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Electron Devices, IRE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1962

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 77
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The design and performance of a magnetron-injection gun

    Page(s): 1 - 11
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    The space-charge flow solutions described by Kino and others in connection with the crossed-field carcinotron gun can be generalized to form the basis of a magnetron-injection gun design suitable for the production of hollow electron beams. In the first part of the paper this generalization is described. From the resulting flow it is possible to determine by an approximate method the electrodes to produce a gun of desired perveance with nearly uniform current density at the cathode. This technique has been used to design guns having ratios of cathode length to a diameter considerably greater than unity. The close agreement between the results obtained on several experimental guns and the theoretical predictions is described, along with the effect of departures from the prescribed fields given by the design method. View full abstract»

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  • Conservation principles for plasmas and relativistic electron beams

    Page(s): 12 - 26
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    Many useful conservation theorems are derived for relativistic electron beams and anisotropic plasmas. All these theorems are valid for confined-flow and irrotational-flow devices, and cold, collisionless plasmas. All the theorems are derived in a similar way, and a generalization of this method, using linear operators, is given. Among the power theorems discussed are: Tonks' theorem, the instantaneous and sinusoidal small-signal theorems, the energy theorem, a large-disturbance theorem, the Manley-Rowe formulas, an ac power theorem, and a cross-correlation theorem. Contributions to power and energy from surface waves are included. Allowing for relativistic flow and writing all equations in the laboratory frame does not significantly complicate the theorems, and in fact clarifies them somewhat. Many simple applications are discussed, although not in detail. Among these are: small-signal energy, power, and passivity; energy velocity in electron beam and plasma wave-guides; and a conservation theorem for multiple electron beams and electron beam-plasma interactions. View full abstract»

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  • A proposed harmonic generator based on cyclotron waves

    Page(s): 27 - 32
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    A cyclotron wave on a rectilinear filamentary beam can interact with a TE circuit mode of cylindrical symmetry propagating in synchronism with the beam. The interaction results in a periodic variation of the cyclotron transit angle of the electrons, causing a type of circumferential bunching which gives rise to high harmonic content. Provided the RF-field is adjusted to maximize a certain harmonic, its output power increases approximately as the square root of the harmonic number. The bunching is simply a redistribution of the relative positions of the various electrons constituting the original beam, and requires no supply of energy. All power delivered by the generator is therefore dissipated in the RF structure itself. The interaction mechanism is analyzed in detail, using two different approaches leading to the same final results. One is based on a wave description, the other considers the motion of the individual electrons. Possible applications for harmonic generation of high frequencies are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A simplified method for calculating klystron performance

    Page(s): 32 - 34
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    Designers of multicavity klystrons, faced with decisions in connection with the drift length/gain/efficiency compromise, can find theoretical treatment in an alarming variety of literature based both on the space-charge wave and the ballistic-electron-bunching theory. The only papers which effectively combine both theories are those of Webber [1], [2], in which a large number of curves representing considerable diversity of conditions have been computed. It has been found that, at the cost of a small error, a rearrangement of these results leads to useful universal curves (Fig. 1) enabling rapid decision making with regard to the effficiency/gain/ drift length compromise, in most situations. Gain calculations using Fig. 2 have given good agreement with practical results. View full abstract»

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  • Why a circuit sever affects traveling-wave tube efficiency

    Page(s): 35 - 40
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    The effect of a circuit sever on traveling-wave amplifier efficiency has been calculated from the large-signal traveling-wave tube equations. Measurements made on high-power traveling-wave amplifiers, which utilize a severed coupled-cavity interaction circuit, have confirmed the calculated results. The results show that a traveling-wave amplifier with C = 0.1 and QC = 0.25 must have 26 db or more growing-wave small-signal gain beyond the sever to obtain the maximum theoretical efficiency. If the growing-wave gain is less than this value, efficiency is reduced; for example, if the gain is 4 db less, the efficiency is reduced by one half. The mechanism which causes this reduction of saturated output power can be understood from the computed electron distribution in phase and velocity. From these phase-velocity diagrams, the degradation in efficiency is seen to be caused by the debunching of the beam by space-charge forces in the region between the sever and the point where the microwave signal builds up to the value it previously reached before the sever. Further study of the computer results shows that the loss in efficiency caused by insufficient gain beyond the sever cannot be made up by depressed collector operations, and that the use of over-voltage to obtain increased efficiency in a severed tube may not be effective because of the resulting reduction in gain that over-voltaging causes. View full abstract»

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  • A large-signal analysis of beam-type crossed-field traveling-wave tubes

    Page(s): 41 - 50
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    The equations describing a two-dimensional model of a beam-type crossed-field device are presented in a form adaptable to numerical computations. A method of computing the space-charge forces similar to that used by Tien, Walker, and Wolontis in describing the ordinary traveling-wave tube is outlined and the difficulties associated with this method are pointed out. Numerical results covering the interaction of a thin beam with a backward or a forward wave are presented for a variety of space-charge conditions. Space-charge effects reduce the large-signal gain of a backward-wave amplifier; it appears that 70 per cent conversion of available potential energy to RF energy would be excellent efficiency. Space-charge fields appear to have little influence on forward-wave interaction. For either forward- or backward-wave interaction, the computations indicate that a large fraction of the beam current is collected on a very short length of circuit, thus placing a limitation on the average power capabilities of such a crossed-field device. View full abstract»

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  • Slow-wave structures for M-type devices

    Page(s): 51 - 57
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    M-type devices such as magnetron oscillators, magnetron amplifiers and backward-wave oscillators always contain a sole plate to provide the static electric field which, together with a transverse static magnetic field, provides electron focusing. The sole plate unavoidably becomes part of the RF structure. It is the purpose of this paper to show the effect of the sole plate on the RF characteristics of the more common slow-wave structures. The results of the study indicate that no slow-wave structure containing a sole plate can be truly a backward-wave structure. The fundamental space harmonic must contain a region wherein the phase and group velocities are of the same sign. These results are predicted by a field analysis of the uniform-vane, strapped magnetron anode system. Such an analysis is made possible by two simplifying assumptions. The first assumption is that the interaction space between anode and sole can be replaced by an equivalent linear structure. In this way, the derived expressions for admittance become infinite series of exponential functions rather than infinite series of untabulated higher order Bessel functions. The second assumption is that the fields peculiar to the straps can be described by TEM waves. This assumption allows one to formulate a strap admittance which is in parallel with the admittance of the interaction space and the side cavity. The resultant dispersion equation can be solved graphically for the frequency-phase shift characteristic of the composite system. This analysis predicts that the straps may be either capacitive or inductive depending upon mode number, frequency and geometry. It shows that the frequency-phase shift characteristic is not simply derivable from the unstrapped anode system by the addition of a constant phase shift. It shows further that the fundamental space harmonic must contain a region wherein the phase and group velocities are of the same sign, i.e., the anode system is not, and cannot be, a simple bac- - kward-wave structure. These results are verified in detail by a careful and complete experimental study on a standard strapped magnetron anode structure. They are further verified by a second experimental study of the very common interdigital line structure. View full abstract»

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  • A traveling-wave description of distributed interaction klystrons

    Page(s): 57 - 61
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    This paper presents an analysis of the distributed interaction klystron using a simplified traveling-wave approach. The coupled-mode theory is used under the assumption that the behavior of the device can be adequately described by the interaction of the slow space-charge wave with a traveling circuit wave. It is shown that the description is equivalent to the klystron approach previously used to analyze the device. View full abstract»

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  • Electron ray tracing by means of resistor network and digital computer

    Page(s): 62 - 68
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    The problem of calculating electron trajectories in an electrostatic field is solved in two steps. First, the potential distribution for a given electrode configuration is found by means of a high precision resistor network. The second step requires a series of numerical calculations using the above potential values to determine the electron trajectories. All mathematical operations have been programmed for an IBM 709 digital computer. Three different mathematical methods are presented and compared. To check their accuracy test problems involving simple electrode configurations, for which the trajectories can be calculated analytically, were used. The error of a trajectory is defined bydelta/l, where δ is the maximum transverse deviation of a trajectory from its correct position andlis the length of the trajectory. Using the most accurate of the three methods for an electron in a homogeneous electric field between parallel planes the average error was1.3 times 10^{-4}. With the electric field between concentric spheres the average error was4 times 10^{-3}. The method of ray tracing described can be used for two-dimensional(x, y)and axially symmetric(r, z)fields. Space charge and magnetic fields can be taken into account. The time for calculating one trajectory over the whole length of the resistor network (50 units) is approximately 25 s. View full abstract»

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  • Helix couplers for linear-beam devices

    Page(s): 69 - 75
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    In this paper the interaction between electron beams and coupled helices is studied and generalized to include the effects of 1) space chargeQC; 2) finite circuit lossd; 3) finite values of gain parameterC; 4) an unrestricted coupling parameterk, and 5) the effect of having a large positive value of the velocity parameterbsuch that the propagation constants are purely imaginary. A general determinantal equation including all these factors is derived from the coupled-circuit equations and the stream equation. Curves of the propagation constants for a variety of operating parameters are shown. Attention is called to the fact that a region of growing wave is found for large positivebfor extremely tight coupling. The extent to which the "growing-wave island" is affected by the various operating parameters is also illustrated. Equations for the outer and inner helixr-fvoltages are derived and from which curves of the propagatingr-fpowers along the helices are computed and plotted. Positions for maximum transfer of energy between the helices can be deduced and the extent to which they are affected by the various Parameters is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution of recombination current in emitter-base junctions of silicon transistors

    Page(s): 75 - 81
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    Sah, Noyce and Shockley have attributed the decrease in the current gain of silicon transistors to recombination in the space-charge region of the emitter-base junction. It is suggested that for oxide-masked diffused structures the space-charge recombination current is concentrated at the junction periphery at or just under the surface. An analysis is presented which shows that measurement of the base current of transistor structures with two base contacts, as a function of voltage applied between the two base contacts, may be used to distinguish between recombination current which is concentrated at or near the surface periphery of the junction space-charge region, and recombination current distributed over the area of the junction. For the diffused structures examined, it is shown experimentally that the recombination takes place mainly at or near the junction surface periphery. View full abstract»

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  • A diffused field effect current limiter

    Page(s): 82 - 87
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    Following the development of the cut channel field effect current limiter by Warner, et al. an all-diffused device was designed and fabricated. This paper describes the design parameters as well as the critical fabrication procedures and control limits that were found necessary in order to prepare satisfactory devices. The current limiters were prepared from 3-mil thick slices of 50 ohm-cm, n-type silicon into which 1-mil thick gates were diffused. It is evident from the data that the tolerances for reproducibility of electrical characteristics fall within the expected variations due to diffusion control and parallel polishing of the sample if the background resistivity remains constant. However, because of the many thermal processing steps required in the fabrication procedure, variations occur in the effective impurity content in the high resistivity material. It is seen that the dependence of the electrical behavior of the devices on these variations is critical. View full abstract»

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  • The tunneling P-N junction

    Page(s): 88 - 93
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    The tunneling probability in an Esaki diode is very much dependent on the electric field strength which is itself dependent on the local fluctuations of ion concentration. The fluctuation of depletion layer thickness due to randomness of ion position is calculated. It is shown that most of the tunneling current is carried by only a small fraction of the total area. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of surface recombination and channel on P-N junction and transistor characteristics

    Page(s): 94 - 108
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    The current flowing in a semiconductor junction may be divided into four components according to the location of the recombination and generation of electrons and holes. These are: 1) the bulk recombination-generation or the diffusion current, 2) the bulk recombination-generation current in the transition region, 3) the surface recombination-generation current in the transition region, and 4) the surface channel current. The current-voltage relationship for these four current components may be approximated byI = I_{s} exp (qV/mkT), ifV > 4kT/q. Analysis shows that the reciprocal slopemfor the current components 1) to 3) lies between 1 and 2, while for the surface channel current component 4)mis greater than 2 for silicon junctions and may be more than 4 for large channels. The theoretical expressions for these four current components are tested with extensive experimental data taken on silicon junctions and found to account for all of the observed current-voltage characteristics. The importance of surface recombinations and surface channels on the current gain of silicon transistor is also demonstrated experimentally. The experimental data are in accord with the theoretical prediction based on the transistor current equations which include the carrier recombination in the emitter junction and the carrier generation in the collector junction. View full abstract»

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  • Program of meeting

    Page(s): 109 - 119
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    First Page of the Article
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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1962. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices.

Full Aims & Scope