By Topic

Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date May 2005

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 65
  • Enhanced-xVSB system development for mobile/portable reception

    Page(s): 419 - 423
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (519 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the advanced dual stream system for improving mobile/pedestrian reception performance to the ATSC DTV 8-VSB transmission standard. The proposed system can transmit a mixture of normal (8-VSB) stream and enhanced (robust) stream. The robust stream has a lower threshold of visibility (TOV) compared to the standard stream, and legacy receivers ignore the robust packets. Thus, the enhanced-xVSB system is fully backward compatible with a current ATSC standard. For more robust transmission support, E-xVSB system adopts a reduced constellation method as well as enhanced trellis-coded modulation scheme. E-xVSB system supports a variety of enhanced modulation schemes: pseudo-2VSB, enhanced-4VSB, modified enhanced-8VSB and hybrid-VSB. The proposed system has been tested in the lab, and the testing results are shown in this paper. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A CMOS infrared wireless optical receiver front-end with a variable-gain fully-differential transimpedance amplifier

    Page(s): 424 - 429
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A CMOS infrared wireless optical receiver front-end is presented. A stable variable-gain fully-differential transimpedance feedback amplifier is designed employing a current-mode amplifier as the feedforward gain element. More than a triple variation of the transimpedance gain, from 0.3 kΩ to 1 kΩ, the variable-gain transimpedance amplifier achieves desirable gain-bandwidth independence. For an infrared wireless optical receiver front-end employing the transimpedance amplifier, the optical preamplifier achieves a transimpedance gain of 66 dBΩ and a bandwidth of 114 MHz with a 5 pF photodiode capacitance, and a power consumption of 17.4 mW. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Low-cost video decoder with 2D2L comb filter for NTSC digital TVs

    Page(s): 694 - 698
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low-cost video decoder for NTSC signals is described in this paper. The proposed NTSC video decoder design employs a 2D2L comb filter, and a DDFS (direct digital frequency synthesizer)-based DCO (digital control oscillator) based on a trigonometric quadruple angle formula in a digital PLL to track and lock the demodulation clocks. The complexity of the digital video decoder is consequently drastically reduced. The overall cost of the proposed design is 7.22 mm2 (26 K gates). The maximum power dissipation is 109.2 mW at the highest clock rate which is 21.48 MHz. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A TV sign image expander with built-in closed caption decoder

    Page(s): 682 - 687
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low cost TV set top box capable of expanding sign images and decoding closed caption data is described. Its internal architecture mainly consists of video decoder/encoder, 256 Kbytes of video memories, an infrared receiver and an FPGA based video processing unit. The FPGA implements a 27 MHz 8 bits microcontroller, an image expander, an on screen display unit, a 12C interface plus other control logic. The image expander uses a fixed 2×2 bilinear interpolation coupled with a nearest neighborhood input selection to simplify the hardware that allows 9 image scaling factors ranging from 1×1 to 2×2. The sign image that can be expanded is of the maximum size of 128×128 pixels or approximately 1/25 of the entire TV screen. This video processing unit can also decode both Thai and English caption codes inserted in the vertical blanking interval of the incoming composite video signal and display their Thai-English colored fonts in 32×16 dot matrix forms. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A robust digital image stabilization technique based on inverse triangle method and background detection

    Page(s): 335 - 345
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel robust digital image stabilization (DlS) technique is proposed to remove the unwanted shaking phenomena in the image sequences captured by hand-held camcorders without affecting the moving objects in the image sequence and intentional motion of panning condition, etc. It consists of a motion estimation unit and a motion compensation unit. To increase the robustness in the adverse image conditions, an inverse triangle method is proposed to extract reliable motion vectors in plain images which are lack of features or contain large low-contrast area, etc., and a background evaluation model is developed to deal with irregular images which contain large moving objects, etc. In the motion compensation unit, a CMV estimation method with an inner feedback-loop integrator is proposed to remove the unwanted shaking phenomena without losing the effective area of the image in panning condition. We also propose a smoothness index (Sl) to quantitatively evaluate the performances of different image stabilization methods. The experimental results are on-line available to demonstrate the remarkable performance of the proposed DIS technique. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • System architecture for a multi-media enabled mobile terminal

    Page(s): 430 - 437
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (303 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A system architecture for mobile terminals is proposed, in which the signal processing for the cellular communications channel and the associated protocol stack processing are implemented independent of the application system, which handles audio and video processing functions and the user interface. This approach enables the use of open operating systems for the application system and the integration of connectivity communication pipes into the system, while maintaining the integrity and huge investment in the protocol stack software of the cellular subsystem. High speed digital serial links are used to connect the processing subsystems and the video peripherals. This improves the modularity of the solution and gives the equipment manufacturers increased flexibility. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Noise-adaptive spatio-temporal filter for real-time noise removal in low light level images

    Page(s): 648 - 653
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Noise reduction gradually becomes one of the most important features in consumer cameras. The video signal is easily interfered by noise during acquisition process especially in low light environment. Many of the state-of-the-art filters for noise reduction perform-well for high contrast images. However, for low light images, the filter performance degrades seriously. In this paper, we propose a noise-adaptive spatio-temporal (NAST) filtering for removal of noise in low light level images. The proposed algorithm consists of a statistical domain temporal filter (SDTF) for moving area and a spatial hybrid filter (SHF) for stationary area. By minimizing required resources for implementation, we present a high quality, low-cost noise reduction filter for low light images. Since the proposed algorithm is designed for real-time implementation, it can be used as a pre-filter for a DCT-based encoder to enhance the coding efficiency of many commercial applications such as low cost camcorders, digital cameras, CCTV, and surveillance video systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Three wavelength compatible pickup with blue/red multi-beam laser unit

    Page(s): 346 - 350
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have proposed a compatible pickup for HD DVD/DVD/CD systems, which uses a blue/red multi-beam laser unit and an IR-LD (infra-red laser diode) chip. The optical path of the DVD system is aligned to that of the HD DVD system to share one sensor. Experimental results confirm the practicality of the proposed pickup. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Numerical precision requirements on the multiband ultra-wideband system for practical consumer electronic devices

    Page(s): 386 - 392
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the requirements on the numerical precision for a practical multiband ultra-wideband (UWB) consumer electronic solution. To this end, we first present the possibilities that UWB has to offer to the consumer electronics market and the possible range of devices. We then show the performance of a model of the UWB baseband system implemented using floating point precision. Then, by simulation we find the minimal numerical precision required to maintain floating-point performance for each of the specific data types and signals present in the UWB baseband. Finally, we present a full description of the numerical requirements for both the transmit and receive components of the UWB baseband. The numerical precision results obtained in this paper can then be used by baseband designers to implement cost effective UWB systems using system-on-chip (SoC), FPGA and ASIC technology solutions biased toward the competitive consumer electronics market. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Enhanced implementation of blind carrier frequency estimators for QPSK satellite receivers at low SNR

    Page(s): 442 - 448
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we focus on blind estimation of the carrier frequency of QPSK modulated data transmission systems. At low SNR, the so-called threshold phenomenon appears. maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation is used to avoid this phenomenon. The ML estimator is based on the fast-Fourier-transform (FFT). As the SNR decreases, the size of the FFT, that is, the implementation complexity of the estimator, must increase to keep the performance. We propose some ML based algorithms that are able to optimize the implementation of the estimator at low SNR. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can lower the threshold of the operating SNR more than 4 dB without increasing the size of the FFT. Thus, we reduce the implementation complexity of the frequency estimator. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An energy recovery circuit for AC plasma display panel with series CLC resonance-SER1

    Page(s): 718 - 724
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The switching power loss due to the panel capacitance during sustain period in AC PDP driving system can be minimized by using the energy recovery circuits. We have proposed a series CLC resonance type ERC (energy recovery circuit), SER1 (Seoul National University Energy Recovery circuit 1st). A load capacitance model was arranged for AC PDP, and the different capacitive load characteristics for the different sustain waveforms were explained. We also arranged the design procedure for SER1, and the experimental circuit was made by this guide. The experimental results of its application to a 42-inch surface discharge type AC PDP full module showed good performance of SER1 in energy recovery rate, which was measured up to 92%. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hysteresis controller with constant switching frequency

    Page(s): 688 - 693
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Switch mode audio power amplifiers are showing up on market in still greater numbers because of advantages in form of high efficiency and low total system cost, especially for high power amplifiers. Several different modulator topologies have been made, ranging from standard PWM to various self-oscillating and digital modulators. Performance in terms of low distortion, noise and dynamic range differs significantly with the modulator topology used. Highest system performance is generally achieved with analog modulators made as a modulator loop including at least the power stage of the amplifier, because of benefits from continuous time operation and non-quantized resolution. This type of modulator uses no external carrier signal, and is called self-oscillating modulators. The work presented in this paper refers to switch mode audio power amplifier, but can be used within a wide range of DC-DC or DC-AC converters as well. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An optimal tracking controller design based on the estimation of tracking vibration quantity

    Page(s): 478 - 484
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper provides a schematic method estimating the tracking vibration quantity occurring in the track-following system of an optical disk drive, A tracking loop gain adjustment algorithm is introduced to estimate accurately the tracking vibration quantity in spite of the uncertainties of the tracking actuator. Finally, the tracking vibration quantity can be estimated from the tracking error and the controller output measured when the drive operates and the compensated actuator model. An optimal tracking controller can be designed from a minimum tracking open-loop gain calculated by the estimated tracking vibration quantity. The proposed vibration quantity estimation and controller design method is applied to the track-following system of an optical recording device and is evaluated through the experimental results. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A serial connection technique of speakers for multi-channel audio systems

    Page(s): 611 - 616
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a serial transmission technique of signals for multi-channel audio systems. The technique converts analog audio signals of multiple channels of an audio unit into digital signals, and transfers the digital signals to the speakers through a serial line sequentially. Each speaker is allowed to select its corresponding digital audio signals and to transform the signals into analog audio signals to make sounds for the speaker. The functions of the proposed technique are modeled in VHDL, implemented with FPGA chips, and tested for actual audio systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A portable camcorder/server for wireless video transmission

    Page(s): 351 - 356
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (391 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to achieve user-friendly wireless communication among AV equipment, a server type portable camcorder has been newly developed in this paper. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Data adaptive filters for demosaicking: a framework

    Page(s): 560 - 570
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (631 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new demosaicking framework for single-sensor imaging devices operating on a Bayer color filter array (CFA) is introduced and analyzed. An efficient data adaptive filtering concept in conjunction with the refined spectral models constitutes the base for the proposed framework. Using a different form of the function mapping the aggregated absolute differences among the CFA inputs to the edge-sensing weighting coefficients, the framework allows to design fully automated demosaicking solutions suitable for common digital imaging apparatus, and alternatively, the proposed solutions can also be used to support PC-based demosaicking of the raw CFA images. Thus, the framework can be seen as a universal tool satisfying the needs of the end-users for i) the instant access and visualization of the captured images, and ii) the interactive processing of the raw sensor data. Moreover, the proposed framework is relatively easy to implement in either software or hardware. Experimental results indicate that the proposed framework exhibits excellent performance in terms of the commonly used objective criteria and at the same time it produces demosaicked images with impressive visual quality. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The performance improvement of a photo card reader by the use of a high-integration chip solution with double FIFO buffers

    Page(s): 329 - 334
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The insufficient bandwidth of SDRAM access has created a bottleneck in the performance of displaying and processing when used in previous design of the photo card reader. In this paper, we propose three ways to overcome this drawback. First, we double the clock rate of the SDRAM operation to increase the amount of the memory bandwidth. Second, we use a dual port design of the SDRAM with a double buffer for the strip module to increase the usage efficiency of the bandwidth. Third, we also use a double buffer for the mem_ctrl module to increase the usage efficiency of the bandwidth. Using the extra gate counts of double FIFO buffers results in an increase of 3.3% from the previous system. Our new design has an improvement in the processing speed of about 4.4 times for displaying photos. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • De-interlacing algorithms based on motion compensation

    Page(s): 589 - 599
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (287 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) based deinterlacing has been become the mainstream technology of industry. The existing ME/MC algorithms are mostly based on block matching (BM) strategy, in which various BM algorithms are proposed with different tradeoff between the matching accuracy and the CPU time. Aiming at the dilemma between the performance and the efficiency of the available deinterlacing algorithms, two adaptive ME/MC algorithms are presented in this paper. Compared with the full search BM algorithm, the proposed algorithms greatly reduce the computational amount with keeping the performance approximately. However, the inherent drawbacks of the BM limit the farther improvement of the deinterlacing performance. For this purpose, a new deinterlacing algorithm based on motion object is developed, in which it is natural motion object rather than contrived block that is taken as the basic cell for ME/MC. In the new algorithm, a more reliable technique is adopted for accurate motion region detection, and immune clonal selection algorithm is employed to accelerate the matched object searching. Meanwhile, many advanced deinterlacing methods, such as motion compensation, median filtering, Weave and Bob, are integrated into the new algorithm, so it is more adaptive to the various video sequences. The experimental results with several available test databases illustrate that the new algorithm based on motion object is better than those based on motion block on the whole. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A low-ripple poly-Si TFT charge pump for driver-integrated LCD panel

    Page(s): 606 - 610
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (521 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low-ripple charge pump for voltage up-conversion is described which was implemented in a poly-Si thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology for driver-integrated liquid-crystal-display (LCD) panels. The ripple voltage of the charge pump is reduced by employing a multi-phase clocking method. The charge pump was implemented in a poly-Si TFT technology. For output current of 100μA, filtering capacitor of 100 pF and pumping clock frequency of 1 MHz, the measured ripple voltage of the proposed charge pump is 135 mV while that of conventional Dickson charge pump is 590 mV. The measured pumping efficiencies of the Dickson and proposed 4-phase clocking charge pump are 59% and 65%, respectively. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A low-complexity MP3 algorithm that uses a new rate control and a fast dequantization

    Page(s): 571 - 579
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents a low-complexity MP3 algorithm over a fixed-point arithmetic. A new rate control is introduced for the MP3 encoding algorithm, rather than the rate control in ordinary MP3. Taking the loop-independent components outside the loop and accelerating the nonuniform quantizer using a hybrid scheme reduce the computational complexity of the rate control. The hybrid scheme includes a lookup-table method for smaller numbers and a linear piecewise approximation for larger numbers. A precise method for predicting the quantizer parameter is developed to decrease the number of times the rate control is executed. A hybrid scheme is also used in MP3 decoding algorithm to accelerate the dequantization. However, the approximation for larger numbers is two-tier. The first tier is a linear piecewise approximation that yields a rough value. The second tier uses the rough value as the initial value of the first-order Newton's method to obtain a more closely-approximated value. The precise method for prediction has a statistically hit rate of 43%, and the new rate control consumes no more than 4.5 MIPS. The proposed dequantization consumes no more than 2.38 MIPS, and has an error-to-signal ratio of under 0.012%. The implementation of the complexity-reduced MP3 algorithm over 16 bit fixed-point arithmetic is subjectively tested to evaluate the quality of the complexity-reduced MP3 algorithm. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • CORDIC-based architecture with channel state information for OFDM baseband receiver

    Page(s): 403 - 412
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2292 KB)  

    An efficient architecture for OFDM baseband receiver based on coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) algorithm is proposed with channel state information (CSI). Two dual-mode CORDIC modules are designed for synchronization and equalization. A modified demapping method using CSI helps to provide sub-channel status, and therefore decreases the packet error rates especially for some sub-channels with extremely low SNR. A combined algorithm suitable for CORDIC is proposed for not only the estimation and compensation of channels but synchronization for carrier frequency offset and sampling clock offset. Allocation, timing analysis and complexity for all functional blocks in the receiver are proposed, including front-end processing, FFT, inner receiver, and outer receiver. Complete tests for packet error rate are simulated under an integrated platform considering of RF front-end non-ideal parameters, filters, quantization, and channel models. Simulation results of practical circuits on AWGN and channel models are presented and prove the improvement of the receiver. The design occupies about 424 k equivalent gate count and 7.3 mm2 core size in 0.18-μm CMOS. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fast search algorithms for video coding using orthogonal logarithmic search algorithm

    Page(s): 552 - 559
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a novel fast search algorithm for block base motion compensation called the orthogonal logarithmic search. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by using standard 176 x144 pixels quarter common intermediate format (QCIF) benchmark video sequences and the results are compared to the traditional well-known full search algorithm and the sub-optimal three step search which is used in international video coding standards such as ISO MPEG-1/2 and ITU-T H.263. The important metrics of time and peak signal to noise ratio are used to evaluate the novel algorithm. The results show that the strength of the algorithm lies in its speed of operation as it is much faster than both the full search algorithm and the three step search. It has speed advantages of almost 87% and over 23% over the full search and three step search algorithms respectively. Furthermore, the accuracy of the prediction of orthogonal logarithmic search algorithm is comparable to that of the three step search. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An MPEG2/4 dual codec with sharing motion estimation

    Page(s): 660 - 664
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An MPEG2/4 dual codec algorithm has been developed, targeting consumer products with digital video storage, digital network communication, and so on. By using new method of sharing the motion estimation (ME) between MPEG2 and MPEG4, a low power and high quality MPEG2/4 dual codec system can be achieved. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and implementation of layer architecture software modules for LCD TV systems

    Page(s): 725 - 730
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the need of compatibility between software and hardware modules of a LCD TV system, we propose a software design with layer architecture for a LCD TV system. With the layer architecture, we need only modify the device driver layer for the different chip sets and the user interface layer for the different operating systems. With this advantage we can shorten the product design cycle for the different chip sets by the reusing most of the previous software modules. To reduce the design complexity of the LCD TV system, we adopt the mechanism of the state/event matrix and message queue instead of the complicated state machine design to control the TV system operation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Compressed domain editing of JPEG2000 images

    Page(s): 710 - 717
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (779 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To process or introduce editing effects on JPEG2000 images, we propose techniques applying these operations in the compressed domain. Our approach exploits the properties of the wavelet transform and the rich bitstream syntax of the JPEG2000 standard. The suggested techniques provide significant speed-ups compared to the conventional methods based on spatial domain processing of the decoded images. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The main focus for the IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics is the engineering and research aspects of the theory, design, construction, manufacture or end use of mass market electronics, systems, software and services for consumers.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt, IEEE Fellow
Professor of Consumer Electronics
School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588