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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 1980

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  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Foreword

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1855 - 1856
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  • Josephson-logic devices and circuits

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1857 - 1869
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (10)
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    A review of the recent advances in Josephson logic devices and circuits is presented. The Josephson junction is almost an ideal digital switch exhibiting very abrupt threshold, ultra-high switching speeds (∼10 ps), and very low power dissipation (∼1 µW). Logic devices based on the Josephson junctions combine Josephson junctions with other circuit elements to provide isolation to the input signals as well as to provide higher gain than a single junction. These devices can be classified into two groups, the first group uses magnetically coupled SQUID's (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) to provide isolation, whereas the second group of circuits utilizes the high-resistance state of a Josephson junction in series with the signal input to provide isolation. Logic circuits based on these two isolation Schemes are compared. In both schemes, higher gains are achieved by the use of either multiple Josephson junctions in parallel or a buffer stage. The buffer stage is a Current-Injection Device (CID) which provides gain and the AND function between the two signal currents injected into it. Some of the unique features of Josephson logic circuits such as terminated superconducting transmission lines, ac power supply, Timed Inverter, and Latch circuits are also examined. The dynamic behavior of the Josephson junctions is modeled by very simple equivalent circuits. The computer simulations based on these models are compared with experiments and found to be in excellent agreement. A family of experimental logic circuits has been designed and experimentally tested using 2.5-µm minimum feature size. These circuits have fully loaded logic delays of about 40 ps/gate and power dissipation of about 4 µW/gate. The gate delays and power-delay products are compared with leading semiconductor technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Memory-cell design in Josephson technology

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1870 - 1882
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
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    Operating principles and criteria for the design of Josephson memory cells are reviewed and the evolution of cell design is retraced to highlight the various constraints imposed by the requirement for high speed, density, large Operating margins, and ease of auxiliary memory circuit design. Two attractive cells have emerged so far. One is a nondestructive readout (NDRO) ring cell for a subnanosecond cache memory chip; the other a destructive readout (DRO) single-flux quantum cell for main memory applications. Both are presently being used as the basis for ongoing design work. View full abstract»

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  • Margins of a 16-ps/bit interferometer shift register

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1882 - 1887
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    Static and dynamic properties of an interferometer with five equal Josephson junctions are investigated as a single-flux quanta shift-register model. A flux quantum is stored in any loop without a bias current or magnetic field. A flux quantum is shifted from one interferometer loop to the adjacent one by applying a magnetic-field control pulse only to one in terferometer loop at a time. Shift current margins determined statically and dynamically are larger than about ±30 percent; the write current margins are ±25 percent. Within these tolerances, and for a maximum Josephson current density of 10 kA/ cm2, delays of 16 ps/bit, including shift and write, have been simulated. View full abstract»

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  • Analog-to-digital conversion with unlatched SQUID's

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1887 - 1896
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (3)
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    Digital Josephson circuits that do not latch into the voltage state provide an opportunity for high-speed serial processing. These fast logic gates must ultimately generate and record small fast pulses generated by single fluxoid events. This is demonstrated in a concept for a high-speed analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. Low β-value unlatched SQUID's are used throughout for ultimate speed, sensitivity, and simplicity. The analog signal is quantized by a single-junction SQUID and converted into a pulse train resulting from fluxoid transitions. These are counted in a chain of bistable two-junction SQUID's which successively scale the pulse train by a factor 2. These SQUID's perform both logic and memory functions at the single fluxoid level. The bit count stored in the array is gated out each sampling interval to provide the digitized signal. The performance of this device has been simulated and criteria established for the unlatched SQUID design. These include dimensionality, impedance, damping, intra- and inter-SQUID delays and β factor. Large analog dynamic range is available with the high intrinsic linearity of the SQUID quantizer and a long chain of scalers. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in SQUID magnetometers

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1896 - 1908
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (19)
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    The operation and noise limitations of de and RF SQUID's are outlined, and recent advances in their sensitivity are discussed. A model of the dc SQUID predicts an energy noise level per hertz referred to the SQUID of approximately 8 k_{B}TL/R \approx 8 k_{B}T(\pi LC)^{1/2} , where L, R, and C are the SQUID inductance and the shunt resistance and capacitance of each Josephson junction. Some examples of dc SQUID's are described to show that their performance is generally in reasonable agreement with the model. The noise energy has improved from about 2 × 10-30J. Hz-1for a device with L = 1 nH and a tunnel junction area of 104µm2to about 2 × 10-33J . Hz-1for a device with L = 0.1 nH and a microbridge resistance of 40 Ω. Further improvements axe expected in the near future. The model of the RF SQUID predicts a noise energy per hertz referred to the SQUID of [(\pi\alpha ^{2}\phi\min{0}\max {2}/2L) + 2 \pi \alpha k_{B}T\min{a}\max {(eff)}]/\omega _{RF} , where α is the intrinsic width of the distribution of flux transitions, T\min{a}\max {(eff)} is an effective amplifier noise temperature, and ωRFis the pump frequency. With one exception, the performance of the seven types of RF SQUID listed is in reasonable agreement with the model. The noise energy ranges from about 1.5 × 10-29J . Hz-1for a 20-MHz toroidal SQUID to 3.5 × 10-31J . Hz-1for 9-GHz reentrant toroidal SQUID; a somewhat better sensitivity has been reported for a 430-MHz device, apparently in conflict with the theory. In both dc and RF SQUID's, 1/ f noise ( f is frequency) is likely to extend to higher frequencies as the white-noise level is decreased. View full abstract»

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  • Superconductive devices for millimeter wave detection, mixing, and amplification

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1909 - 1920
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    Single-particle (quasi-particle) tunneling through an insulating barrier between two superconductors or between a superconductor and a normal conductor is being used to make very-low-noise detectors and mixers for millimeter wavelengths. The nonlinearity of the I-V curve obtained from tunneling between two superconductors can be so strong that classical theory breaks down and photon-assisted tunneling theory must be used to understand device performance. Quantum theory predicts that a quasi-particle tunnel junction can be operated as a microwave photon detector with quantum efficiency close to unity or as a heterodyne mixer with conversion gain and with mixer noise temperature comparable with the quantum noise limit T_{M} =\bar{h}\omega /k . Both of these predictions have been experimentally realized at 36 GHz using superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions. It appears probable that these quasi-particle detectors and mixers will supercede the corresponding Josephson-effect devices at millimeter wavelengths. View full abstract»

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  • Josephson-junction mixer analysis using frequency-conversion and noise-correlation matrices

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1921 - 1928
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    A complete characterization and optimization have been carried out for an externally pumped Josephson-junction mixer. A noise-driven nonlinear pump equation is first solved in the time domain on a computer in order to obtain a conversion matrix and noise-correlation matrix for the small-signal current and voltage. A set of linear circuit equations formed by the matrices is then solved in the frequency domain for the mixer noise temperature and conversion efficiency. Finally, optimization is made with respect to circuit, bias, and junction parameters to find the ultimate theoretical performance. View full abstract»

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  • Externally pumped millimeter-wave Josephson-junction parametric amplifier

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1928 - 1934
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    A unified theory of the singly and doubly degenerate Josephson-junction parametric amplifier is presented. Experiments with single junctions on both amplifier modes at frequencies 10, 35, and 70 GHz are discussed. Low-noise temperature (∼100 K, single sideband (SSB)) and reasonable gain (∼8 dB) were obtained at 35 GHz in the singly degenerate mode. On the basis of the theory and experiments, a general procedure for optimizing junction parameters is discussed and illustrated by the specific design of a 100-GHz amplifier. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave theory of Josephson oscillators

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1934 - 1944
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    In this paper, we deal with a model of a specific Josephson microwave circuit, that of a Josephson oscillator, and show that the RF behavior of a real Josephson oscillator may be predicted from a knowledge of the experimentally measured microwave circuit parameters, the junction critical current, and junction shunt resistance. Based on observations made with an electronic analog, we present an approximate analytical method for calculating the junction impedance or, rigorously speaking, the appropriate single sinusoidal-input describing function. Emphasis is placed on the proper use of the impedance, for example, in calculating the operating point and the expected output power of the oscillator. The circuit model used is that of a junction, described by the resistively shunted junction model, coupled to a series LCR resonance. Further confirmation of the validity of the circuit-theory approach is obtained by using the injection-locked oscillator theory of Kurokawa to predict the in-lock amplitude variation of a Josephson oscillator exposed to a weak synchronizing signal. Experimental data describing the amplitude variation and output power of an oscillator consisting of a point-contact junction placed in a 9.72-GHz coaxial resonator are presented. The data demonstrate the reasonable agreement obtained when the measured critical current and shunt resistance are used with the analytical expression for the junction impedance and the circuit theory to predict the RF behavior of a Josephson oscillator. Circuits more complex than our specific example may be handled by means of describing function techniques recently developed in the area of nonlinear solid-state microwave devices. View full abstract»

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  • Picosecond applications of Josephson junctions

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1945 - 1965
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    The behavior of simple superconducting circuits in the picosecond regime is described in a comprehensive way, with primary emphasis being given to the step function and pulse responses of these circuits. Topics receiving detailed discussion include Josephson-junction modeling with both the microscopic and shunted-junction models. Limitations of the shunted-junction model are explored by comparing it with experimental results and with the microscopic model. An approximate evaluation is given of the important dynamical properties of junctions made with the dominant fabrication technology (Pb-alloy systems), as a function of tunneling barrier thickness. Rounding out the device aspects of the discussion, we describe in detail the properties of superconducting microstrip transmission lines, with an emphasis on their high-speed behavior. Turning to simple circuits we review experimental results on the measurement of picosecond regime transient signals. The concept of turn-on delay is analyzed anew, providing simplified and extended results. Details of concepts for pulse height and pulsewidth measurements are explored, leading to the conclusion that the time resolution of superconducting circuits is limited to approximately the period of one plasma oscillation. With present Pb-alloy fabrication technology this limit is 2 ps. View full abstract»

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  • Minimum-width control-current pulse for Josephson logic gates

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1965 - 1973
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    For a given level of overdrive, there exists a minimum-width control-current pulse that must be applied to switch a Josephson logic gate. Determination of this minimum pulsewidth is useful in setting limits on the speed of various Josephson circuit configurations and also in finding the narrowest pulse that a Josephson-junction gate can detect when it is employed as a pulse detector. The minimum control-current pulsewidth is a strong function of the overdrive factor of the control current. It scales as (C/I_{m})^{1/2} , where Imis the junction critical current, and C is the capacitance, and is on the order of 10 ps for Josephson quantum interferometers in 5-µm technology. Computer simulations have been done to find the dependence of minimum control-current pulsewidths on overdrive magnitude for a single-junction gate and for two- and three-junction interferometers. Analytic expressions of the minimum control-current pulsewidth that are in good agreement with simulations have been obtained for these three types of Josephson logic gates. View full abstract»

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  • Vortex motion modulated by a self field in a large Josephson junction

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1973 - 1978
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Motion of a vortex array (flux flow) in a large Josephson junction is studied both theoretically and experimentally. An expression for dc current-voltage ( I-V ) characteristics of a large junction in a flux-flow state, which is caused by the external dc magnetic field and current, is obtained by taking account of the self field due to the dc current through the junction as well as the large loss due to the surface resistance of junction electrodes. It is shown that the spacially uniform flux flow is crucially modulated by the self field in a high-velocity region of the flux flow. As a result, the magnitude of the current peak in I-V curves decreases significantly and saturates with respect to both the length and the quality factor of the junction, which is confirmed by experiments with large Pb-PbxOy-Pb junctions. View full abstract»

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  • High-reliability Pb-alloy Josephson junctions for integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1979 - 1987
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    The process developed and recently used at IBM for fabricating experimental Pb-alloy Josephson tunnel-junction devices, and the factors which influence the stability of such devices during repeated cycling between 300 and 4.2 K are reviewed. A new, fine-grained Pb0.84In0.12Au0.04alloy base electrode material has been developed that has excellent thermal cycling stability. In an experiment carried out to evaluate the cyclability of devices prepared with this material, excellent results were obtained: the cyclability of large-area junctions was improved by ∼100× compared to that of similar junctions prepared with the recently used, larger-grained Pb0.84In0.12Au0.04base electrodes. In the best cases, populations of 2600 large junctions and 2350 interferometers were found to withstand 400 and 700 thermal cycles to 4.2 K, respectively, before the first failures were observed. These results indicate that with the use of fine-grained electrodes, Pb-alloy Josephson devices have good potential for meeting the cycling requirements of computer systems. View full abstract»

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  • An ellipsometric study of the RF sputter oxidation of lead—indium alloys

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1988 - 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    A simple ellipsometer and an inexpensive 13-MHz sputteretch assembly have been used with a conventional evaporator to make in, situ measurements of the growth of thin oxide layers (≤ 10 nm) on pure lead and pure indium films, and also on a series of alloy films containing up to 46 at % In. Our lead results agree with results of earlier workers. For pure indium, we find that equilibrium oxide thicknesses are typically smaller than for lead, and that equilibrium time constants are longer; moreover, increased RF power leads to increased, rather than decreased, oxide thicknesses. Alloy films show an intermediate behavior in general, but in the range 26-36 at % In the oxide thickness rises to a maximum before falling to its equilibrium value. We agree with results obtained by other methods of oxidation and analysis which show the oxide to have a disproportionately large In2O3content, and, in particular, that there is 100 percent In2O3for all alloys containing more than 35 at % In. We show that the difference between PbO and In2O3as regards the dependence of oxide thickness on RF power can be accounted for by slightly modifying the oxide growth model of Greiner, to make the diffusion length of oxygen ions very slightly dependent on RF voltage. To account for the intermediate behavior, we introduce a simple coupled Greiner model involving separate columns of two oxides, in which oxygen ions can interdiffuse between columns as they find their way to the alloy surface. As the parameters of the model are changed, the growth behavior changes from a simple monotonic growth of thickness with time, through a behavior in which there is an intermediate maximum, and then back to a monotonic growth behavior again. View full abstract»

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  • Niobium oxide-barrier tunnel junction

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 1998 - 2008
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (6)
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    We describe the fabrication and electrical characteristics of niobium oxide-barrier tunnel junctions having counterelectrodes of either Pb alloys or Nb. The conditions necessary to obtain good tunnel barriers are discussed in detail. These include RF plasma etching of the Nb film before oxidation, the oxidation step itself and, in the case of Nb counterelectrodes, exposure of the oxide to an RF plasma of N2containing traces of hydrocarbon. The single-particle current of Nb/Pb junctions at 4.2 K is close to the value calculated from BCS theory in the voltage range 0 < V < 2 mV. With Nb counterelectrodes the subgap current is higher, but in the best examples it is comparable to Nb/Pb at voltages below 1 mV. Finally, it is shown that the junctions exhibit outstanding stability during storage, annealing, and thermal cycling between room temperature and 4.2 K. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced superconducting materials for electronic applications

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 2009 - 2015
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    Recent progress in the fabrication of tunnel junction with the high-Tctransition-metal compound and transition-metal alloy superconductors is reviewed. The potential advantages of these materials for practical applications are described and their special problems assessed. It is found that, based on work to date, Nb3Sn may have practical device potential. View full abstract»

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  • Josephson devices coupled by semiconductor links

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 2016 - 2026
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
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    A review of the field of semiconductor-barrier Josephson junctions is presented. In recent years, several materials which had not previously been used as Josephson barriers have been investigated. The use of both single-crystal and novel amorphous materials has confirmed that relatively thick semiconductor barriers can support large Josephson current densities. Although the fabrication technology of these and older semiconductor-barrier devices is not as advanced as that of some oxide barriers, both digital and sensor applications of semiconductor barriers have been described. Advantages and problems of these devices in practical applications are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A new Josephson junction with a very short barrier length and a very low capacitance

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 2027 - 2029
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
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    Josephson junctions of a new geometrical structure were fabricated and have turned out to be of good quality. They are almost-planar niobium-based bismuth-barrier Josephson junctions which have a barrier length of 75 nm and a capacitance of 0.04 pF. The amplitudes of the zero-voltage current and microwave-induced constant-voltage current steps periodically vanish several times as the power of the applied microwave radiation increases monotonically. The junctions suffer from no degradation due to interdiffusion of metals at room temperature. They are very resistant to unavoidable electrical pulses. View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasmall superconducting tunnel junctions

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 2030 - 2031
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Extremely small-area superconducting Josephson junctions have been fabricated using a newly developed electron-beam lithography technique. The junctions are composed of Pb-In base electrodes and Pb counter electrodes. Areas of the junctions range from 1 to 3 × 10-10cm2. The estimated capacitance is ∼10-15F. Junctions have been produced with resistances of ∼100 Ω which have ∼20-percent hysteresis in the critical current at a temperature of 4 K. View full abstract»

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  • The maximum zero-voltage tunnel current and its fluctuations for lead—lead oxide—lead Josephson tunnel junctions

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 2031 - 2033
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The maximum zero-voltage tunnel current I0and its fluctuations were measured for Josephson tunnel junctions as a function of the normal state resistance R in the range of 50-300 Ω at T = 4.2 K. The junctions, based on pure lead, have areas of about 100 µm2, corresponding to capacitances C of about 3 pF. The results obtained from a simple noise model, describing the junction in the zero-voltage state as a parallel resonant circuit with parameters C, L \sim \Phi _{0}/2\pi I_{0S} , and R , are in good agreement with the experiments. It is shown that the deviation of the experimental results for high-resistivity junctions from the theory of Ambegaokar and Baratoff is due to thermal noise currents originating in the normal state resistance R . View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of Nb variable-thickness- and point-contact-type bridges by means of microfabrication technology

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 2033 - 2035
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Niobium-based techniques for fabrication of two different types of metal-coupled Josephson junctions are presented. Electrical characteristics are reported and it is noted that the device resistance is an order of magnitude or more higher than would be expected for both devices. View full abstract»

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  • Proposal of single-flux-quantum logic device

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 2035 - 2036
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A new type of logic gate that can be designed using a nonhysteretic Josephson weak link is proposed. The basic component of the proposed device is a one-junction interferometer, and a logic state is represented by either a zero or a single-flux-quantum. In contrast to the "Parametric Quantron," this device is designed to operate without a three-phase clock and the dependence of the junction critical current on magnetic field is not used. The switching behavior of the device was simulated by computer and an analytical expression for the switching delay has been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Acting Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Paul K.-L. Yu

Dept. ECE
University of California San Diego