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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Studies of a magnetically compressed electron beam

    Page(s): 897 - 904
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    An experimental investigation of the problem of magnetically compressing a perveance0.54 times 10^{-6}A/V3/2beam is reported. The feasibility of magnetic compression is demonstrated by passing this beam, compressed in area by a factor of 1000, through a drift tube 0.014 inch in diameter and 1 inch long with 95 percent transmission. The success of the magnetic-compression technique rests on the hitherto unsuspected ability of the beam to damp out undulations and to lose its thermal structure within a relatively short distance. A semiempirical theory from which the field required to maintain the compressed beam can be calculated is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Low-frequency high-efficiency oscillations in germanium IMPATT diodes

    Page(s): 905 - 911
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    Pulsed operation of germanium IMPATT diodes has produced oscillations from 10 MHz to 12 GHz, with efficiencies exceeding 40 percent for frequencies between 2 and 3 GHz. Recorded waveforms show that IMPATT oscillations are required to initiate the lower frequency high-efficiency modes. The diodes are epitaxial diffused junction n-p-p+mesa structures, with depletion widths ∼ 5 microns and breakdown voltages ∼ 60 volts. Typical diode area is2 times 10^{-4}cm2. Static I-V curves, obtained with circuit conditions which do not permit any oscillations, exhibit positive incremental resistance. The usual IMPATT mode would be expected to be between 6 and 12 GHz. Operation at frequencies below the IMPATT frequency requires circuit conditions suitable for IMPATT oscillations to be present to initiate the lower frequency, higher efficiency mode. This mode is characterized by a sudden decrease in diode voltage and a simultaneous increase in current, similar to that reported for silicon devices [1]. Reproducible current and Voltage waveforms have been recorded for four distinctly different low-frequency modes of operation which result only from changes in the ac circuit seen by the diode. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of junction compensation techniques in reducing transient gamma radiation effects in transistor circuits

    Page(s): 912 - 916
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    Any transistor exposed to transient gamma radiation will produce a large transient photocurrent output pulse unless the circuit is hardened or protected against this effect. The hardening technique described in this paper consists of adding a reverse-biased junction between the collector and the base of a transistor, producing a photocurrent which cancels or compensates for the radiation-induced current. Both computer and experimental results show a significant hardening achieved by this method which is applicable to microcircuit systems as well as to discrete component systems. View full abstract»

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  • A GaAs avalanche diode analysis and an approximate indirect measurement of hole saturation velocity

    Page(s): 917 - 922
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    GaAs avalanche diodes are observed to operate at frequencies considerably lower than those of Si or Ge diodes with similar doping profiles and dc characteristics. This observed behavior and the analysis shown in this paper enable us to evaluate an approximate hole saturation velocity in GaAs. Small signal impedances and Q's of GaAs avalanche diodes with breakdown voltages of 17, 36, and 58 are calculated based on the approximated hole saturation velocity of2 times 10^{6}cm/s. The model assumes an abrupt p+-n junction, e.g., zinc diffusion on n-type material, and a realistic electric field in the space-charge region. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided design of a Si avalanche photodiode

    Page(s): 923 - 927
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    A computer-aided design of a Si avalanche photodiode is presented. As an example, the design of the boron diffused photodiode with a desired time constant is carried out. The choice of an area of an active region is not affected by a diffusion condition but primarily by a substrate impurity concentration. For a very high speed response a moderate substrate impurity concentration must be selected. For a longer time constant than about 0.1 ns an increasing area of an active region is acceptable with a decreasing substrate impurity concentration. In a lightly doped substrate, a uniform multiplication of an active region cannot occur. Using the usual diffusion technique the acceptable highest resistivity of a substrate is about 1-2 Ω.cm. The capacitance of the guard ring occupies a considerable part in a total capacitance. Calculated results are in good agreement with experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • LSA operation of GaAs layers in large-scale tunable microwave circuits

    Page(s): 928 - 934
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    It is shown that the attainment of LSA oscillations in epitaxial layers of GaAs does not rely on operation of the layers in small primary resonant circuits. Restrictions on circuit dimensions have thus been relaxed and LSA oscillations obtained in large scale microwave cavities. Layers of thickness 9-12.5 microns have been operated at frequencies from 26.5-40 GHz, the oscillations being tuned over this band by a conventional short-circuit plunger. The frequency of LSA oscillation is shown to be determined entirely by the natural circuit frequency. The tuning characteristics of the oscillations in various waveguide circuits are described and some general circuit features emerge which are of importance for a tunable LSA source. In particular it is noted that in some circuits a localized and therefore fixed frequency resonance occurs. It is also noted that LSA oscillations cannot occur if circuit Q is insufficiently high. The work has been carried out on a pulse basis to avoid thermal effects, and most of the experiments described have been carried out using unencapsulated devices. The maximum efficiency observed in these experiments was 4 percent. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear analysis of the avalanche transit-time oscillator

    Page(s): 935 - 945
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    The nonlinear operating characteristics of the avalanche transit-time oscillator are studied by means of Fourier-series representation. For optimum operation, the oscillator must be designed such that start-oscillation conditions are satisfied simultaneously at the first and the second harmonic of the desired oscillation frequency. Under those conditions the oscillation frequency does not depend on the dc bias current; the signal level increases smoothly with bias current. For large signals, the diode exhibits negative resistance for frequencies substantially below the avalanche frequency; the oscillation frequency therefore may be below the avalanche frequency corresponding to the dc bias current required for large-signal operation. A condition for attaining large-signal operation is that the product of drift-zone capacitance and total load resistance must be small compared to the oscillation period; this condition also yields small starting currents. The output power at the oscillation frequency is obtained explicitly in terms of diode and external circuit parameters. The maximum attainable output power is limited by parasitic series resistance and by permissible RF voltage swing as compared to dc bias voltage. The best power-impedance product is obtained by choosing the transit angle equal to 0.74 π. In practice, it may be advantageous to choose a smaller value for the transit angle, in order that the tuning condition for the second harmonic may be more easily satisfied. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency in principle is linearly proportional to the dc current density; the maximum efficiency again is limited by parasitic series resistance and by permissible RF voltage swing. View full abstract»

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  • Complementary MOS—Bipolar transistor structure

    Page(s): 945 - 951
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    Bipolar transistors can be used to increase the driving capabilities of complementary MOS transistors while retaining the low power dissipation feature. The fabrication of n-p-n bipolar transistors is compatible with the fabrication of the complementary MOS transistors in a monolithic structure. Common collector n-p-n transistors can be fabricated using a diffused n+source-drain region as emitter, a diffused p-isolation region as base and an n-substrate as collector with a hfegreater than 100. Lateral n-p-n transistors can be fabricated using a diffused n+source-drain region as emitter and collector, and p-isolation region as base with a hfegreater than 10. View full abstract»

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  • Noise of field-effect transistors at very high frequencies

    Page(s): 952 - 957
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    The minimum noise factor of a field-effect transistor has been computed at high frequencies on the basis of the thermal noise of the real parts of the equivalent circuit. A treatment of the intrinsic FET is followed by a consideration of the influence of feedback, parasitic output impedance and parasitic impedance in series with the source on the noise factor. Moreover, the difference between common-gate and common-source configuration has been considered. For frequencies smaller than the gain-bandwidth product fgbthe factorF_{min} - 1varies linearly with the frequency, whereas at higher frequencies this factor varies with f2. The computed results are compared with measurements on both JFETs and MOSFETs in the frequency range 100-1500 MHz at different conditions of operation. The agreement is rather good. For the JFET the value ofF_{min}(f_{gb}) approx 2.5; for the MOSFET somewhat higher values are found due to the presence of substrate depletion effects. View full abstract»

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  • Field-effect transistor (FET) bibliography 1967, 1968

    Page(s): 957 - 963
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    This bibliography covers the years 1967 and 1968. It is a continuation of the field-effect transistor bibliography printed in the IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, Vol. ED-14, pp. 710-717, October 1967, covering the years from 1939-1966, and 28 references for 1967. For the sake of completeness, the aforementioned 28 references have been included in the present bibliography. View full abstract»

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  • Infrared detection properties of Zn-doped Si p-i-n diodes

    Page(s): 963 - 964
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    Double-injection p-i-n diodes containing appropriate trapping centers exhibit extremely light sensitive space charge limited current characteristics. Small variations in the i-region space charge induced by low light levels results in lalge changes in the forward current. The detectivity D* of typical Zn-doped devices is approximately 1013. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation of microwaves through InSb in a transverse dc magnetic field

    Page(s): 964 - 965
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    Experiments on the propagation of microwave power through InSb in a transverse dc magnetic field demonstrate the feasibility of low-loss propagation. The results correlate well with theoretical predictions. View full abstract»

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  • A new low-loss mode in semiconductor magnetoplasmas

    Page(s): 965 - 966
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    A new semiconductor plasma wave mode that can propagate with very little attenuation at frequencies smaller than the plasma collision frequency is described. The wave propagates at right angles to a dc magnetic field and may be used for modulation of lasers or for tunable filters in the microwave /millimeter wave region. View full abstract»

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  • An alternative derivation of the small-signal low-frequency admittance matrix for a semiconductor integrated circuit

    Page(s): 966 - 968
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    A four-layer monolithic semiconductor device is considered as a combination of p-n-p and an n-p-n transistor in order to derive more tangible rational approximate admittance parameters. One example of an external connection of such a device is evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Stability of transistors in avalanche region

    Page(s): 968 - 970
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    The stability in an avalanche transistor is shown to depend in a very simple way on emitter-base voltage and on collector current. This dependence is quite general, since it is common to transistors of various types and structures (n-p-n, p-n-p, Ge, Si, planar, micro alloy diffused, mesa and drift); moreover the stability conditions show that the punch-through hypothesis is not essential to explain recently observed spontaneous oscillations in avalanche transistors with open emitters. Furthermore, a very simple equivalent circuit is given, which proves to be useful in describing the principal characteristic of avalanche oscillation. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on static negative resistance in avalanching silicon p+-i-n+junctions

    Page(s): 970 - 972
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    The dependence of calculated static space-charge-induced negative resistance, in avalanching silicon diodes, upon the form of the ionization rate function is investigated. It is shown that the conversion efficiency calculated using a commonly employed function for the ionization rate is greatly overestimated. It is concluded that the mechanism of static space-charge-induced negative resistance is not the origin of high efficiency modes of oscillation. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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John D. Cressler
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology