. The dielectric Rotman lens consists of a dielectric slab, tapered slot structure, and the transitions between the antipodal slots and microstrip lines for subminiature A connectors. The conventional design equations have been modified for use in designing the dielectric slab Rotman lens with a high dielectric material. A prototype was implemented with nine beam ports and nine array ports. Measurements from 10 to 20 GHz show that mutual coupling can be lowered at higher frequency. The obtained efficiency of the dielectric slab lens system is approximately 30%. The efficiency of the lens is comparable to that of the conducting plate lenses even though there is a spillover loss from the dielectric slab. View full abstract»

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  • Full-Wave Design of H -Plane Contiguous Manifold Output Multiplexers Using the Fictitious Reactive Load Concept

    Page(s): 2628 - 2632
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new procedure for the design of contiguous band manifold output multiplexers in$H$-plane configuration is presented. Such a configuration eliminates the slots between the T-junctions and the filters allowing high power handling, as well as dramatically reducing the risk of multipactor. This paper pursues the division of the design into tasks with low computational effort. The approach comprises: 1) the singly terminated synthesis of the channel filters and their corresponding full-wave responses; 2) the manifold design using fictitious reactive loads simulating the phase response of every channel out of its corresponding band; and 3) the final full-wave optimization of the whole structure using the simulated-annealing method. In order to validate the above procedure, a five-channel$Ku$-band multiplexer has been designed, manufactured, and measured. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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Jenshan Lin
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