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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Some considerations for reduction of noise and instability improvement in high-power crossed-field devices

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 977 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The maximum potential of the high-power crossed-field devices has been restricted because of the presence of instability in these devices without any RF drive. The experimental investigation of the crossed-field instability as found from various tubes is briefly reviewed. It is believed that this instability is due to interaction of the slow cyclotron wave with the fast forward circuit wave. The theoretical work presented here refers to the interaction of both the slow and fast cyclotron waves with either of the circuit waves. The tuning characteristics of the interacting (oscillating) frequency due to slight changes in beam velocity resulting from changes in sole-to-anode voltage or magnetic field are derived. It is found that there is a good correlation between the theoretical and experimental results only for the case of interaction of the slow cyclotron wave with the fast forward circuit wave. For other interactions the tuning characteristics have opposite signs. In order to achieve a stable and less noisy operation of the device it is necessary to avoid the interaction of the cyclotron modes with the circuit wave. This limits the usable bandwidth which is plotted for different operating parameters. The electronic efficiency depending upon these operating parameters is also discussed. The problems in the gun design are reviewed. It is estimated that the conventional Kino gun may be used without any loss in bandwidth and efficiency up to frequencies in L band provided design procedures outlined in the paper are followed. For higher frequencies one has to use modified guns unless a reduction in bandwidth and efficiency can be tolerated. View full abstract»

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  • A nonreentrant crossed-field amplifier with cycloiding injected beam

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 986 - 995
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Nonreentrant injected-beam crossed-field amplifiers usually employ a thin laminar beam positioned well above the sole electrode. In operation, the beam is gradually bunched by a phase-focusing action. This paper describes the analysis and demonstration of such an amplifier, with an important difference: the electrons of the beam have random cycloidal trajectories extending to the sole instead of following the usual linear paths, Rapid and effective bunching is accomplished by collecting antiphase electrons on the sole. Experimental results are presented to show that the approach is useful for high current beams. For example, an output power of 600 watts was obtained at 10 dB gain from an 800 mA beam. The advantages and disadvantages of the cycloidal motion are discussed. The results of computations are given to show the desirable characteristics attainable; for example, a design for an amplifier with a cycloiding beam requires only 35 percent of the interaction length of a laminar-beam type for the same computed power output, gain and efficiency at the same cathode voltage. View full abstract»

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  • A new type of cathode-ray tube with a crossed-field gun

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 995 - 1001
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    This paper introduces a new type of cathode-ray tube with a crossed-field electron gun which produces an electron beam in a region where a nonuniform magnetic field and an electric field cross perpendicularly. The new configuration gives increased freedom in the design of crossed-field guns. As a result, a long, directly heated cathode can be readily applied to a gun structure which makes high perveance and instant operation possible with much improved cathode heating efficiency. The new gun provides ion trap action by virtue of a magnetic field which separates ions from electrons due to the difference in their masses. A new type of cathode-ray tube using this gun not only demonstrates these features but also requires relatively low operational voltages for beam acceleration and control electrodes. The paper includes an analysis of electron motion in a crossed field with a nonuniform magnetic field. It also shows practical configuration of electrodes and current characteristics of the gun. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation and excitation of perturbations in electron beams with velocity shear

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1002 - 1009
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    A theoretical investigation of the influence of a spatially varying drift velocity on the perturbations in magnetically focused electron beams is presented. The wave propagation on such beams, focused by infinite magnetic fields, is studied under the small-wave assumption. The dispersion relation for slow waves is derived and solved for different transversal boundary conditions. Two sets of infinitely many propagating modes are found in a beam with small velocity shear. In a beam with sufficiently large velocity shear only two eigenfunctions exist. Since it is not possible to match the two eigenfunctions on arbitrary longitudinal boundary conditions, additional solutions (which cannot be written in form of a plane wave) must exist. The excitation of perturbations by ideal grids is solved by introducing the Laplace transform analysis. Additional solutions are ascertained which lead to a spatial decay of the perturbations according to a power law z. This damping, arising from the spatially varying drift velocity, is similar to the Landau damping in electron beams with velocity distribution. Such damping effects are of great practical importance in conjunction with noise reduction in traveling-wave tubes. View full abstract»

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  • Design formulas for helix dispersion shaping

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1010 - 1014
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
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    A simple method of calculating effects of various boundaries around the helix on the dispersion relation and the interaction impedance is presented. The analytical technique is based on the use of equivalent circuit parameters derived from rigorous field analyses. The main advantage of this method is that effects of various perturbing objects (dielectrics, shields, etc.) can be calculated independently, regardless of the model of the unperturbed system. Equivalent circuit parameters are obtained for helices with several different forms of perturbing boundaries, including wedge-shaped dielectric rods, conducting boundaries, longitudinally conducting wires and fins, and combinations of these. The method of analysis is versatile so that the dispersion relation for any one particular form of the helix may be calculated from known characteristics of another using only three sets of universal curves. View full abstract»

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  • Excitation of elastic surface waves by spatial harmonics of interdigital transducers

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1014 - 1017
    Cited by:  Papers (120)  |  Patents (2)
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    The electric field distribution from a surface wave interdigital transducer is investigated. Expressions for the various spatial harmonics and the capacitance of a transducer applied on an anisotropic, small-coupling propagation medium are derived. Experiments are consistent with the calculations. View full abstract»

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  • Room temperature solid-state plasma nonreciprocal microwave devices

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1018 - 1021
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    Nonreciprocal microwave propagation at room temperature in a waveguide which contains of a thin slab n-InSb has been demonstrated by the construction of an isolator, a three-port circulator, and a variable power divider, all operating at K-band frequencies. A forward loss and an isolation of 3 and 15 dB, respectively, was observed for the isolator; the forward and backward losses between adjacent ports of the circulator were 3 and 20 dB, respectively, and the power ratio of the divider could be varied from 1 to 10 for a given direction of the magnetic field. Transmission losses of about 3 dB were present in the forward direction and in each case, all but 1 dB of these were shown to be due to reflections resulting from impedance mismatch. View full abstract»

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  • Current crowding on metal contacts to planar devices

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1022 - 1024
    Cited by:  Papers (44)
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    A simple transmission line model is applied to the contact region between metal and diffusion layer in planar devices. Taking into account the sheet resistance of the diffusion layer and an ohmic specific contact resistance between metal and semiconductor the theoretical current distribution across the contact is calculated and compared with the results obtained with a model suggested by Kennedy and Murley. Experimental data are given that confirm the validity of the transmission line model. View full abstract»

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  • FM noise in a Gunn-effect oscillator

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1025 - 1035
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    FM noise in a cavity-controlled Gunn oscillator is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The susceptance of a GaAs Gunn diode fluctuates following velocity fluctuations of high field domains. This results in FM noise. The fluctuations of the velocity are considered to be due mainly to those of carrier concentration fluctuations. Measured FM noise is in good agreement with the model, verifying that fluctuations of carrier concentration result in FM noise in the oscillator. When the quality factor Qexof the resonant cavity used becomes large, the FM noise characteristic deviates from the theoretical one based on the fluctuations of carrier concentration. The fluctuations of the voltage across the diode in the resonant cavity also influence the domain dynamics and hence the diode susceptance. These seem to be causes of the deviation. View full abstract»

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  • Application of the distributed equilibrium equivalent circuit model to semiconductor junctions

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1036 - 1041
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
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    The small-signal equivalent circuits for a p-n junction at equilibrium and the MOS capacitor in the inversion range are derived from the general transmission line model. Detailed calculations are made to obtain the semiconductor admittance as a function of frequency for a gold-doped n-type silicon substrate. The transmission-line model provides the desired distributed time constant observed in experimental data of admittance versus frequency. A simple model is given to illustrate how the low-frequency junction capacitance depends on the position of the deep level recombination center in the band gap and the ratio of the hole and electron emission rates. Experimental results on gold-doped silicon junctions are analyzed in terms of the theoretical model, considering effects of this ratio, the effects of surface channels, and the effect of a nonuniform spatial variation of the gold impurity. View full abstract»

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  • Large signal turn-on response of the junction transistors including nonlinear effects

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1042 - 1048
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    The large-signal transient behavior of transistors must be considered as nonlinear phenomena. In this paper, the nonlinearity of the transient behavior of transistors in the active region are considered, and the charge control method is extended to include this nonlinearity. Using a one-dimensional homogeneous-base transistor model, the current variation of small-signal time constants in the charge control concept are analyzed in terms of emitter efficiency, surface recombination, and generated field in the base region. From the results of the small signal analysis, the large-signal time constants have been defined as a function of injection ratio. From the charge control equation founded on the large-signal time constants, the rise time is calculated including the current variations of time constants and voltage variation of junction capacitance. The results of the analysis are also verified by experimental measurements. View full abstract»

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  • High-frequency network properties of MOS transistors including the substrate resistivity effects

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1049 - 1069
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    The small-signal differential equations describing the intrinsic high-frequency characteristics of MOS transistors are derived under three basic modes of signal application: gate excitation, substrate excitation, and combined gate-substrate excitation. These equations are shown to be analogous to those of a double RC transmission line having a uniformly distributed common resistance but two separate capacitances distributed nonuniformly. High-frequency device admittances are calculated in terms of those of the analog RC transmission line using the method of "piecewise" uniformity for the capacitance distributions. Useful expressions are derived for the various Y-parameters which are explicitly related to the more readily measurable low-frequency input capacitance and transconductance parameters which, in turn, are related to the basic device physical parameters. The admittance expressions clearly indicate the influence of the substrate resistivity both on the forward transfer admittance magnitudes at low and high frequencies and on the input conductance at high frequencies. The intrinsic Y-parameters are combined with the associated extrinsic RC networks and presented in the form of equivalent circuits. Results of UHF admittance measurements on representative n-channel devices are given which support the overall validity of the proposed equivalent circuit models. View full abstract»

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  • Computer analysis of current instabilities in piezoelectric semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1069 - 1076
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    A mathematical model is presented which describes the interaction of electrons and phonons in one-dimensional piezo-electric semiconductors. The essential features of the model considered are taken from the theory of Yamashita and Nakamura with the inclusion of both spatial and time variations. Numerical solutions of the basic equations show that the model results in damped current oscillations and a current which persists for a time after the voltage is turned off. A simplified model, which restricts the growth of the phonon density, is shown to result in undamped square wave current oscillations. View full abstract»

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  • Relativistic effect in electron cyclotron transverse wave devices

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1077 - 1078
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    This note presents a simple physical argument which demonstrates the importance of relativistic electron bunching interactions between rotating electrons and an RF electric field in the plane of rotation, normal to a dc magnetic field. A magnitude comparison between the relativistic angular bunching and the well-known longitudinal bunching due to the transverse RF magnetic field shows that the close-to-cutoff operation of a number of recent cyclotron-frequency transverse-wave experiments is due solely to the relativistic effect. View full abstract»

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  • Observation of pulsed magnetron resonant frequency in the preoscillation region

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1078 - 1080
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A technique has been devised for observing very rapid periodic changes in the match of a microwave component. The method has been used to follow the change of pulsed magnetron resonant frequency in the preoscillation region as the voltage pulse is increased from zero towards threshold. The results are in reasonable agreement with those predicted by a simple theoretical model. View full abstract»

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  • Self-scanned optical transducer using acoustic domains in CdS

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1080 - 1082
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    This paper will present experimental results of a one-dimensional self-scanned optical transducer. Self-scanning is accomplished by the motion of an acoustic domain through a one-cm-long bar of single-crystal CdS. Attached to this bar is a nine-element photoconducting CdS light sensor. When illuminated, the sensors provide a current bypass around the traveling domain, resulting in an output current which is a function of illumination. Megabit-per-second transfer speeds are obtainable. View full abstract»

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  • New method of measurement of diode junction parameters

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 1082 - 1083
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An experimental technique for measuring the two parameters i0and n of the diode equation i=i_{0}[\exp (qV/nkT)-1] has been developed. The technique consists of determining n from the ratio of two average currents resulting from two sine waves being impressed-across the diode. Then the value of n is used to determine an amplitude of sine wave to relate i0to the average current through a simple multiple. The values of n and i0obtained by this method were compared with the same quantities obtained from the slope and intercept of a log i versus v plot. Standard deviation between methods of measuring n was 0.028. Standard deviation between methods of measuring log i0was 0.01. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Acting Editor-in-Chief

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University of California San Diego