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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Design and manufacture of a microwave low-noise transistor having beam-leads

    Page(s): 73 - 79
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    The design and fabrication technology of a bipolar microwave low-noise transistor with a beam-lead structure is described. The process which we present here has the following advantages: it is simple, it results in a satisfactory device reliability (Ti-Pt-Au metallizations and final passivation by a Si3N4layer), and it can be applied to the finest geometrical structures produced at the present time. The comparison between the results obtained for transistors in the beam-lead configuration and those obtained for packaged transistors clearly shows that microwave transistors can be fabricated with beam-leads with no degradation of the high-frequency performance. For a beam-lead interdigitated structure having four emitters 1.5 µm in width, the performance at 2 GHz was typically: G_{pmax} = 11.2 dB N.F._{\min} = 3.30 dB G_{p}(N.F._{\min}) = 9.2 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Filamentary thermal instabilities in IMPATT diodes

    Page(s): 80 - 86
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    The unstable growth of thermal filaments in a diode with a fixed bias current is calculated on the basis of a model which includes thermal conduction in the plane of the junction, as well as perpendicular to it. The growth time of the instability is shown to be longer than the thermal relaxation time by the ratio of the space-charge resistance to the differential negative resistance. Analytic results are obtained for small temperature disturbances which are initially Guassian functions of the transverse coordinate. If A is the area of the junction, the negative differential resistance must be of the order of the space-charge resistance multiplied by 16W22A (where W is the thickness of the active region) or the filament can dissipate itself by diffusing outward and spreading over the entire junction area before the temperature rise becomes very large. The voltage fluctuation relaxes to its equilibrium value in the thermal relaxation time, which is independent of the differential resistance. Pulsing a diode will tend to prevent an instability from becoming destructive, provided the off-time is long enough to cool the heated filaments which develop during the pulse transmission. View full abstract»

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  • A study of the effect of peripheral injection in bipolar transistors using simplified computer analysis

    Page(s): 86 - 91
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    The effect of injection from the emitter periphery into the base of a double diffused bipolar transistor is studied using the variable boundary regional approach and representing minority carrier current as the sum of radial currents using the cylindrical approximation. The results are combined with those for the active base region (i.e. under the emitter). It is shown that improvement in the prediction of hFEand fTversus Icis obtained by inclusion of the charge and current in the peripheral base region. The method used has the advantage of 1) fast computer time and 2) separation of active and peripheral base region and provides a useful tool to improve the precision when designing devices from fabrication data. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical analysis of nonlinear small-signal distortion in p-n structures

    Page(s): 91 - 98
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    A numerical method is presented to derive the non-linear distortion of small ac signals in one-dimensional semiconducting diodes from the basic physical equations. The nonlinear input-output relations are obtained in terms of Volterra functional series. The application of this method is illustrated by computational results showing the influence of injection level on harmonic distortion and cross-modulation in p-i-n diodes. Computed values of cross-modulation are compared with measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Large- and small-signal channel transit time delays in long-channel MOS transistors

    Page(s): 99 - 107
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    Turn-on and turn-off delay times (intrinsic channel transit times) of long-channel MOST's are studied for both large-and small-signal inputs. By developing large-signal dynamic equations in normalized form it is evident that the normalized channel current and voltage distributions are unique and independent of device parameters and applied voltages. Channel transit time delays for both large and small signal are found to be given by a simple analytical expression containing a constant, undefined for large signal but defined explicitly for small signal. Values for the constant are found for large- signal operation in several modes by computer simulation representing the channel as a series of cascaded CCD elements. Those for small signal are found by representing the channel as an RC transmission line. With the values of the constant determined, the simple analytical expression is shown to accurately predict channel transit time delays regardless of device type, channel length, width, substrate doping, crystal orientation, or effective mobility. It is concluded that the data presented can be used in designing delay lines or low-pass filters employing long-channel devices. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and breakdown voltage for planar devices with a single field limiting ring

    Page(s): 107 - 113
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    The use of one or more floating field limiting rings reduces the adverse effect of junction curvature on the breakdown voltage in planar devices. Although this has been known for some time, there has not been a way of accurately predicting the amount of improvement that can be achieved using field rings. In this paper, a computer algorithm is presented which makes it possible to perform field calculations on devices with floating field rings. In addition, a normalized curve is presented which shows the relative improvement that a single optimally placed field ring has on the breakdown voltage for any planar device. The basis of the construction of this curve is the use of a normalized radius of curvature which is a precise measure of the effect of curvature for any device. The theoretical predictions are compared with experiments for over 640 devices encompassing 16 different field ring locations. Good agreement is achieved between theory and experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Dependence of GaAs power MESFET microwave performance on device and material parameters

    Page(s): 113 - 122
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    The results of recent X-band measurements on GaAs Power FET's are described. These devices are fabricated with a simple planar process and at least 1-W output power at 9 GHz with 4-dB gain has been obtained from more than 25 slices having carrier concentrations in the range 5 to 15 × 1016cm-3. The highest output powers observed to date are 1.0 W at 11 GHz and 3.6 W at 8 GHz with 4-dB gain. Devices have had up to 46-percent power-added efficiency at 8 GHz. The fabrication process is briefly described and the factors contributing to the high output powers reported here are discussed. Some of these factors are epitaxial carrier concentration near 8 × 1016cm-3, good device heatsinking, and low parasitic resistance. The observed dependence of microwave performance on total gate width, gate length, pinchoff voltage, epitaxial doping level, etc., is described. View full abstract»

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  • Triggering mechanisms in triggered vacuum gaps

    Page(s): 122 - 128
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    Experiments were conducted on a vacuum gap with a trigger electrode mounted in one of the main electrodes. Waveforms under various circuit conditions, photographic and visual observations, probe measurements, and various trigger materials were studied to investigate the triggering mechanisms. Different mechanisms are proposed according to the polarity of the remote main electrode. For positive polarity, the trigger arc establishes its own cathode spots, which then supply current to the main discharge, dividing to form new spots as needed. For negative polarity, the plasma produced by the trigger produces a concentration of the main electrode potential difference across a thin sheath adjacent to the surface of the remote main electrode. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical investigation of turn-on conditions in TRAPATT oscillators

    Page(s): 128 - 135
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    A computer simulation of TRAPATT diode-circuit interactions has been used to study high-frequency oscillatory phenomena that are seen experimentally to occur simultaneously with TRAPATT initiation. The simulation combines a solution of the diode internal dynamics using the method of characteristics with a time-domain coaxial-circuit analysis. By determining its dependence on circuit and diode bias conditions, the high-frequency oscillation is shown to be a relaxation, not an IMPATT oscillation. The relaxation oscillation can be tuned by adjusting to TRAPATT bias current to minimize TRAPATT start-up time. A two-step (high-low) bias pulse, or ingenious utilization of ringing in the bias circuit, can also be used to minimize start-up time. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical characterization of vapor-phase epitaxially grown large-area n-AlAs—P-GaAs heterojunctions

    Page(s): 135 - 140
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    The heterojunction formed by n-AlAs grown by vapor-phase chloride transport on commercially obtained View full abstract»

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  • Design criteria for uniform reaction rates in an oxygen plasma

    Page(s): 140 - 146
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    The physical conditions necessary to obtain uniform and reproducible chemical reaction rates in an oxygen plasma are investigated by stripping photoresist from silicon wafers. An oxygen plasma was selected due to its simplicity and the availability of a simple technique for measuring the concentration of atomic oxygen which is the reagent of importance. However, many of the considerations will apply to the design of other plasmas for other chemical reactions. Due to the electrical Skin effect at 13.56 MHz, the atomic oxygen is created near the Walls in a cylindrical reactor. However, at flow rates corresponding to residence times in the range of 1-10 s, diffusion makes the concentration uniform within a few percent except near the walls. Under conditions such that there is no by-product inhibition, the chemical reaction rate is determined bythe atomic oxygen concentration and the temperature of the silicon substrate and the reactor walls. The rate is independent of the conbination of pressure and power used to produce the atomic oxygen concentration. View full abstract»

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  • Low-frequency noise in Cr—SiO2—N-Si tunnel diodes

    Page(s): 146 - 153
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    Low-frequency noise of Cr-SiO2-n-Si tunnel diodes with about 30-Å-thick oxides is investigated as function of bias, frequency, and temperature. Measurements of 1/f noise are explained by a theory employing the two step tunneling model of Sah. Electrons from the Si conduction band are trapped by states at the Si-SiO2interface and then tunnel into bound states of the oxide located close to the interface. The oxide states of density N00can be represented by a frequency dependent parallel admittance exhibiting frequency-dependent thermal noise that modulates the dc current I tunneling through the oxide barrier. This generates flicker noise at the device terminals proportional to I^{2}N_{00} and inversely proportional to frequency f and tunneling area A . The value A = 5 . 10-3A0, determined by fitting theoretical and experimental curves at low frequency, is only a small fraction of the gate area A0, since tunneling preferentially occurs through the thinnest parts of the oxide. The current I also exhibits full shot noise at high frequency and low current. Qualitative agreement between theoretical and measured noise is found over 9 decades. Measurements at low temperature show additional noise of generation-recombination centers at larger frequencies and currents. View full abstract»

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  • The correlation between the static stress distribution and the explosion energy of fused-quartz flashlamps

    Page(s): 153 - 156
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    Experimental data are presented which indicate that the explosion energy of fused-quartz flashlamps is significantly higher for those lamps which have predominately compressive stresses at the surface of the lamp envelope. Techniques for increasing the mechanical strength of a flashlamp are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Approximate formulas for the thermal resistance of IMPATT diodes compared with computer calculations

    Page(s): 156 - 159
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    Two analytical formulas, which allow the thermal resistance to be calculated approximately for layered heat sinks with finite radii, are presented. They are shown to agree closely with finite-difference computer solutions of the steady-state heat equation for typical diode structures. The approximations allow rapid calculations without recourse to a computer. View full abstract»

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  • EPROM high-speed erasing scheme

    Page(s): 159
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    We report a technique for erasing an EPROM using the output from a Cu II laser at 2600 Å. By focusing the laser output on a portion of the chip, reliable erasure of a selected number of memory locations is obtained with an exposure time of approximately 35 ms. With the entire chip illuminated by the unfocused laser output, all memory locations are erased after an exposure time of several seconds. This method affords both high-speed and selective erasure of EPROM memory locations. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication and thermal performance of a novel TRAPATT diode structure

    Page(s): 159 - 163
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    The development of TRAPATT diodes for long-pulse operation (10 to 100 µs), high duty cycle (1 to 15 percent), and wide bandwidth (12 percent), for phase array systems at F band requires new device fabrication and new heat-sinking technology. A novel TRAPATT diode in the form of interconnected long strips having high periphery-to-area ratio (cruciform) has been designed and fabricated. In this paper we described the thermal properties of the cruciform structure diode, which sustains 50-µs pulse width at 5.5-percent duty cycle while delivering 68-W RF power at 5-dB gain and 9-percent added efficiency, in addition to 100-µs pulse width at 4.2-percent duty cycle while delivering 50-W RF power output ast 3.6-dB and 5.5-percent added efficiency, both as narrow-band amplifier. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal summation of Gaussians for ion implantation profile control

    Page(s): 163 - 165
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    A method is described for selecting appropriate ion implantation energies and fluences to synthesize desired impurity profiles in semiconductor device fabrication. An optimization routine utilizing Rosenbrock's algorithm allows computation of a set of implantation parameters which result in close approximation to the preselected distribution. View full abstract»

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  • LSA circuit admittance at fundamental and second harmonic frequencies

    Page(s): 165 - 167
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    Measurements have been made of the circuit admittance at the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies for an LSA relaxation oscillator when tuned to give maximum output at either the fundamental or the second harmonic frequency. View full abstract»

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  • The early voltage of a bipolar transistor

    Page(s): 167 - 168
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    A simple concentration profile is assumed and the Early voltage of a p-n-p transistor is calculated. The base gradient, the current gain, and the collector resistivity appear as parameters in the final equation for the Early voltage. Experimental results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Temperature dependence of the transient behavior of large-area Si-doped GaAs—GaAlAs SH light-emitting diodes

    Page(s): 168 - 170
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    The temperature dependence of the light delay and rise time of Si-doped GaAs-GaAlAs SH junction LED's has been measured in the range from 120 to 350 K. At low temperatures, larger delay times have been found foe small levels of injection current, leading to the assumption that the influences of the charging processes in the depletion layer on the total switching process is enhanced at these temperatures. This effect is evident also from the temperature dependence of the light rise time. View full abstract»

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  • Remarks on transmission characteristics of positive photoresists

    Page(s): 170 - 172
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    The transmission characteristics of positive photoresists in connection with contact photoresist procedure are considered. The use of monochromatic illumination with wavelengths over 400 nm is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Meet Our Editors

Acting Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Paul K.-L. Yu

Dept. ECE
University of California San Diego