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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 156
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • An epitaxial planar structure for the unijunction transistor

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 161 - 165
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    A unijunction transistor with fast recovery time and high interbase resistance is made by growing a thin high-resistivity boron-doped epitaxial layer on a low-resistivity arsenic-doped substrate. Ring-and-dot base contacts are made directly on the p-type epitaxial layer with the beam-lead contact process. With the dot grounded and a negative bias on the ring, the most positive point along the edge of the space-charge region in the epitaxy is centered below the dot. When the substrate is adequately biased in the forward direction with respect to this point, conductivity modulation of the spreading resistance under the dot begins because of minority charge injection from the substrate. Experimental devices have been made by growing a 7.1-micron 53.1-Ω.cm epitaxial layer on a 5Ω.cm substrate. Interbase resistance was ∼ 100k Ω, intrinsic stand-off ratio ∼ 0.5, holding current ∼ 1 mA, and recovery time <20 ns. The paper concludes with possible memory array and shift register circuit applications that incorporate the unit described as well as a junction-isolated version that is free of parasitic transistors. View full abstract»

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  • Hot-spot thermal resistance in transistors

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 166 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    By the application of an infrared radiometer as the sensor, hot-spot formation is detected and a hot-spot thermal resistance is calculated. Hot-spot formation for both forward- and reverse-biased second breakdown is analyzed. Pulsed dc techniques are used in the investigation, allowing a wide range of possible operating biases to be applied. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and experiments of low-frequency generation-recombination noise in MOS transistors

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 170 - 177
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
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    A theoretical model for the generation-recombination (g-r) noise in MOS transistors is presented. This model takes into account the charge induced on all electrodes by the charge fluctuation of the impurity center in the depletion region. The model gives a finite equivalent gate noise resistance at saturation. Gold-doped and no-gold control devices were fabricated to verify the theory experimentally. The drain-voltage dependence of the g-r noise, which is shown to be distinctly different from the 1/f noise and thermal noise, is used to check the theory. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • A numerical estimate of transport properties in degenerate silicon p-n junctions

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 177 - 185
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    Magnitudes of the transport terms describing hole and electron motion in extrinsic degenerate silicon with large impurity gradients are calculated using Fermi-Dirac statistics. The absolute error between these transport terms using Boltzmann statistics and Fermi-Dirac statistics is tabulated for the reduced Fermi energy level from - 15 kT units to + 15 kT units. An accurate equilibrium state is assumed, and the effects of impurity scattering and electric field on the mobility are examined. The necessity for including impurity scattering in steady and transient states has been demonstrated. It was found necessary to maintain better than a 1:106accuracy in the Fermi-Dirac integrals in order to obtain a highly accurate equilibrium state. View full abstract»

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  • The effect of a field-independent polarization discontinuity on heterojunction characteristics

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 186 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A new utilization of the basic semiconductor heterojunction is proposed which is based on the mechanism of a field-independent polarization discontinuity P at the interface of a p-n heterojunction. Variations in P yield changes in the space-charge regions and the associated barrier voltages at the interface. By proper choice of the heterojunction parameters, the barrier voltage change can be made approximately linear with P over a finite range. The barrier voltage variation modulates the I-V characteristic of the heterojunction for the case of a positive reverse interface barrier, and modifies the C-V relation in all cases. Typical values are calculated for the properties of the general polarization discontinuity heterojunction, and of a strain-sensitive unit which utilizes a piezo-electric interaction. For the latter, the calculated differential sensitivities are 102to 103and 104to 105volts per unit strain for the barrier voltage and device output voltage, respectively. This output voltage sensitivity is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude larger than that available in piezoresistive strain gages. This device concept has potential in a variety of technically important areas ranging from mechanical instrumentation to sequentially excited light-emitting arrays. The heterojunction configuration is compatible with both evaporated and epitaxial semiconductor technology, and materials with the necessary combination of physical properties are represented among the well-known II-VI and III-V compounds. View full abstract»

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  • Bias circuit oscillations in Gunn devices

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 196 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    A theoretical and experimental study of low-frequency oscillations in the bias circuit of short (nominally 12 µ) Gunn devices is presented. Sinusoidal oscillations and relaxation oscillations including damped sinusoids and exponentially decaying pulses have been observed. The frequency, pulse width, and repetition rate are adjustable with bias voltage, bias circuit impedance, and the impedance of the microwave circuit. This behavior, as well as the conditions for stable bias, is explained in terms of an average terminal i-v characteristic for those devices which exhibit a terminal current drop. The oscillation amplitude is determined by the shape of this i-v curve. Pulses have been observed with subnanosecond rise times, peak voltages of 35 volts and adjustable pulse widths ranging from 3 to 200 ns for typical driver pulse widths of 100 to 500 ns. The sinusoidal frequencies were adjustable in the range of 300 to 550 MHz. The microwave output was in X-band and was self modulated by the bias circuit oscillations. The measured waveforms agree well with theory. View full abstract»

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  • LSA diode theory for long samples

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 202 - 208
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An analytic theory of the LSA diode oscillator is developed. Closed expressions for the output power efficiency, conductance, etc., are given. The physics of the diode operation is discussed and limiting values of the doping-to-frequency ratio are obtained. Doping inhomogeneity giving rise to the growth of Gunn domains is shown to seriously affect the LSA operation. The formulas are presented in a form which is directly based on material and circuit parameters. The results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • Boron-nitride as a dielectric material for high-power duplexing devices

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 209 - 212
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    A dielectric container made of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) isotropic boron-nitride (BN) is substituted for the commonly used quartz envelope in a high-power duplexing device. Significant improvements in duplexer performance can be achieved through the use of this material owing to its many favorable characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • DC-to-RF energy conversion in ungridded klystron gaps

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 212 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The interaction between a density modulated electron beam and an ungridded RF gap is studied theoretically, using numerical methods and a digital computer. The efficiency of conversion and the optimum load conductance are calculated as a function of the normalized gap dimensions γa and γd. It is found that with commonly used gap dimensions, γa = γd = 1 radian, the efficiency is on the average 20 percentage points below the value of I1/2I0for the incident beam. To achieve higher efficiencies, γa and γd should be reduced to a value in the vicinity of 0.5. The resulting efficiency improvement is approximately 10 percentage points. View full abstract»

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  • A continuity equation for the occupation factor of energy states

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 218 - 220
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    A continuity equation for the occupation factor of the energy states is proposed and used to demonstrate the existence of a negative diffusion capacitance in tunnel diodes. View full abstract»

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  • The spatial variation of the quasi-Fermi potentials in reverse-biased p+-n junctions and its implications in transition region capacitance calculations

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 220 - 222
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    The spatial variation of the quasi-Fermi potentials in asymmetrical step p+-n junctions under reverse bias conditions is analyzed following an approximate procedure already described in the literature for the symmetrical junctions. The results obtained in this analysis are used to check the validity of the quasi-equilibrium approximation in capacitance calculations. View full abstract»

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  • A stability improvement of current gain in silicon planar transistors

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 222 - 224
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    Slow instability of current gain or the base current in silicon n-p-n planar transistors under large-current life tests in elevated temperatures is discussed. The instability is caused by the ion migration in the oxide bulk covering the intersection of emitter junction. Some results of experimental approach to make transistors insensitive to such a failure mode is also given. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of collector design on hot-spot formation and second breakdown in transistors

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 224 - 225
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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  • Synchronized microwave energy generation by harmonic filtering

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 225 - 227
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
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    The theoretical and practical aspects of generating synchronized microwave harmonic energy using a dc step source feeding a modified pulse forming network are presented. The results indicate that although the suggested technique introduces some degradation in the build-up time of the output wave packet, it remains economical for generating, at least, third-harmonic energy. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical charging of liquid sprays in high-pressure gas flows for electrofluid dynamic processes

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 227 - 231
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    To produce charged aerosols for electrofluid dynamic processes, various liquids were sprayed through a metal capillary at very high electric field strengths into high pressure air flows. The current produced as the charged liquid spray ruptures is a function of electrical, gas, and liquid properties. Of these parameters the effects of liquid properties, such as surface tension, electrical conductivity, mass flow rate, and air properties such as pressure and velocity on the current production are experimentally investigated. A semi-empirical relation of the current output with the indicated variables is obtained using dimensional analysis. View full abstract»

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  • III-V compounds and their applications

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 234
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  • Trends in silicon device technology

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 234
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  • High-efficiency operation of IMPATT diodes

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 234
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  • Performance and theory of avalanche resonance pumped IMPATT oscillators

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 234 - 235
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  • Reflections on early germanium and silicon single crystal research

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 234
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  • Electrooptic materials

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 234
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    Summary form only given, as follows. The effective use of coherent optical radiation in communications requires low-power wide-bandwidth modulators. The most promising modulator materials are those with refractive indices sensitive to electric field. Certain of these materials are also useful in nonlinear optical applications such as optical frequency doublers and optical parametric oscillators. The search for efficient modulator, frequency doubler, and parametric oscillator materials has led to the preparation of a large number of single crystals in the class of oxygen octahedra ferroelectrics. This class includes, for example, lithium niobate (LiNbO3), barium sodium niobate (Ba2Na(NbO3)5), and barium titanate (BaTiO3). Crystal growth and optical studies have led to nearly optimum electrooptical and nonlinear optical materials within this class. The growth and proprety control methods that have been used are closely related in many instances to those used in the preparation of single crystal semiconductors. While materials with optimum properties have been found, the requirement for high optical quality crystals that do not optically damage when irradiated with a laser have led to additional material requirements that can be met but about which much remains to be understood. View full abstract»

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  • Approximate large-signal analysis of IMPATT oscillators

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 235
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
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  • Determination of germanium ionization coefficients from small signal IMPATT diode characteristics

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 235
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  • Bipolar integrated circuits formed in p-type epitaxial layers

    Publication Year: 1969 , Page(s): 235 - 236
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Meet Our Editors

Acting Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Paul K.-L. Yu

Dept. ECE
University of California San Diego