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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 1967

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Small-signal power flow and energy density for streaming carriers in the presence of collisions

    Page(s): 345 - 349
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    The Poynting theorem, or equation of continuity relating energy density and power flow, is extended to include the effects of diffusion and collisions. It is shown that the presence of the thermal power due to diffusion is accompanied by an increase in electrokinetic power. The effects of collisions on the electrokinetic power and energy density are examined in detail in the absence of diffusion. It is found that the kinetic power is zero in isolated streams when collisions are frequent (nu > 2omega_{p}). However, when such streams couple to "circuit-like" positive-energy waves (as in the acoustic amplifier) the stream's kinetic power becomes finite; in particular, it becomes negative if the stream drifts faster than the wave. Thus the usual picture, used in collision-free theory, in which the active wave must carry negative power, is preserved. It is also shown that, on the other hand, if the stream is lossless but interacts with a lossy and nonpropagating medium (as in a stationary collisional plasma), then the stream's finite-energy waves are coupled by the lossy medium. In contrast to the previous case where both systems propagate, it is now the negative-energy wave that grows. It is found that the electrokinetic energy density in a collision-dominant stream is negative for both modes due to collisional losses. View full abstract»

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  • Space-charge wavelengths in electron beams

    Page(s): 350 - 357
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    The discrepancies between measured and calculated small-signal space-charge wavelengths are discussed. It is shown that conventional methods of calculation are inadequate, causing errors up to 40 percent in a typical case. It is demonstrated that these errors cannot be explained by beam scalloping action, and that they are most severe when a high-perveance beam is used at low voltages with a high magnetic field under conditions of low interception. Although these effects would not be noticed in klystrons with relatively short drift lengths, they may in many cases explain the critical variation of gain and efficiency with magnetic field. A more accurate method of calculating space-charge wavelengths is developed, and the effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by a comparison with measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Computer calculation of deflection aberrations in electron beams

    Page(s): 357 - 365
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    The aberrations of a magnetically deflected electron beam are investigated in detail using an IBM 7094 computer. The computer programming is applicable to the case of one-dimensional deflection through small angles. The beam is treated as a group of electrons having no internal interactions, no energy spread, and producing no external fields. The field distributions that would produce minimum total aberration for a range of specified working distances, maximum deflection distances, coil widths, and coil openings are calculated. The aberrations produced by these ideal fields and by fields that deviate from the model are predicted. Typically, for a working distance of 3 in (7.62 cm), field coverage of 11 mm, and beam convergence angle of 3.54 × 10-3rad, the maximum increase in spot diameter is of the order of 0.05 micron. Theoretical limitations on the minimum aberration of a specific deflection system are established. The aberration is expected to be further minimized if dynamic astigmatic correction, as described in this paper, is applied. View full abstract»

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  • Noise measurements on a magnetron injection gun beam

    Page(s): 365 - 368
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    The results of noise measurements conducted on a helix-type traveling-wave amplifier containing a magnetron injection gun are described. A minimum noise figure of 15.3 dB was observed at 760 MHz with an approximate beam power of 1600 watts. The noise figure was minimized by an adjustment of the magnetic field, which determines the transit time of the electrons through a drift region. This optimizes the magnitude and phase of the standing noise waves at the helix input. View full abstract»

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  • High-frequency noise of the junction field-effect transistor

    Page(s): 368 - 373
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    Based on Geurst's treatment of the high-frequency value of the admittances of the junction field-effect transistor, the high-frequency noise of the device has been computed, assuming that the noise source is of thermal origin. By applying an appropriate series expansion of the current it is possible to express the noise of the drain and gate current in terms of known quantities, as steady-state transconductance, gate capacitance, and frequency. At low frequencies the noise spectrum of the drain current is independent of the frequency and is much larger than the noise of the gate current; however, at high frequencies the noise spectra of the gate and drain current both vary by ω2and are of the same order of magnitude. View full abstract»

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  • An investigation into transistor cross-modulation at VHF under AGC conditions

    Page(s): 374 - 381
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    The cross-modulation behavior of a transistor is studied for the case where it is operated in the VHF region and gain control is effected by driving it into saturation. It is shown that the observed increase in cross-modulation can be attributed to the fact that in the saturated condition the stored charge in the transistor will depend noulinearly on the collector current. The cross-modulation factor is calculated assuming an arbitrary functional relation between stored charge and current. A relation between the cross-modulation factor and the change of the cutoff frequency with current then will exist, allowing experimental verification. Close agreement is found between measured and calculated values. View full abstract»

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  • A high-performance lateral geometry transistor for complementary integrated circuits

    Page(s): 381 - 385
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    The lateral geometry transistor has shown itself to be highly useful in the realization of low-frequency integrated circuits. This simple structure has been limited essentially to dc applications, however, by bandwidth and switching time performance. The p-n-p device to be described in this paper substantially overcomes these deficiencies by the addition of an n+ diffusion directly beneath the emitter region. As a result of the steeper gradient at the bulk, or planar, portion of the emitter-base junction, injection occurs primarily near the surface. It is possible to control the dimensions of the buried layer such that injection of carriers greater than a few micrometers from the collector will be minimized. A further consequence of the n+ region is the introduction of a graded base such that minority carrier transport is enhanced. The improved transistor structure has demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining an f_{T} of 10 MHz to 20 MHz at collector currents of 100 µA and rise, fall, and storage times in the tens of nanoseconds. View full abstract»

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  • The characterization of the static behavior of p-n junction devices

    Page(s): 385 - 395
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    This paper examines the static behavior of certain p-n junction devices that are governed by Van Roosbroeck's differential equations. It is found that this set of first-order differential equations accurately predicts semiconductor static behavior in both the bulk and the transition regions. The purpose of this model is to find the hole and electron concentrations, hole and electron currents, and electric field as functions of position and external excitation. For part of the paper, use is made of the quasi-neutrality approximation in the bulk regions and the quasi-equilibrium Boltzmann relations (QEBR) which relate the hole and electron concentrations at transition region edges to the applied voltage across the transition region. The unijunction transistor with intrinsic base, p-i and p-in diodes, and a new current gain device are examined using these concepts, and the results are compared with experiment. By applying boundary conditions only at the ohmic contacts, a p-i diode problem is solved on a computer. One especially important point in this problem is that quasi-neutrality of the base and the QEBR are not imposed upon the problem. However, the final results indicate that these concepts are good approximations, except for extremely short devices. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable, high-power ferrite frequency doubler

    Page(s): 395 - 400
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    The development of a high-efficiency, tunable ferrite frequency doubler operating at 17.0 GHz is described. The optimum efficiencies are from 30 to 40 percent, with incident power levels up to 10 kW peak, 3.0 watts average. The doubler consists of a yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) disk located at the junction ofX-and Ku-band rectangular waveguides. Attempts to scale the doubler into the millimeter range are in progress. View full abstract»

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  • Reverse transient in p-n-p-n triodes

    Page(s): 400 - 402
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    A detailed analysis is presented of the reverse transient in a p-n-p-n triode when a reverse pulse is applied to its gate. Charge analysis as proposed by Baker et al. for p-n-p-n diodes has been extended to cover triodes. Analytical expressions for all phases of the transient consisting of two storage and two fall times have been obtained. Lateral biasing effects due to current flow in the gate have been neglected to simplify the analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Nondestructive determination of MOSFET gate breakdown voltage

    Page(s): 402 - 403
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    A method is presented which allows the gate breakdown of a MOSFET to be nondestructively determined. The method applies a linear ramp voltage across the gate, allowing the leakage component to be easily separated from the capacitive currents. In this manner, the leakage component can be measured before it becomes large enough to cause a destructive dielectric breakdown in the gate oxide. View full abstract»

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  • CW three-terminal GaAs oscillator

    Page(s): 403 - 404
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    Three-terminal GaAs devices have oscillated coherently at frequencies between 60 MHz and 2500 MHz. Continuous power outputs at room temperature are generally less than 1 mW. Typical units are fabricated from GaAs p-n diodes by sawing into the n side with an 0.0005- or 0.001-inch tungsten wire to a depth close to the depletion region. The resultant device has an n contact on either side of the cut and one control contact on the p region. At a threshold bias field of approximately 4 kV/cm in the narrow neck between the sawcut and the depletion region, coherent microwave or submicrowave oscillations commence. The frequency of oscillation is primarily a function of external circuitry and device size, but can also be controlled by a bias applied to the p electrode. View full abstract»

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  • [Back cover]

    Page(s): c4
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, modeling, design, performance and reliability of electron and ion integrated circuit devices and interconnects.

 

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Editor-in-Chief
John D. Cressler
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology