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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 2005

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 65
  • Compressed domain editing of JPEG2000 images

    Page(s): 710 - 717
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (779 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To process or introduce editing effects on JPEG2000 images, we propose techniques applying these operations in the compressed domain. Our approach exploits the properties of the wavelet transform and the rich bitstream syntax of the JPEG2000 standard. The suggested techniques provide significant speed-ups compared to the conventional methods based on spatial domain processing of the decoded images. View full abstract»

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  • Interference mitigation for improved DTV reception

    Page(s): 463 - 470
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Broadcasting has always been limited by interference between signals. With the introduction of digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) in the existing analog TV channels, interference remains a limiting factor in the post-transition era after analog signals are turned off and the spectrum is repacked. The use of first adjacent channels and the "UHF taboo channels" in the same community without transmitter spacing limits is unprecedented, and is a challenge to digital television (DTV) receiver designers. This paper discusses the nature of interference between DTV signals on adjacent and UHF taboo channels, and propose some solutions to receiver designers to mitigate the problem. View full abstract»

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  • Low-cost video decoder with 2D2L comb filter for NTSC digital TVs

    Page(s): 694 - 698
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low-cost video decoder for NTSC signals is described in this paper. The proposed NTSC video decoder design employs a 2D2L comb filter, and a DDFS (direct digital frequency synthesizer)-based DCO (digital control oscillator) based on a trigonometric quadruple angle formula in a digital PLL to track and lock the demodulation clocks. The complexity of the digital video decoder is consequently drastically reduced. The overall cost of the proposed design is 7.22 mm2 (26 K gates). The maximum power dissipation is 109.2 mW at the highest clock rate which is 21.48 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • A low-ripple poly-Si TFT charge pump for driver-integrated LCD panel

    Page(s): 606 - 610
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (521 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low-ripple charge pump for voltage up-conversion is described which was implemented in a poly-Si thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology for driver-integrated liquid-crystal-display (LCD) panels. The ripple voltage of the charge pump is reduced by employing a multi-phase clocking method. The charge pump was implemented in a poly-Si TFT technology. For output current of 100μA, filtering capacitor of 100 pF and pumping clock frequency of 1 MHz, the measured ripple voltage of the proposed charge pump is 135 mV while that of conventional Dickson charge pump is 590 mV. The measured pumping efficiencies of the Dickson and proposed 4-phase clocking charge pump are 59% and 65%, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A serial connection technique of speakers for multi-channel audio systems

    Page(s): 611 - 616
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a serial transmission technique of signals for multi-channel audio systems. The technique converts analog audio signals of multiple channels of an audio unit into digital signals, and transfers the digital signals to the speakers through a serial line sequentially. Each speaker is allowed to select its corresponding digital audio signals and to transform the signals into analog audio signals to make sounds for the speaker. The functions of the proposed technique are modeled in VHDL, implemented with FPGA chips, and tested for actual audio systems. View full abstract»

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  • Data adaptive filters for demosaicking: a framework

    Page(s): 560 - 570
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (631 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new demosaicking framework for single-sensor imaging devices operating on a Bayer color filter array (CFA) is introduced and analyzed. An efficient data adaptive filtering concept in conjunction with the refined spectral models constitutes the base for the proposed framework. Using a different form of the function mapping the aggregated absolute differences among the CFA inputs to the edge-sensing weighting coefficients, the framework allows to design fully automated demosaicking solutions suitable for common digital imaging apparatus, and alternatively, the proposed solutions can also be used to support PC-based demosaicking of the raw CFA images. Thus, the framework can be seen as a universal tool satisfying the needs of the end-users for i) the instant access and visualization of the captured images, and ii) the interactive processing of the raw sensor data. Moreover, the proposed framework is relatively easy to implement in either software or hardware. Experimental results indicate that the proposed framework exhibits excellent performance in terms of the commonly used objective criteria and at the same time it produces demosaicked images with impressive visual quality. View full abstract»

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  • Active isochronous resource manager for intense dynamic resource allocation service with IEEE1394

    Page(s): 501 - 506
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    With the increased use of various audio/video style digital consumer appliances in home networks, the concurrent support of multiple multimedia streaming services is also clearly required in a home network. Although the isochronous transaction of IEEE 1394 is the best solution for such streaming services, the current IEEE 1394 standard specifications do not consider the dynamic management of isochronous bandwidth resources or a dynamic allocation service for isochronous resources. Accordingly, this paper presents an architecture for an isochronous resource management service that can support an intense dynamic allocation service in an IEEE 1394-based home network environment. The proposed isochronous resource manager service is also implemented using an IEEE 1394 device driver for RTLinux. View full abstract»

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  • An MPEG2/4 dual codec with sharing motion estimation

    Page(s): 660 - 664
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An MPEG2/4 dual codec algorithm has been developed, targeting consumer products with digital video storage, digital network communication, and so on. By using new method of sharing the motion estimation (ME) between MPEG2 and MPEG4, a low power and high quality MPEG2/4 dual codec system can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of wireless LAN baseband processor based on space-frequency OFDM transmit diversity scheme

    Page(s): 393 - 398
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose an efficient symbol detection algorithm for space-frequency OFDM (SF-OFDM) transmit diversity scheme and present the implementation results of the SF-OFDM wireless LAN (WLAN) baseband processor with the proposed algorithm. When the number of sub-carriers in SF-OFDM scheme is small, the interference between adjacent sub-carriers is generated. The proposed algorithm eliminates this interference in a parallel manner and obtains a considerable performance improvement over the conventional detection algorithm. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed detection algorithm is evaluated by the simulation. In the case of 2 transmit and 2 receive antennas, at BER=10-4 the proposed algorithm obtains about 3 dB gain over the conventional detection algorithm. The packet error rate (PER), link throughput, and coverage performance of the SF-OFDM WLAN with the proposed detection algorithm are also estimated. For the target throughput at 80% of the peak data rate, the SF-OFDM WLAN achieves the average SNR gain of about 5.95 dB and the average coverage gain of 3.98 meter. The SF-OFDM WLAN baseband processor with the proposed algorithm was designed in a hardware description language and synthesized to gate-level circuits using 0.18 μm 1.8 V CMOS standard cell library. With the division-free architecture, the total logic gate count for the processor is 945 K. The real-time operation is verified and evaluated using a FPGA test system. View full abstract»

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  • Convergence of broadcasting and communication in home network using an EPON-based home gateway and overlay

    Page(s): 485 - 493
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Home network systems including a home gateway are expected to facilitate the convergence of broadcasting and communication services to complement the ubiquitous computing and services. We focus on supporting the convergence of broadcasting and communication in home network systems with an Ethernet passive optical network (EPON)-based home gateway. We propose a new architecture that integrates broadcasting and data services in a home network. For this architecture, we use an overlay transport mechanism in access network and IP multicast techniques of the Internet group management protocol (IGMP) and IGMP snooping in a home network. We also detail a set of mechanisms and procedures for a home broadcasting service through the home gateway system. Our new scheme is composed of three parts: a) an overlay transmission model of video broadcasting signals (satellite and/or cable TV) and Internet data, b) to select a specific video broadcasting channel and video broadcasting stream into IP multicast packets in tuner/conversion module using multiple tuner system and c) to transfer the converted IP multicast packets to L2 switch of home gateway's core module and to send them out to target port(s) by L2 multicast using IGMP snooping. View full abstract»

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  • Noise-adaptive spatio-temporal filter for real-time noise removal in low light level images

    Page(s): 648 - 653
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Noise reduction gradually becomes one of the most important features in consumer cameras. The video signal is easily interfered by noise during acquisition process especially in low light environment. Many of the state-of-the-art filters for noise reduction perform-well for high contrast images. However, for low light images, the filter performance degrades seriously. In this paper, we propose a noise-adaptive spatio-temporal (NAST) filtering for removal of noise in low light level images. The proposed algorithm consists of a statistical domain temporal filter (SDTF) for moving area and a spatial hybrid filter (SHF) for stationary area. By minimizing required resources for implementation, we present a high quality, low-cost noise reduction filter for low light images. Since the proposed algorithm is designed for real-time implementation, it can be used as a pre-filter for a DCT-based encoder to enhance the coding efficiency of many commercial applications such as low cost camcorders, digital cameras, CCTV, and surveillance video systems. View full abstract»

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  • New set-top box for interactive visual communication of home entertainment using MPEG-2 full-duplex CODEC LSI

    Page(s): 640 - 641
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new set-top box of interactive visual communication for home entertainment exploiting single-chip MPEG-2 CODEC LSI. The set-top box has been designed to achieve recent audio-visual compression technologies for consumer applications, especially very-low-delay and robust-error-tolerant dedicated to interactive visual communication. This set-top box with home television set provides standard-TV-quality bi-directional video transmission via commercially available FTTH-based IP broadband network. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced shot boundary detection using video text information

    Page(s): 580 - 588
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Shot boundary detection is a pre-requisite process for content-based video indexing and retrieval, an application domain that has attracted much research and consumer attentions due to the explosive growth of video data available and accessible to users worldwide. Currently, a number of edge-based techniques have been proposed in the literature for detecting abrupt shot boundaries to avoid the influence of flashlights common in many video types, such as sports, news, entertainment, and interviews videos. However, these techniques are susceptible to miss and false detections of abrupt shot changes. Our study shows that one main reason for these errors is due to the presence of superimposed texts that are common in various video genres. To address this problem, we present in this paper an efficient method that utilizes the edge type - text-edge (edge in text region) or non-text-edge (edge in non-text region) - to reduce erroneous detection due to the sudden appearance and disappearance of superimposed text. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results show that our proposed method, as compared with other existing methods, can obtain better performance in detecting abrupt shot boundaries and differentiating them from the effects of superimposed text. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced implementation of blind carrier frequency estimators for QPSK satellite receivers at low SNR

    Page(s): 442 - 448
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we focus on blind estimation of the carrier frequency of QPSK modulated data transmission systems. At low SNR, the so-called threshold phenomenon appears. maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation is used to avoid this phenomenon. The ML estimator is based on the fast-Fourier-transform (FFT). As the SNR decreases, the size of the FFT, that is, the implementation complexity of the estimator, must increase to keep the performance. We propose some ML based algorithms that are able to optimize the implementation of the estimator at low SNR. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can lower the threshold of the operating SNR more than 4 dB without increasing the size of the FFT. Thus, we reduce the implementation complexity of the frequency estimator. View full abstract»

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  • Pragmatic trellis coding applied to rectangular QAM

    Page(s): 365 - 370
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although Ungerboeck's TCM (trellis coded modulation) is attractive in terms of high efficiency with low descending data rate by coding and high coding gain, it is difficult to implement. To remove this complexity, a pragmatic approach to the TCM, which is realized by employing the de facto convolutional code (constraint length K=7 and rate 1/2), was proposed. In this paper, a simpler realization of the TCM of rectangle type 2N QAM (N is even number; ≥ 4) by using the pragmatic approach is presented. We have independently shown the convolutional coding and the Viterbi decoding by the decomposition from two-dimensions into each one-dimension. By this decomposition, it is possible to apply the pragmatic approach to minimize the hardware and cost. Therefore, it is very useful for 64 QAM or 256 QAM applications such as digital video broadcasting over digital cable TV (ITU-T J.83) and fixed wireless access (IEEE 802.16) systems. It can be applied not only to single carrier QAM but also to multi-carrier QAM like OFDM. View full abstract»

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  • CORDIC-based architecture with channel state information for OFDM baseband receiver

    Page(s): 403 - 412
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2292 KB)  

    An efficient architecture for OFDM baseband receiver based on coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm is proposed with channel state information (CSI). Two dual-mode CORDIC modules are designed for synchronization and equalization. A modified demapping method using CSI helps to provide sub-channel status, and therefore decreases the packet error rates especially for some sub-channels with extremely low SNR. A combined algorithm suitable for CORDIC is proposed for not only the estimation and compensation of channels but synchronization for carrier frequency offset and sampling clock offset. Allocation, timing analysis and complexity for all functional blocks in the receiver are proposed, including front-end processing, FFT, inner receiver, and outer receiver. Complete tests for packet error rate are simulated under an integrated platform considering of RF front-end non-ideal parameters, filters, quantization, and channel models. Simulation results of practical circuits on AWGN and channel models are presented and prove the improvement of the receiver. The design occupies about 424 k equivalent gate count and 7.3 mm2 core size in 0.18-μm CMOS. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent sound field tuning system for home theater systems

    Page(s): 635 - 639
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent sound field tuning system for home theater systems that includes room acoustic compensation and additive artificial sound field processing. Room acoustic compensation is performed based on the information about room transfer characteristics measured by a three-channel microphone array. With a three-channel microphone array, we estimate the exact angular position, distance, level, and frequency response of loudspeakers. Using this information, the proposed system can compensate the degradation induced by non-ideal loudspeaker arrangement with virtual loudspeaker positioning and binaural energy level alignment algorithm. After room acoustic compensation, additive artificial sound field processing is performed for more realistic spacious impression. For artificial sound field processing, directional impulse responses are measured in real acoustic space by three-channel microphone array. View full abstract»

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  • A joint rate control scheme for H.264 encoding of multiple video sequences

    Page(s): 617 - 623
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (205 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of joint rate control is to dynamically distribute the channel capacity among video sequences according to their respective complexities, thus a more uniform picture quality and a more efficient utilization of channel capacity are achieved. Most existing approaches are based on MPEG2 coding platform. This paper presents a novel joint rate control scheme for multiple video sequences coding based on H.264 standard. The joint rate control is performed hierarchically from a group of pictures of all sequences down to each picture of every sequence, depending on both the complexity of frames and the buffer occupancy. A novel complexity measure that adapts to the characteristics of H.264 video coding is proposed. An improved joint buffer control strategy, which is extended from that in the single sequence rate control scheme, is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme maintains a good balance in picture quality among the sequences as well as within a sequence. View full abstract»

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  • Recording interactive TV

    Page(s): 540 - 544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digital TV is now being enhanced with interactivity based on such standards as multimedia home platform (MHP) and digital TV application software environment (DASE). Recording digital TV with interactivity poses some problems when the interactivity is directly linked to the A/V content. In this paper we propose a method of recording interactive TV, taking MHP as an example, which separates the interactivity from the A/V content. The interactivity is multiplexed in the broadcast in a DSM-CC object carousel. Taking the interactivity out of the transport stream (TS) and storing it separately allows us to solve the problems related to recording interactive TV. View full abstract»

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  • 1024-QAM demodulator robust to phase noise of cable STB tuners

    Page(s): 413 - 418
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The 1024-QAM demodulator we developed for cable television networks uses a modified symbol-decision region to reduce the effects of phase noise due to set-top-box tuners. The symbol-decision region is optimized by analysis of phase noise distribution. Simulation results show that good demodulation characteristics of a 1024-QAM signal are achieved under typical phase-noise conditions. The results are verified in a field trial with a prototype demodulator and an off-the-shelf tuner. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of layer architecture software modules for LCD TV systems

    Page(s): 725 - 730
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the need of compatibility between software and hardware modules of a LCD TV system, we propose a software design with layer architecture for a LCD TV system. With the layer architecture, we need only modify the device driver layer for the different chip sets and the user interface layer for the different operating systems. With this advantage we can shorten the product design cycle for the different chip sets by the reusing most of the previous software modules. To reduce the design complexity of the LCD TV system, we adopt the mechanism of the state/event matrix and message queue instead of the complicated state machine design to control the TV system operation. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a TV reception navigation system personalized with viewing habits

    Page(s): 665 - 674
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (275 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Digitalization of television broadcasting results in an increasing number of broadcast channels and is making general viewers difficult to do program select operations. In view of this, we have developed a TV reception navigation system that helps different types of viewers to easily select TV programs in accordance with their occasional mood and interests. The system recommends programs suited for viewers' allocation of living hours, while providing an electronic program guide (EPG) personalized for their interests, it also incorporates a facility to search a program schedule with keywords such as person names and place names, as well as a facility to modify the viewer profile according to the selection result for personalization purpose. Experimental tests on this system have been conducted in the manner that testing evaluators select programs among approximately 100 channels of actual satellite and terrestrial broadcasting in Japan. System functions have been evaluated in terms of different types of programs aired in the morning, afternoon and evening. The result of subjective evaluation tests reveals the usefulness of this personal TV reception navigation system. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient robust adaptive decision feedback equalizer for large delay sparse channel

    Page(s): 449 - 456
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an efficient decision feedback equalizer (DFE) is presented for sparse channels with large delay echoes, which are encountered in many high-speed wireless communication applications. Unlike the conventional DFE, this proposed equalizer considers that the channel is sparse and large number of DFE taps lead to noise accumulation problem. The new method can achieve efficient equalization by setting the active group for equalization taps and clearing the abandoned taps mechanism. As a result, it can both reduce hardware implementation complexity effectively and improve the performance compared to the conventional DFE. Brief analysis about noise accumulation effects in large-scale equalizer and working mechanism description of this effective algorithm exhibits us where the performance gain lies. Simulation results show that this modified DFE exhibits considerable computational savings, faster convergence, and better performance and improved tracking capabilities than the conventional ones. It is quite fit for applications in high-speed systems, such as high definition television (HDTV) and broadband mobile communication. View full abstract»

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  • A practical, real-time speech-driven home automation front-end

    Page(s): 514 - 523
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents an integrated system that uses speech as a natural input modality to provide user-friendly access to information and entertainment devices installed in a real home environment. The practical limitations introduced by the on-line nature of the application as well as the implementation challenges and solutions are analyzed. The focus of the present study is on the implementation on the front-end signal pre-processing block that consist of an array of 8 microphones connected to a multi-channel soundcard and a tandem of workstations performing all signal pre-processing tasks, such as, acquisition, filtering, and beam-forming. Evaluation of the beamformer's performance in realistic home environment with controllable noise sources is provided. Furthermore, speech and speaker recognition results using the front-end that was deployed are presented. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583