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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1973

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • Displays—A pentagon perspective

    Page(s): 921 - 925
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Display-device research and development in Japan

    Page(s): 925 - 933
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    Current work on display devices in Japan is surveyed. Work on plasma display panels includes several methods for producing gray scale on ac-driven bistable panels, a technique for moving the display on an ac-driven panel, and new types of plasma display panels. Development on several types of alphanumeric displays, including both new and older types, is summarized. Work on light-emitting diodes includes new fabrication techniques and new types of devices. The liquid-crystal work described includes addressing techniques, color modulators, and light-addressed light valves. A new cathodochromic display tube, a high-frequency oscilloscope tube, and an electroluminescent display panel are mentioned. View full abstract»

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  • Progress in display-device development in Western Europe

    Page(s): 934 - 940
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    A review of the basic research and industrial development of display devices in Western Europe during the years 1968 to early 1973 will be given. The display types considered are: 1) active displays such as cathode ray tubes, light-emitting diodes, electroluminescence cells, and gas discharge devices, and 2) passive displays such as laser displays, light valves, and ferroelectric and liquid-crystal devices. View full abstract»

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  • Light-controlled light valves

    Page(s): 941 - 953
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    Recent technical approaches to optically addressable, cyclic or erasable, light valves for high resolution projection or direct-view display are reviewed. The general concept of light-valving cathode-ray tubes is first presented for historic and technological perspective. Secondly, photoconductor-controlled devices that incorporate a variety of electrically stimulated optically responsive active elements for light modulation, including ferroelectric ceramics, liquid crystals, electrooptic crystals, and deformable media, are compared for their reported functional characteristics. From the standpoint of performance only, there exist several potentially significant technologies that offer the capabilities of high optical sensitivity and rapid response, high amplification ratios, optical storage, and resolution which are not presently available in light valves addressed by means other than optical. View full abstract»

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  • Liquid-crystal display prospects in perspective

    Page(s): 954 - 961
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    The advantages of dynamic scattering liquid-crystal displays--extremely low power consumption, flexibility of size and format, color choice, and washout immunity--are not obtained without cost. Long life requires ac drive and hermetic packaging. The optical characteristics of dynamic scattering make it difficult to design a display that utilizes the liquid-crystal panel effectively under a variety of lighting conditions. Multiplexed drive is cumbersome at best, so cost of drive electronics for more than about four digits is higher than with competing display technologies. The development of twisted nematic displays will reduce drive costs and improve appearance although the changes will not be revolutionary. The large multiplexing capability or color variability of the alterable birefringence effect is offset by prohibitive manufacturing tolerances and narrow field of view. Led by low-power digital wristwatches, liquid crystals should achieve a substantial market in applications whose requirements match unique display properties. Effective penetration of the consumer mass market will await improved field-effect devices and reductions in semiconductor packaging costs. View full abstract»

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  • Nematic liquid-crystal displays: Some properties and limitations

    Page(s): 962 - 977
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    The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of utilizing nematic liquid crystals (LC) as media for aircraft displays from the point of view of their temperature range, response time, gray scale, and color control. According to this objective, the dynamic scattering and tunable birefringence mode of operation were investigated in some detail. Experiments, in agreement with derived mathematical models, led to the following conclusions : 1) The nematic temperature range can be made to fit any reasonable specification by forming multiple eutectic mixtures, provided the ingredients are compatible. 2) "Write" or "contact" times less than 2 µs have been (and less than 0.1 probably can be) realized with the help of "blocking" diodes. However, true rise times become generally longer than 1 s at temperatures below -20° C and electric fields at or below 3 V/µm. 3) The optical properties of electricallyinduced (dynamic) scattering can, in a first order approximation, be described by specifying the liquid crystal birefringence ration_{0}/n_{e}their average refractive indexbar{n}, and the applied voltage. 4) Of several possible color display approaches, electrically tunable birefringence was selected as the most promising one. The widest viewing angle, |α| ≤30°, is achieved with reflective displays and best color definition (resolution Δλ/λ≃0.2) with retardations of Γ≃3/2 in "single stage" displays, as long as the overall cell thickness fluctuationDelta d < 0.1 lambda/(n_{e}-n_{0}). In addition, nematic liquid scattering and color display features are compared to those of PLZT, an electrooptic ceramic. View full abstract»

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  • A liquidic matrix-addressed display

    Page(s): 977 - 990
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    Experiments with fluid logic circuits operated in an air-dyed water mode have demonstrated the basic validity of a large area, flat panel, matrix-addressed liquidic display. Such a display is conceptually attractive, since the switching, storage, and display functions are performed by the same medium. The measurements made have demonstrated that a reflective or emissive liquidic display, matrix addressed "a line at a time," has the following advantages: a flat panel geometry, a wide viewing angle, TV or better resolution, high contrast and brightness, a gray scale and color capability, speed (for TV resolution) from dc up to 3 frames/s, a range of sizes from small up to blackboard or larger, permanent memory, and high thermal, radiation, and shock resistance. The power requirements are less than (0.015/τ) W/cm2of display area, where τ is the frame time in seconds. Most importantly, the liquidic display can be constructed in a cheap integrated form. An elemental integrated liquidic display has been built with laminated layers of photoformed ceramic and has been successfully operated. Measurements made on the deflection of a fine stream of water (a polar liquid) by a nonuniform electric field have shown that this dielectrophoretic effect forms an elegant low-voltage transducer for the liquidic display. Such a transducer can be used on the periphery of a fluidically addressed matrix. Alternatively, because of its simplicity, it is feasible to have a threshold transducer at each element and electrically matrix address the transducers. View full abstract»

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  • Matrix-addressed liquid-crystal display

    Page(s): 990 - 994
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    In order to develop simple low-cost liquid-crystal matrix displays, 5 × 7 dots alphanumeric matrix display panels with 7 × 80 elements have been made and tested. A newly synthesized nematic liquid crystal, p-methoxy-p'-ethylazoxybenzene, was used in the panels as the major component of the liquid crystals. The crosstalk was found effectively suppressed by rubbing the surfaces of electrode glasses besides applying a blanking technique. Furthermore, storage-type liquid-crystal matrix display devices with 120 × 120 elements were also reported. Various mixtures of nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals were used depending upon the storage and erasing conditions required for the imaging. View full abstract»

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  • A 6 × 6 inch 20 lines-per-inch liquid-crystal display panel

    Page(s): 995 - 1001
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    An integrated 14 000 picture element 36-in2flat screen display panel has been constructed by a combination of thin-film transistor and nematic liquid-crystal technology. The design, fabrication, and present performance of the panel is discussed. The design of the peripheral circuits, which permit the presentation of low resolution off-the-air TV pictures on the panel is described in another paper. View full abstract»

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  • A thin-film integrated incandescent display

    Page(s): 1002 - 1005
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    Incandescent alphanumeric displays using a 16-bar format are obtainable today. They employ 1-ml incandescent tungsten helices strung between support posts. This paper describes a new incandescent display device, fabricated by microelectronic thin-film techniques. Such techniques allow high-resolution dot-matrix displays to be produced with all the cost advantages obtained from the employment of modern LSI thin-film processing. The device uses a ceramic substrate covered with a thick layer of glass. Holes are produced in the laminate and filled with metal to eventually form the element support posts. A thin layer of refractory metal is deposited on the glass. The metal and glass are then etched to produce a field of free-standing microfilaments. The resulting display panel can be driven by simple integrated circuits, and the efficiency of the device, operating at 1200°C, is better than quoted for most light-emitting diodes (LED's). View full abstract»

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  • Performance and design considerations of the thin-film tungsten matrix display

    Page(s): 1006 - 1015
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    A new matrix-type display device, the thin-film incandescent display device, is the object of this paper. In particular, this paper summarizes the results of work in the areas of device performance analysis, electrical interface requirements, and overall system evaluation. View full abstract»

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  • A real-time Fourier-plane filter

    Page(s): 1015 - 1019
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    An electrically addressed liquid-crystal Fourier-plane filter capable of real-time optical image processing is described. The filter consists of two parts, a wedge filter having 40 9° segments and a ring filter having 20 concentric rings in a 1-in diameter active area. Transmission of the filter in the off (transparent) state exceeds 50 percent. By using polarizing optics, contrast as high as 104:1 can be achieved at voltages compatible with FET switching technology. A phenomenological model for the dynamic scattering will be presented for this special case. The filter is designed to be operated from a computer and is addressed by a 7-b binary word that includes an ON or OFF command and selects any one of the 20 rings or 20 wedge pairs. The overall system uses addressable latches so that once an element is in a specified state, it will remain there until a change of state command is received. The drive for the liquid crystal filter is ±30 V peak at 60 Hz. These parameters give a rise time for the scattering of 20 ms and a decay time of 80-100 ms. A complete description of the operational parameters of the device will be given and the results of several filtering experiments discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Recent progress in a real-time three-dimensional display

    Page(s): 1020 - 1027
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    A concept for a holographic display system that can accept data in coordinate form and synthesize a three-dimensional scene in real time has been reported. Recent progress on this system centers around the recording medium and compensation of the frequency shift introduced by the deflection system. The need for a holographic recording medium that can be exposed, developed, and viewed in about 1 s is being met by a thermoplastic-photoconductor (TP-PC) film. The reusable TP-PC film has photographic characteristics comparable to standard holographic films. Improved TP-PC films having greater spatial frequency bandwidths, higher sensitivities, less background noise, and increased sequential recording capacity have been developed. The use of acousto-optic beam deflectors in the object and reference beams causes these beams to have different frequencies. In order to record holographic fringes of sufficient visibility, some frequency compensation scheme is therefore required. Several methods for achieving this compensation are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • An experimental fluorescent dye panel

    Page(s): 1028 - 1032
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    A fluorescent europium chelate is used as the active medium of an experimental display panel. When the chelate is dissolved in an electrolytic solvent and placed between transparent conductive electrodes, 2.8 V dc will cause the ultraviolet stimulated fluorescence to be extinguished at the cathode electrode. Recovery from the quenched state occurs spontaneously when the voltage is removed or when the polarity of the potential is reversed. A cross-conductor matrix display is discussed where discrete points are quenched by applying half-voltage to the rows and columns of the matrix. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time incoherent-to-coherent optical converter

    Page(s): 1032 - 1037
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    This paper describes the fabrication and demonstration of a real-time incoherent-to-coherent optical converter having applications in image processing systems. Briefly, it utilizes the photoconductivity effect in the single-crystalline electrooptic material, Bi12SiO20to spatially modulate its electrical polarization. An optically absorbed write-in image is stored as an image wise polarization pattern in the device. Readout is accomplished electrooptically by means of the subsequent phase retardation that a polarized beam of coherent light undergoes in passing through the Bi12SiO20. An operating mode for achieving continuous image conversion with high-speed recyclability is described. The following performance characteristics have been demonstrated : write-in intensity of 300 µW/cm2at 400 nm yielded a contrast ratio of 50:1 after 40-ms exposure. When the converter was operated at a frame rate of 10/s, a sampled read-out contrast ratio of greater than 1000:1 was achieved. Resolution in excess of 80 1p/mm has been recorded and read out. The crystal growing and device fabrication methods by which 1-square-in converters have been built and operated are described. Results achieved in using this device to Fourier transform images are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Pockels-effect light valve: Phototitus. Applications to optical image processing

    Page(s): 1037 - 1042
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    An electrooptic light valve is described, using the Pockels effect in a KD2PO4crystal cooled close to its Curie temperature and addressed by photoconduction in an amorphous selenium layer. The preliminary performance levels obtained are: resolution 40 lp/mm, maximum contrast ratio 70/1, writing time 10 µs, sensitivity <100 erg/cm2for 10/1 contrast, and a maximum modulation emciency of ≃75 percent. The linearity of the Pockels effect allows image addition and subtraction, the latter being obtained by reversing the applied voltage between two exposures. Experiments of first-and second-order image derivation using incoherent light are described, the latter obtained by subtraction of a blurred image from the initial one. The grainless structure of the KD2PO4plate prevents all loss of coherence in coherent optical data processing. Furthermore, suppression of the zero order in the Fourier transform of an image has been obtained by subtracting from that image a uniform one whose amplitude is equal to the average amplitude of the initial image; this results in the suppression of the optical noise introduced by the scattering of the zero-order term in coherent filtering experiments. Character-recognition experiments are described employing a filter hologram previously made using the same device. The high-speed capability of the device would permit the construction of automatic reading systems at least ten times faster than those generally available. View full abstract»

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  • Electron trajectories in twisted electrostatic deflection yokes

    Page(s): 1042 - 1049
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    A mathematical analysis is carried out for electron motion in a cylindrical electrostatic deflection yoke which is twisted around its axis and immersed in a uniform axial magnetic field to form a twisted focus projection and scanning (FPS) deflection system. The yoke has an arbitrary twist angle, and is a generalization of yokes with π/2 rad of twist recently used in FPS vidicons. New modes of operation are found which eliminate shading caused by off-normal beam landing at the target, while providing improved deflection sensitivity, increased resolution, and reduced power consumption in the focusing solenoid as compared with the untrusted shading-free mode previously reported by Schlesinger, Wagner, and Saldi [1]-[3]. The theoretical predictions are supported by data from experimental devices. View full abstract»

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  • Improved electron gun for the beam-indexing color-television display

    Page(s): 1049 - 1052
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    Improved gun design has considerably increased the brightness of the 110°-25 in beam-indexing color display (triplet pitch ≈ 1.2 mm). Without dynamic correction for deflection errors the color reproduction in normal picture material is now satisfactory up to peak currents of about 2.5 mA (against 1.5 mA for the old gun). View full abstract»

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  • A digitally addressed flat-panel CRT

    Page(s): 1052 - 1061
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    Principles of operation and special operational features of a digitally addressed flat-panel electron beam display are discussed. Special emphasis is given to explaining methods of simplifying and optimizing the display structure for a given application, and techniques for implementing color and inherent storage to the structure. In addition, a fairly detailed analysis of the display power requirements is given, along with calculations for a specific display. Also covered are the operating characteristics of several prototype displays, and comments pertaining to life, manufacturability, and environmental characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Nucleation-film/Electron-beam recorder: Near-real-time display system

    Page(s): 1062 - 1068
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    A direct electron-beam recorder (EBR) for nucleation film has been built and tested. This recorder overcomes many of the disadvantages of CRT-on-film recorders by providing a high-resolution black-on-white image that is available for viewing 1 s after recording. Immediate viewing of the film record eliminates the need for a CRT display with storage for viewing images from line-scan reconnaissance sensors. Nucleation film is developed by the selective condensation of zinc vapor on nucleation sites produced by electron exposure. It is developed in vacuum, adjacent to the recording electron beam. The image has a contrast of 8:1 for an exposure of 2 × 1011electrons/cm2. This EBR display uses 70-mm film at speeds of 0.08 to 8.3 cm/s to record a video image from a line-scan reconnaissance sensor. This contrasts with a previously described nucleation film/EBR that recorded high-resolution television images at 60 fields/s on 35-mm-wide film transported at 43 cm/s. The present recorder/display has an image viewing area 6 cm wide by 22 cm high where the 70-mm-wide film moves from top to bottom. The video bandwidth is 5 MHz and the horizontal resolution is 2400 lines. A major accomplishment of the work reported here was the design of a zinc vapor source with uniform flux for development of the 70-mm-wide nucleation film in a 0.5-cm space adjacent to the recording electron beam. View full abstract»

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  • A monolithic light-emitting-diode display

    Page(s): 1068 - 1073
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    A monolithic 5 × 7 array of planar diffused p-n junctions in GaAs1-xPx(x≃0.38) has been built for a light-emitting diode (LED) alphanumeric readout. A character formed by this readout is 0.246 cm high and 0.170 cm wide. The monolithic chip has all p-n junctions, n-contacts, p-contacts, interconnections and terminal metallurgy on the epitaxial layer which represents a departure from the conventional methods of making LED arrays, namely wire bonding discrete chips with contacts on two sides in a hybrid configuration. Each LED in the array is connected to one of the terminals arranged around the periphery of the chip and individually addressed by direct current from a driver on a silicon control chip. For each character position in a display there is one monolithic LED chip and one monolithic silicon control chip solder joined to terminals on a glass plate and interconnected by Cr-Cu-Cr lines evaporated onto the glass substrate. The display is addressed by serial information provided from an ROM which is read into a 35-stage shift register on the control chip which controls the drivers. Thus with two standard parts, any N-character display can be fabricated with considerable reduction in handling since no discrete elements or wire bonds are used. View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic GaP green-emitting LED matrix-addressable arrays

    Page(s): 1074 - 1077
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    The fabrication and performance of matrix-addressable green-emitting monolithic light-emitting diode (LED) alphanumeric displays are described. Matrix addressability is achieved by p-n junction electrical isolation of n-type stripes of GaP in vapor-phase epitaxial n-epi/p-epi/n-substrate structures by a masked Zn diffusion. Each n-type stripe serves as the common cathode for the LED's in a given column, and with the assistance of a distributed ohmic contact, forms the column address. Light-emitting p-n junctions are formed in the isolated n-type stripes by a second masked Zn diffusion. Rows of LED anodes are electrically connected by thin-film metallization through vias in a glass insulating layer. This truly planar fabrication process potentially offers a marked reduction in the cost of matrix-addressable LED arrays. The transparency of nitrogen-free GaP to light generated at p-n junctions localized in a nitrogen-doped epitaxial layer permits displays of this type to be flip-chip bonded and viewed through the substrate. View full abstract»

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  • Recent developments in three-color plasma display panels

    Page(s): 1078 - 1081
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    This paper describes recent developments in the fabrication of three-color-phosphor plasma display panels that improve both electrical and optical performance. The electro-optical characteristics of panels incorporating a phosphor bar pattern are presented, including the properties of panels fabricated with a black, UV-absorbing material surrounding the phosphors. In addition, processes developed to produce 20 × 20 in plasma panels with 512 × 512 three-color resolution elements at a total line density of 60 per inch are described. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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John D. Cressler
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology