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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6  Part 1 • Date Dec 1990

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 78
  • Simulation of design dependent failure exposure levels for CMOS ICs

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2097 - 2103
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)  

    The effects of design and bias on the radiation tolerance of ICs are studied, and an automated design tool is described that produces different designs for a logic function and presents important parameters of each design to a circuit designer for tradeoff analysis. It was shown by simulation and experimentally verified that the logic implementation of a circuit and the bias applied during irradiation are significant in determining the radiation tolerance of ICs. The software package aids designers in designing radiation-hard integrated circuits View full abstract»

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  • Radiation hardened SOS MOSFET technology for infrared focal plane readouts

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2020 - 2025
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)  

    A silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) MOSFET technology with a body contact technique is shown to provide a reduced kink effect and no edge leakage for a 500 krad(Si) Co-60 dose at 80 K. The approach utilizes a conventional local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) field implant process with a silicon conducting layer remaining beneath the field oxide. For the design, with the body connection beneath the field oxide, the contact can be made at significant distances from the device and potentially only one contract is required for each well with a number of transistors in a well. Additional advantages of the approach are greater packing densities, body connection to both sides of the channel and compatibility with standard bulk CMOS field oxide processes View full abstract»

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  • Automated photocurrent and bussing extraction for dose-rate rail span collapse simulations

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2104 - 2109
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    A simulator capable of simulating rail span collapse from layout-level inputs was developed. The simulations require radiation-induced photocurrent partitioning among proximal physical collection regions and electrical contacts to the power distribution network. The simulation approach incorporates simple geometric rules for current division inside a contiguous region along with the automated extraction of the power distribution network. Experimental results to verify the current division algorithms are also presented. Pixel-plane and scan-line techniques used for the automated extraction of the power distribution network are described. For simulation of the circuit, a simulator using conjugate-gradient algorithms is used. A postsimulation processor maps the actual supply rails onto the layout itself for easy identification of critical subcircuits View full abstract»

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  • The effect of ionizing radiation on sol-gel ferroelectric PZT capacitors

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1713 - 1717
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)  

    Ferroelectric (FE) thin-film capacitors are irradiated to 100 Mrad(Si) with 10-keV X-rays. Some of the FE hysteresis loops show distortion at 5 Mrad(Si). The type and degree of distortion are dependent on the polarization state and/or the applied field during irradiation. Preliminary results indicate that a fraction of the radiation-induced damage can be removed simply by cycling the FE capacitor with a 20-kHz square wave. The amount of damage removed is dependent upon the radiation conditions View full abstract»

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  • Variation in proton-induced upsets rates from large solar flares using an improved SEU model

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1947 - 1952
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB)  

    Proton integral flux measurements during solar energetic particle (SEP) events, from the CPME instrument onboard the IMP-8 satellite, and the proton detector on the GOES-7 satellite, are utilized to calculate proton-induced single-event upset (SEU). An improved two-parameter SEU cross section model is used for three RAM devices. The log of the 239 actual RAM upsets on the TDRS-1 satellite during the October 19, 1989 SEP event allowed a comparison between the recorded number of upsets/chip per day and those predicted based on the GOES-7 data, the two-parameter model, and the shielding distribution curve View full abstract»

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  • Radiation effects on fluorinated field oxides and associated devices

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2026 - 2032
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    Fluorine has been introduced into the LOCOS field oxide by high-energy (2-MeV) F implantation and subsequent annealing at 950°C for 60 min. Improved radiation hardness of the field oxide and its associated device parameters was observed. N-channel MOSFETs isolated by the fluorinated oxide exhibit a lower radiation-induced source-drain leakage current. This is attributed to the smaller density of radiation-induced positive oxide charge in the fluorinated field oxide compared to its control. This is consistent with experimental results showing that threshold voltage shifts of the field-oxide FETs are smaller than their control. In addition, the radiation-induced leakage currents of reverse biased n+p-junction diodes fabricated with the F implantation process are suppressed, suggesting that the generation of interface traps at the gate SiO2-Si and the field SiO2-Si interfaces is also reduced in the fluorinated devices View full abstract»

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  • Effect of radiation-induced charge on 1/f noise in MOS devices

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1696 - 1702
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    The 1/f noise in MOS transistors is measured as a function of gate and drain bias, total ionizing dose, and postirradiation biased annealing time. The transistors tested varied in size, radiation hardness, and process technology. The radiation-induced 1/f noise correlates strikingly with the oxide trap charge through irradiation and anneal, but not with interface-trap charge, for frequencies up to 10 kHz. This implies that oxide trapped charge is the predominant factor which leads to the increased 1/f noise in irradiated MOS devices View full abstract»

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  • Imaging charge-coupled device (CCD) transient response to 17 and 50 MeV proton and heavy-ion irradiation

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1876 - 1885
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB)  

    The results of irradiating a high-resolution, large-area, silicon charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging array (Kodak KAF-1400) with controlled low fluxes of collimated monoenergetic (17- and 50-MeV) protons and selected heavy ions are presented. The CCD response was measured at several angles of incidence, from normal to 70° off normal, and at several azimuthal angles. The transient response events are recorded and analyzed to infer the effective charge collection depth of the CCD. Selected individual proton-induced events are analyzed for their two-dimensional spatial amplitude, and the results are compared to a charge collection model which included contributions from both the pixel depletion and diffusion volumes for the geometry (pixel size and spacing) and thickness (depletion depth and epitaxial layer thickness) of this CCD View full abstract»

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  • The behaviour of measured SEU at low altitude during periods of high solar activity [spacecraft memories]

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1938 - 1946
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    The UoSAT-2 spacecraft, launched in 1984 into a polar orbit at an altitude of 700 km, has a number of systems which have been observed to experience single-event upsets at significant rates. During the year 1989, several solar flare events occurred which elevated the upset rates at high latitudes. The October 19 event, in particular, resulted in very high high-latitude upset rates. The data are separated and analyzed, deriving upset rates for the various memory devices under quiet cosmic-ray, South Atlantic anomaly, and solar flare conditions. The results of the heavy ion and proton testing of UoSAT memories undertaken in order to compare predictions and observations are presented View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of proton upset rates from heavy ion test data [ICs]

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1961 - 1965
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)  

    A simple method of calculating the proton upset rates from heavy ion test data is presented. Given the approximations made, particularly in fitting a curve to the experimental data, the error made in determining the upset rate can be as large as four or six. It is clear from this model that ICs with heavy ion thresholds >10 MeV/(mg/cm2) will probably not upset with protons. In critical applications ICs with LET thresholds less than 10 MeV/(mg/cm 2) should be tested with protons, or at the minimum careful heavy ion test data should be taken in the low LET regions (for heavy ion upset considerations as well as proton upset) View full abstract»

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  • The application of the bubble detector to the measurement of intense neutron fluences and energy spectra

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1769 - 1775
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    A novel type of bubble detector is developed which can measure neutron fluences on the order of 1011 n/cm2 (or a few grays). These detectors use superheated droplets which are much smaller than those in conventional bubble detectors. Preliminary studies involving several types of these microdroplet detectors having different neutron energy thresholds have been performed. The goal is to develop a set of such detectors which can be used as a simple neutron spectrometer needed in connection with TREE applications View full abstract»

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  • Understanding single event phenomena in complex analog and digital integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1832 - 1838
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB)  

    Single event phenomena (SEP) responses of complex analog and digital integrated circuits (ICs) cannot be characterized using common (i.e. memory) techniques. An analysis technique for complex SEP response has been developed that allows system analysis for the data in order to increase confidence in their thoroughness. The resulting data are directly applicable to existing orbital error rate codes. The general analysis technique is the main thrust of this study. For a circuit with a complex SEP response, guidelines are established which allow a complete solution to the linear system by establishing relevant error categories, the raw error variables, and a method of error separation. When the data are presented in the framework of a complete linear system, the required independent analysis for system use can proceed with high confidence in the SEP data. The technique is used to analyze the SEP response of an analog-to-digital converter View full abstract»

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  • Spin dependent recombination: a 29Si hyperfine study of radiation-induced Pb centers at the Si/SiO2 interface

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1650 - 1657
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB)  

    The spin-dependent recombination (SDR) technique is used to observe the 29Si hyperfine spectra of radiation-induced Pb centers at the Si/SiO2 interface in a MOSFET. The Pb center is a paramagnetic, trivalent silicon defect that is the dominant radiation-induced interface state. The 29Si hyperfine spectra give detailed atomic scale information about the Pb center. The SDR results show that the 29 Si hyperfine spectra vary with surface potential. This result indicates that differences in the defect's local geometry lead to substantial differences in the defect's energy level. However, the 29Si hyperfine spectra are found to be relatively independent of the ionizing radiation dosage View full abstract»

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  • Proton-induced displacement damage distributions and extremes in silicon microvolumes charge injection device

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1776 - 1783
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)  

    An analytic approach for determining the pixel-to-pixel distribution of particle-induced damage and damage extremes in microvolumes representative of focal plane array pixel geometries is presented. Comparisons between predicted and measured dark current distributions in a silicon charge injection device (CID) show excellent agreement for 12- and 63-MeV proton-induced damage. The calculated and measured damage extremes are compared using extreme value statistical analysis. The calculations reveal how high-energy recoils from proton-induced nuclear reactions strongly influence the pixel-to-pixel variation in damage as well as the damage extremes. A comparison between Si and GaAs pixels with equal volumes and equal 12-MeV proton fluences indicates that both the average damage and its variance are significantly greater in GaAs View full abstract»

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  • Alteration in electrical and infrared switching properties of vanadium oxides due to proton irradiation

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1739 - 1743
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    The effects of proton irradiation on the electrical and infrared switching properties of vanadium oxides were studied. Bombardments are carried out to fluences typical of long-term space missions. Proton bombardment significantly alters semiconductor phase resistivity, infrared transmissivity, transition temperature and hysteresis width. It is concluded that amorphization, hydrogen doping, and strain-related effects are not operative in the changes observed. Vanadium and oxygen vacancies and/or interstitials remain the likely cause for these changes. Implications of these results on proposed damage models are discussed View full abstract»

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  • A spaceborne CsI (Tl) calorimeter for cosmic gamma-rays

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2179 - 2184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB)  

    Features of an instrument capable of measuring accurately cosmic gamma rays in the gigaelectronvolt energy range are discussed. The main component of this instrument is an electromagnetic calorimeter based on rods of CsI(Tl). The expected energy resolution is about 1% at 3 GeV. The use of such a calorimeter in a spaceborne experiment poses some technical problems. The temperature variation of the scintillation light yield must be accurately known in order to correct the data. The temperature dependence using cosmic ray muons and various radioactive sources is reported. The calibration of individual rods is crucial to achieving the desired resolution. Various methods of performing calibration in space, such as radioactive sources and cosmic rays, are discussed and it is concluded that a calibration procedure utilizing cosmic rays is feasible. Space experiments require stable low-power electronics. Readout electronics are presented, and estimates of noise and rates are given View full abstract»

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  • Latch-up on CMOS/EPI devices

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1839 - 1842
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB)  

    A dedicated latch-up test system has been developed and was used on two beam lines, the GANIL cyclotron and the IPN Tandem Van de Graaff located in Caen and Orsay (France). The main characteristics of these facilities are presented. Several VLSI circuits were irradiated, and the latchup phenomenon was detected on eight CMOS/EPI devices, revealing various ranges of sensitivity. Recording of the value and rising edge of latchup current was also performed. The problem of whether or not latchup-sensitive circuits should be used for space projects and the need for studies of component design hardening, system design hardening, and latchup rate prediction are addressed. Data are presented on several CMOS/EPI devices demonstrating that an epitaxial layer cannot efficiently achieve latchup immunity for some of the latest technologies View full abstract»

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  • Single-event upset in GaAs E/D MESFET logic

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1894 - 1901
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    The single-event upset (SEU) characterization of GaAs enhancement/depletion (E/D) MESFET logic circuits was experimentally performed for five different logic families. The results indicate a large charge collection volume, independent of the logic family. These results can be attributed to a gate edge effect and an enhanced source-drain charge collection mechanism. The consequence of these effects is to increase the upset rate in space by more than two orders of magnitude. Soft-error rates were estimated for each logic family and spanned the range from 2.3×10-3 to 4.7×10-4 errors/bit-day View full abstract»

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  • Ionizing radiation effects on HgCdTe MIS devices

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2034 - 2041
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB)  

    Total-dose irradiations of HgCeTe MIS capacitors containing an anodic-sulfide interface passivation layer reveal electron and hole trapping in the insulator and irradiation-bias dependences of flatband voltage shift, interface trap density, surface generation velocity, and storage time. Under positive irradiation bias, charge buildup in the insulator is dominated by trapped holes. Isochronal annealing studies reveal nearly complete recovery of the flatband voltage at ~275 K for an irradiation to 105 rad(Si) at ~80 K. Significant neutralization of trapped holes is evident if the applied bias is changed during irradiation View full abstract»

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  • Time-dependent hole and electron trapping effects in SIMOX buried oxides

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1982 - 1989
    Cited by:  Papers (47)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)  

    The back-channel threshold shift associated with the buried oxide layers of separation by implanted oxygen (SIMOX) and zone-melted recrystallization (ZMR) field-effect transistors (FETs) was measured following pulsed irradiation as a function of temperature and back-gate bias using a fast time-resolved I-V measurement technique. The SIMOX FETs showed large initial negative voltage shifts at 0.2 ms after irradiation followed by temperature- and bias-dependent additional negative shifts to 800 s. Analysis and modeling of the results indicated: (1) efficient deep trapping of radiation-generated holes in the bulk of the oxide, (2) substantial initial trapping of radiation-generated electrons in the oxide, and (3) rapid removal of the trapped electrons by a thermal detrapping process. The ZMR FETs showed evidence of substantial trapping of holes alone in the oxide bulk View full abstract»

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  • Particle-induced spatial dark current fluctuations in focal plane arrays

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1784 - 1791
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    An analytic calculation which describes the pixel-to-pixel variation in the particle-induced dark current distribution of a focal plane array is developed. The most important contributions to the dark current variance are shown to be the variations in the number of primary interactions, the energies of the primary recoils produced, and the charge emission from radiation-induced defects due to that electric field distribution. Microdosimetry theory provides a general approach for calculating the dark current variance for any incident particle for which the moments of the recoil spectrum are known and is shown to predict the dark current response successfully for neutrons and protons View full abstract»

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  • Radiation induced defects in CVD-grown 3C-SiC

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1732 - 1738
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)  

    Radiation-induced defects in 3C-SiC epitaxially grown by a chemical vapor deposition method were studied with the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. A 15-line ESR spectrum was observed in 2-MeV proton and 1-MeV electron irradiated 3C-SiC when the magnetic field was applied parallel to the <100> axis. This spectrum, T1, which has an isotropic g-value of 2.0029±0.0001, was interpreted by simultaneous hyperfine interactions of a paramagnetic electron with the surrounding 13C at four carbon sites and 29Si at 12 silicon sites. The T1 spectrum appeared to arise from a point defect at a silicon site. The observed hyperfine interactions with neighboring 13C and 29Si nuclei are discussed in terms of a simple molecular-orbital treatment of the defect View full abstract»

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  • Total-dose characterization of a high-performance radiation-hardened 1.0-μm CMOS sea-of-gates technology

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2089 - 2096
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    A radiation-hardened CMOS sea-of-gates technology with 1.0-μm geometry is developed which is fully compatible with commercial technologies. Total-dose and postirradiation effects are investigated in detail on transistors and circuits designed on a 2K-gate test chip. The data show that this technology is radiation hardened up to a total dose of 1 Mrad(SiO2) and may be functional at 10 Mrad(SiO2 ). Moreover, using a simple analytic model for switching of CMOS circuits, it is shown that the changes in circuit performance are well correlated with those in transistor characteristics View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the anneal of radiation-induced trapped holes in a varying thermal environment

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 1682 - 1689
    Cited by:  Papers (81)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)  

    The anneal of radiation-induced trapped holes in MOS transistors is found to be thermally activated. A quantitative, physical model based on thermal emission and tunneling is developed. It accurately predicts the anneal of radiation-induced trapped holes in constant or time-varying thermal environments. Data are presented which quantitatively verify the accuracy of the model for temperatures between 25 and 160°C. This model provides the basis for developing accurate quantitative screens for the rebound failure mechanism View full abstract»

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  • Interpretation of high voltage solar array discharge experiments

    Publication Year: 1990 , Page(s): 2120 - 2127
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    High-voltage operation of photovoltaic power sources in low earth orbit is limited by the probability of discharges in the array. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterize these discharges. A model is proposed that suggests that experiments conducted to date have measured transients related to the discharging of the solar cell cover glass as a result of a discharge rather than the discharge itself. A system analysis approach is adopted to model the discharge transient. It is found that the experimental transients could be modeled as the decharging of the solar cell cover glass through the adhesive resistance. Ion current collection by the interconnects after the discharge could be modeled as an equivalent inductor. The predictions of this model are shown to be in excellent agreement with the data View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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