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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Change in the editorial board

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1377
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Editorial

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1378
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  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1379 - 1380
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  • Color filters and processing alternatives for one-chip cameras

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1381 - 1389
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (22)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB)  

    Color images can be obtained from a single solid-state sensor by covering the photosites with a repetitive pattern of color filters. This paper reviews the major issues in selecting appropriate filter patterns and compares different one-chip camera approaches. The processing used to decode the color signals and form acomposite television signal is discussed. The tradeoffs between using primary or complementary filters are considered. Checkerboard geometries are shown to be superior to stripe geometries, and the advantages of horizontally staggered sampling are explained. The constraints imposed by the sensor architecture and by the need for interlaced readout are examined. View full abstract»

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  • A new class of mosaic color encoding patterns for single-chip cameras

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1390 - 1395
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1144 KB)  

    A simple method for generating an infinite number of different mosaic color-encoding patterns by variation of a few parameters is described, In a particular limit they approach a special type of random color mosaic. A universal decoding scheme suitable for computer optimization has been developed for evaluating these patterns. Optimal patterns for use with frame-transfer CCD's are discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Single-chip color camera using a frame-transfer CCD

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1396 - 1401
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)  

    The feasibility of a color-encoding scheme based upon a symmetric shift pattern with a frame-transfer CCD has been demonstrated. The color mosaic filters were fabricated by etching uniform filter blanks, and single-chip color imagers were produced by applying these filters to commercially available b/w CCD's. Two different demultiplexing schemes were evaluated experimentally, and a prototype camera with excellent low-light-level performance was demonstrated; for surveillance and consumer applications, usable pictures with good color separation were obtained at light levels below 3 lx. View full abstract»

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  • New field integration frequency interleaving color television pickup system for single-chip CCD camera

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1402 - 1406
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)  

    A new field integration frequency interleaving color-television pickup system has been developed for a single-chip CCD color video camera. This system uses anew color filter array, comprising a plurality of unit filter arrays, each unit consisting of 2 × 4 filter elements of yellow, cyan, and green color. High color fidelity and high-resolution color pictures without frame integration lag were obtained using only a ½-inch interline transfer CCD having 500 × 400 picture elements. View full abstract»

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  • Vertical smear noise model for MOS-type color imager

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1407 - 1410
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    The smear noise in an MOS imager was analyzed based on the three types of generation mechanisms: capacitive coupling, carrier diffusion, and light leakage. The measured smear performance was explained by these analyses. The results lead to the conclusion that the main cause of smear in an MOS imager is due to the component of light leakage. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and measurement of pattern noise in color-filter arrays for image sensors

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1411 - 1416
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    Pattern-noise measurements on a color-filter array (CFA) for an image sensor are valuable for quantifying the pixel-to-pixel transmittance uniformity important for good image quality. The pattern noise, however, changes with test conditions and is not an intrinsic array property. We develop here a relationship between the pattern noise and the fluctuations in density parameters that produce it. Determining these fundamental parameters makes clear the source of the noise and permits calculation of the filter-array performance for any conditions of interest. The analysis shows how the filter-array spectral shapes influence the pattern noise and how it can be reduced. The pattern noise of CFA's of the dyed photopolymer type is reported. Monochromatic measurements, using microdensitometry and an image sensor with an RGBG striped array, confirm a predicted increase in pattern noise with dye density. Fitting the data to the model yields fluctuations in dye coverage of 0.2-0.4 percent, depending on the dye. For a frame-transfer CCD in white light (5500 K) this corresponds to pattern noise of 0.4 percent or less. Power spectra show that these variations in dye concentration occur largely over sensor dimensions, not pixel spacings. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity distribution measurement of sensor element for the solid-state imager

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1417 - 1420
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)  

    A new method for measuring the sensitivity distribution of the picture element of the solid-state imager was proposed. The method can display the distribution on an oscilloscope, and high accuracy is attained by the optical system using a narrow-slit pattern and a high resolution projection lens. Theoretical analysis on the measurement error was also performed. The developed method will be an important tool for the precise evaluation of the resolution characteristics of the solid-state imager. View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of a high-resolution image sensor for color TV applications

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1421 - 1429
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1728 KB)  

    This article describes the design and development leading to the fabrication of a high-performance frame-transfer CCD image sensor which can be used in a wide variety of consumer imaging applications, based on file NTSC color TV standard. The sensor is built using the virtual-phase CCD technology and has 488 lines and 780 pixels per line. The antiblooming structure incorporated in the device uses an electron-hole recombination principle, and the sensor is suitable for attachment of a separate striped color filter. Device processing and design considerations derived from the two-dimensional simulations of potential profiles are discussed together with other important parameters such as dynamic range, resolution, charge transfer efficiency, reduction of hot-hole effects, and clocking requirements. Some details of the cell layouts in various regions of the device are also briefly described. The overall sensor performance and application potential are demonstrated by showing the image reproductions of several test charts. View full abstract»

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  • A frame-transfer CCD color imager with vertical antiblooming

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1430 - 1438
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1560 KB)  

    A high-density 604 (H)× 576 (V) frame-transfer CCD color image sensor is realized with a pixel dimension of 10.0 (H) × 15.6 (V) µm2, an image diagonal of 7.5 mm, and a total chip area of 66 mm2. On-chip color filters and the use of a triple read-out register result in separate Cy, G, and Ye output signals. The imager is an n-p-n buried-channel CCD which can handle 125 times overexposure with vertical antiblooming. For the calculation of a suitable dopant distribution in the image, storage, and output sections, a four-step procedure has been developed. This procedure has proved to be successful and is much faster than an approach based exclusively on two-dimensional potential calculations. View full abstract»

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  • A 360 000-pixel charge-coupled color-image sensor for imaging photographic negative

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1439 - 1445
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB)  

    A 360 000-pixel color-image sensor for imaging photographic negatives is described. The charge-coupled image sensor consists of a 740 (H) × 242 (V) × 2 image area and dual horizontal output registers. The design, spectral response, charge capacity, noise, and image quality of the sensor are discussed. The sensor achieves a charge capacity of 1 × 106electrons per pixel and a noise of 200 rms electrons per pixel, for a dynamic range of 70 dB. Color sensitivity is obtained by an organic color-filter array fabricated on the sensor. View full abstract»

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  • A very small "Super-8" format CCD imager for single-chip color camera

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1446 - 1450
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    A "Super-8" format CCD single-chip color imager has been developed. The imager maintains high performance comparable to the conventional ⅔-in image sensors. This has been realized by using low noise and wide dynamic range designs, and monolithic complementary color filter. View full abstract»

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  • High-resolution CCD image sensors with reduced smear

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1451 - 1456
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    Two types of interline transfer CCD image sensors with reduced smear signal were developed, one for a 525-line TV system (EIA) and one for a 625-line system (CCIR). An MOS diode is employed as a sensing element to realize negligibly small lag compared with that of a junction diode. The EIA and CCIR version have effective number of pixels of 510 × 492 and 500 × 582, respectively. Smear is reduced down to -92 dB by fabricating the vertical shift register on the p-well. In spite of the shrunken element area, the blue sensitivity similar to that for a conventional 384 × 491 CCD imager [1] is obtained by optimization of the film thickness on the diode. Resolution as high as 330 TV lines in color is also attained. View full abstract»

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  • A CCD image sensor with 768 × 490 pixels

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1457 - 1461
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    A ⅔-in 768(H) × 490(V) element interline CCD image sensor has been successfully developed. The device adopts a vertical overflow drain principle, a buried,channel amplifier, three-level polysilicon technology, and 1.5-µm-rule fine-pattern process. The device operates with an NTSC format. The 560 TV lines limiting resolution is obtained in the horizontal direction. No significant loss in transfer efficiency is observed in the horizontal register, even at the 14.32 MHz clock rate. Optimal photosensitivity spectrum response is obtained and the peak response appears at 550 nm. The noise equivalent signal is reduced to 48 electrons, using correlated double sampling. Then, the dynamic range reaches 68 dB. The correlated double sampling, combined with buried-channel amplifier technology is found to be also effective for great reduction in horizontal line noise. View full abstract»

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  • Design consideration of p-well structure for solid-state image sensors

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1462 - 1468
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB)  

    The p-well structure has been widely used in solid-state image sensors to suppress blooming and smear. This structure, however, suffers from saturation-level shading, flicker, and saturation-level fixed pattern noise. This work clarifies that the p-well potential sway, due to transfer pulse feeding, brings about the shading and the flicker, and the impurity fluctuation in the silicon substrate causes the saturation-level fixed pattern noise. To eliminate the problems, new structures and new driving modes are proposed. As a result, the shading is reduced to a practically negligible level, and the flicker and the fixed pattern noise are completely suppressed. View full abstract»

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  • Operation and characteristics of a CLIP imager

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1469 - 1474
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)  

    An interline-transfer CCD imager with 580 × 475 elements for the ⅔-in optical format is described. The imager employs the clock-line-isolated photodiode (CLIP) structure that eliminates the field oxide and the field ion implant by exploiting the clock lines which so far have been placed only to carry the driving pulses. In spite of the elimination of such channel stops, it can operate not only in a frame integration mode but in a field integration mode. A saturation current of 170 nA and a horizontal resolution of 340 TV lines were obtained in both the modes. The vertical resolution was 570 TV lines in the frame-integration mode, while over 400 TV lines in the field-integration mode. View full abstract»

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  • Heat- and light-resistance characteristics of an MOS imaging device with monolithically integrated color filters

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1475 - 1479
    Cited by:  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    Reliability of an MOS-type color imaging device, fabricated by on-wafer color filter processing, was evaluated. The tests include impurity analysis, heat and light resistance, spectral response variation, and other characteristics. All the results obtained show that on-wafer processing can be applied to the production of the imager and assures a long operational life. View full abstract»

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  • Si substrate structure for solid-state color imagers

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1480 - 1483
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB)  

    Si substrate structure for a low-noise MOS-type color imager was proposed. Photodiodes fabricated in a p-well suppress noise due to spurious red and infrared sensitivity, blooming, and smear, Furthermore, defects are diminished by optimized three-step intrinsic gettering and a new plural ion implantation method. Defects include those due to the defect nuclei inherent in a Si substrate grown by the Czochralski method and those due to high-dose boron-ion implantation for a low-resistance well layer. View full abstract»

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  • Design consideration and performance of a new MOS imaging device

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1484 - 1489
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    The design considerations and performance of a new MOS imaging device with novel random noise suppression (RANS) circuits are described. This device consists of 492 × 388 photodiodes, a vertical shift register, and a horizontal BCD register integrated in p-wells. The RANS circuits accelerate the charge-transfer speed from vertical signal lines to a horizontal BCD register with 98-percent efficiency. They also decrease the effective signal line capacitance, so noise due to the transfer MOS switches is suppressed to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio of 46 dB at a standard scene illumination of 180 lx (F1.4) with no image lag and blooming. Sweep out operation for the smear charge accumulated in the vertical signal lines realizes a sufficient signal-to-smear ratio of 69 dB at 1/10 vertical scene illumination. View full abstract»

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  • A CPD image sensor with buried-channel priming couplers

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1490 - 1494
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    A 398 (H) × 496 (V)-element CPD image sensor with buried-channel charge-priming-transfer (CPT) couplers for ⅔-in format has been developed. The buried-channel CPT structures by use of the external bias change has been adopted based on the theoretical consideration to suppress random noise and to improve vertical transfer efficiency for small signal charge. The vertical transfer efficiency even for small signal charges was improved up from 70 to 95 percent or more by use of the external bias charge in addition to priming charge. It was found that total random noise in the new image sensor corresponds to ∼ 400 electrons, which is about half of that in a conventional CPD image sensor with surface-channel CPT couplers. View full abstract»

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  • A 1/2-in. CCD image sensor overlaid with a hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1495 - 1498
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    A half-inch size CCD image sensor overlaid with a hydrogen-erated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as a photodetector has been developed. The array consists of 506V × 404H picture elements. The glow-discharged α-Si:H film has high quantum efficiency of 0.75-0.8 in the visible wavelength range and low dark current of 0.2 nA/cm2and is formed on the CCD scanner with vertical overflow drain. This CCD image sensor has a sensitivity of 0.014 µA/lx (3200 K)and a S/N ratio of 73 and 68 dB for fixed-pattern noise and random noise, respectively. Smearing signal is suppressed to below 5 percent at incident light intensity of 1000 times saturation exposure. The blooming and highlight lag are completely suppressed by the vertical overflow drain structure. View full abstract»

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  • A high-resolution staggered-configuration CCD imager overlaid with an a-Si:H photoconductive layer

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1499 - 1504
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (960 KB)  

    A high resolution "two-level" CCD imager was overlaid with an a-SiC: H (intrinsic)/a-Si: H (intrinsic)/a-SiC:H (p-type) photo-conversion layer. This device has 400 (horizontal:H) × 500 (vertical:V) pixels, in which 385(H) × 490(V) pixels are effective. The image area is 8.8 mm (H) × 6.5 mm (V), which corresponds to ⅔-in optical format. The high-resolution feature has been realized by staggered configuration pixel layout and novel interline transfer CCD scanner, which can read out two horizontal rows simultaneously. A horizontal limiting resolution of 500 TV lines, which is twice the conventional horizontal 400-pixel-number CCD, has been obtained without increasing the pixel packing density. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Acting Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Paul K.-L. Yu

Dept. ECE
University of California San Diego