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IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices

Issue 4 • April 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Introduction

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s): 321
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  • Failure mechanisms in large-scale integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):322 - 332
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB)

    A study was made of the factors affecting the reliability of large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits. Particular attention was given to the effect on array reliability of the additional processing steps required to obtain multilevel metalization. The additional significant steps are low temperature deposition of a second dielectric layer on metalized LSI wafers, etching of vias through the second di... View full abstract»

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  • Radiation resistance of Al2O3MOS devices

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):333 - 338
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)

    Integrated circuits employing MOS devices will play a vital role in tomorrow's civilian and military electronics if their degradation in a radiation environment can be eliminated. One possible approach toward alleviating radiation effects in MOS devices is to use a material with a defect structure that does not allow predominant trapping of either holes or electrons as a gate insulator. This has b... View full abstract»

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  • Electromigration—A brief survey and some recent results

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):338 - 347
    Cited by:  Papers (607)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1320 KB)

    Recently, electromigration has been identified as a potential wear-out failure mode for semiconductor devices employing metal film conductors of inadequate cross-sectional area. A brief survey of electromigration indicates that although the effect has been known for several decades, a great deal of the processes involved is still unknown, especially for complex metals and solute ions. Earlier desi... View full abstract»

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  • The effects of dielectric overcoating on electromigration in aluminum interconnections

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):348 - 350
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)

    The phenomena of electromigration is self-diffusion effect, and has an associated activation energy. Although the activation energy for bulk self-diffusion in aluminum is 1.48 eV, experimentally measured energies for films range approximately from 0.5 to 1.2 eV. This lower observed energy may be or has been ascribed by investigators to crystalline imperfections in and on the surface of the aluminu... View full abstract»

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  • The analysis of chemical and metallurgical changes in microcircuit metalization systems

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):351 - 356
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB)

    Chemical and metallurgical changes in IC metalization systems have been studied during a program of device reliability testing and evaluation. This paper discusses the four reactions responsible for the majority of the observed metalization failures: 1) migration of aluminum under silicon dioxide layers, 2) movement of silicon through both gold and aluminum wires resulting in loss of mechanical st... View full abstract»

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  • A Cr—Ag—Au metalization system

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):356 - 360
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)

    A comprehensive study of a Cr-Ag-Au metalization system, as well as a comparison with an aluminum system, is described. The Cr-Ag-Au metalization system, which can be deposited in a conventional evaporator with relatively little increase in processing complexity, has the desirable characteristics of aluminum metalization. It can be patterned more easily than equivalent thicknesses of aluminum. The... View full abstract»

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  • Scanning electron microscopy in device diagnostics and reliability physics

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):360 - 371
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1480 KB)

    This paper describes the application of the SEM to relatively deep studies of failure mechanisms and of the causes of poor device performance. The first section of the paper outlines ways in which existing SEM's can be integrated with the X-ray microanalyzer, the infrared microscope, the transmission electron microscope, etc., to complement macroscopic electrical measurements. It is shown that lim... View full abstract»

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  • Scanning electron mirror microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):371 - 375
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)

    The recently developed scanning electron mirror microscope (SEMM) is compared with other types of electron microscopes, such as the electron mirror microscope (EMM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM), for examining integrated circuits. Potential advantages of the SEMM include high resolution, elimination of electron bombardment damage, and high sensitivity of voltage gradients, magnetic fi... View full abstract»

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  • The application of the scanning electron microscope to the development of high-reliability semiconductor products

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):376 - 380
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)

    Examples are given which illustrate the wide range of applicability of the scanning electron microscope to the processing of high reliability semiconductor products. The three areas selected for presentation are devitrifying solder glass seals for hermetic packages, voltage contrast examination of biased integrated circuits, and metallization corrosion problems encountered in processing technology... View full abstract»

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  • Thermal effects on the integrity of aluminum to silicon contacts in silicon integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):381 - 386
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB)

    Serious discontinuities in aluminum interconnections at contact windows of integrated circuits have been observed with the scanning electron microscope. In some instances the discontinuities have produced catastrophic failure. Two types of discontinuities have been observed and simulation of one type has been possible through exposure to temperatures 25° to 50°C below the aluminum-silico... View full abstract»

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  • The application of test structures for the study of surface effects in LSI circuitry

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):386 - 393
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (880 KB)

    The successful development of LSI circuitry with multilevel metallization requires the development of practical means for insuring the highest level of performance and reliability. This requires the development of a broad fundamental understanding of the factors that affect the semiconductor-insulator interface and of practical means for measuring the fundamental properties of this Interface. A co... View full abstract»

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  • Influence of dislocations on properties of shallow diffused transistors

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):394 - 400
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1048 KB)

    The influence of primary (e.g., grown-in) dislocations on transistor is studied by making use of the Sirtl etch for the detection of crystallographic imperfections. The first part of this paper demonstrates a one to one relationship between soft characteristics, caused by emitter-collector pipes and the presence of sliplines in transistors. The sliplines, which are bands of high dislocation densit... View full abstract»

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  • Effect of failure kinetics on time-to-failure distributions

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):401 - 402
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)

    The kinetics or time dependence of a device quantity has an explicit effect on the time-to-failure distribution resulting from a given distribution of device degradation coeffecients. In particular, for nth power kinetics, the larger the value of n, the smaller the deviation from the mean. View full abstract»

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  • hFEdegradation due to reverse bias emitter-base junction stress

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):403 - 406
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)

    Reverse bias stress of the emitter-base junction may degrade the hFEof a transistor when it is operated under normal bias conditions. The degradation mechanism exhibits no measurable temperature dependence and appears to be a surface effect. The junction characteristics exhibit no structure as a function of field plate voltage after stress. Pulse measurements indicate that the time requ... View full abstract»

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  • Electromigration in thin gold films

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):407 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    Electromigration in gold film conductors results in regions of material accumulation and depletion. These regions arise from and are correlated with the thermal gradients along the conductor. This result is in contrast with the observations on aluminum conductors where the effect is dominated by the structure or metallurgical properties of the film. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief

Giovanni Ghione
Politecnico di Torino,
10129 Torino, Italy

Phone +39 011 090 4064
email giovanni.ghione@polito.it