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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2005

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1 - 2137
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  • IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • An enhanced millimeter-wave foliage propagation model

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2138 - 2145
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the behavior of wave propagation through coniferous forest stands at millimeter-wave frequencies is characterized both theoretically and experimentally. A coherent wave propagation model is used to simulate the propagation through foliage. The coherent model is composed of two components: a forest stand generator that makes use of a stochastic fractal model, and an electromagnetic model that makes use of Foldy's approximation and single scattering. An outdoor measurement system is designed and used for characterizing the channel behavior for a pine tree stand at Ka-band (35 GHz). In this experiment, 84 independent spatial samples of transmitted signal through the pine stand were collected to obtain the path-loss statistics. The comparison between measurement and simulation results showed that single scattering theory overestimates the wave attenuation through foliage. To improve the accuracy of the coherent model, partial multiple scattering occurred among the needles of highly dense leaf clusters must be included for the estimation of the coherent attenuation. Distorted Born approximation is used to macromodel the scattering pattern from needle clusters. This technique has comparable accuracy and requires much less computational resources than a full-wave solution, such as method of moment. By including multiple scattering effects of needle clusters in the simulation model, much better agreement is obtained for both mean and standard deviation of the path-loss. View full abstract»

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  • A measurement system for ultrawide-band communication channel characterization

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2146 - 2155
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper a novel wide-band propagation channel measurement system with high dynamic range and sensitivity is introduced. The system enables the user to characterize signal propagation through a medium over a very wide frequency band with fine spectral resolution (as low as 3 Hz) by measuring the attenuation and phase characteristics of the medium. This system also allows for the study of temporal, spectral and spatial decorrelation. The high fidelity data gathered with this system can also be utilized to develop empirical models or used as a validation tool for physics based propagation models which simulate the behavior of radio waves in different environments such as forests, urban areas or indoor environments. The mobility and flexibility of the system allows for site specific measurements in various propagation scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement investigation of tap and cluster angular spreads at 5.2 GHz

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2156 - 2160
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present indoor measurement results on the cluster angular spread (AS), the tap AS and its variation with different channel bandwidths. A frequency domain space alternating generalized expectation maximization (FD-SAGE) algorithm is employed to estimate the multipath components from the measured data. We then manually identify the clusters of the multipaths and calculate the tap and cluster ASs for each identified cluster. It is found that for the 100 MHz channels, the average tap AS is just few degrees less than the cluster AS and the difference diminishes for less channel bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • A smart antenna system for direction of arrival estimation based on a support vector regression

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2161 - 2168
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the use of a smart antenna system for the estimation of the directions of arrival (DOAs) of multiple waves is considered. An efficient method based on the support vector regression is proposed, in which the mapping among the outputs of the array and the DOAs of unknown plane waves is approximated by means of a family of support vector machines. Several numerical results are provided for the validation of the proposed approach, considering multiple impinging waves both in noiseless and noisy environments. View full abstract»

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  • Orthogonal switched beams for downlink diversity transmission

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2169 - 2177
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (448 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A downlink transmission scheme in a switched-beam antenna system for providing diversity and beamforming simultaneously based on the space-time block coding technique is proposed. The scheme involves selecting multiple beams based on the uplink reception of the switched-beam antenna system, and determining multiple orthogonal beams from the selected beams. With the orthogonal transmit beams, the proposed switched-beam antenna system outperforms conventional switched-beam systems and approaches the optimal performance achievable by a much complex adaptive antenna system. View full abstract»

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  • Signal optimization for UWB radio systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2178 - 2184
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents and studies three frequency-domain models for optimizing source pulses and detection templates in ultrawide-band (UWB) radio systems. The optimization aims mainly at maximizing the equivalent isotropically radiated power band efficiency in the free space and the output of correlation detection at a receiver. These models are based on the differential evolution, an improved version of the genetic algorithm, and carried out on a set of UWB signals with given mathematical forms. As examples, these models are used to optimize the UWB signals for both narrow-band thin-wire and wide-band planar antenna systems. In addition, the optimized results are validated by nonoptimization simulation. View full abstract»

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  • A compact antenna for ultrawide-band applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2185 - 2192
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel compact and ultrawide-band (UWB) antenna is presented in this paper. The basis for achieving such an UWB operation is through proper magnetic coupling of two adjacent sectorial loop antennas in a symmetrical arrangement. A large number of coupled sectorial loop antennas (CSLA) with different geometrical parameters are fabricated and their measured responses are used to experimentally optimize the geometrical parameters of the antenna for achieving the maximum bandwidth. Through this optimization process an antenna with a VSWR of lower than 2.2 (S11<-8.5 dB) across an 8.5:1 frequency range is designed. The maximum dimension of this antenna is smaller than 0.37λ0 at the lowest frequency of operation and provides an excellent polarization purity. Furthermore, the antenna exhibits a relatively consistent radiation pattern. Modified versions of the CSLA are also designed to reduce the overall metallic surface and weight of the antenna while maintaining its wide-band characteristics. This allows modifying its dimensions to design low frequency light-weight UWB antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of an ultrawide-band ceramic-loaded slot spiral

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2193 - 2199
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The miniaturization of a broadband square slot spiral antenna is proposed using high-contrast (εr>30) dielectric materials. A previously developed circular slot spiral antenna is the starting point of the design. This spiral is first modified in terms of its feed and termination to facilitate the dielectric loading of the antenna by means of a superstrate. The subsequently placed superstrate is also modified by tapering its thickness to improve impedance matching. Several measurements were carried out using square spiral apertures having diameters of 2'' and 6'', respectively. It is demonstrated that the ceramic loading of a 2'' spiral with an εr=90 shifts the initial operating frequency by nearly 320 MHz down to 564 MHz representing a size reduction of 36%. Additionally, a 6'' aperture loaded with a superstrate having εr=30 is shown to operate down to 270 MHz corresponding to a size reduction of 18%. View full abstract»

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  • Strip-fed rectangular dielectric resonator antennas with/without a parasitic patch

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2200 - 2207
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) was studied theoretically and experimentally. The rectangular DRA is excited by a strip, which is compatible with a coaxial probe. Both linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) fields of the antenna are considered. In previous studies of the LP rectangular DRA, only the fundamental TE111 mode has received much attention. In this paper, it is found that the fundamental TE111 mode, together with the higher-order TE113 mode, can be used to design a wide-band LP DRA. The bandwidth of the dual-mode DRA can be over 40% for a conventional rectangular DRA with a simple feed. For the CP mode, a parasitic patch is attached on a side wall of the DRA to excite a degenerate mode. In both the LP and CP cases, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to analyze the problems. The results agree reasonably with measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Studies of CPW-fed equilateral triangular-ring slot antennas and triangular-ring slot coupled patch antennas

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2208 - 2211
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Designs of coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed equilateral triangular-ring slot antennas with tuning-stub and triangular-ring slot coupled patch antennas are proposed and experimentally investigated. The impedance matching of the resonant frequency can be obtained only by adjusting the tuning-stub length for the proposed triangular-ring slot antenna with tuning-stub. For the design of ring-slot coupled patch antenna, slightly changing the patch size causes the tunable frequency-ratio f2/f1 between the first two operating frequencies to fall in the range of about 1.1-1.42. Details of the proposed designs are investigated by experimental as well as theoretical studies. View full abstract»

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  • A novel technique for the approximation of 3-D antenna radiation patterns

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2212 - 2219
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel technique for the approximation of three-dimensional (3-D) antenna radiation patterns is presented. The proposed method combines the two principal cuts in order to acquire an adequate estimate of the 3-D antenna radiation solid. The absolute error from the theoretical solution is analyzed along with other statistical measures for various types of antenna structures, namely omni-directional and directive arrays. The performance of the method is compared against other existing extrapolation algorithms. The proposed technique exhibits low approximation errors and is easily integrated into 3-D radio propagation planning tools (such as ray-tracing algorithms). View full abstract»

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  • Studies of suppression of the reflected wave and beam-scanning features of the antenna arrays

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2220 - 2225
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a two-directional linear scanned design by integrating a short leaky-wave antenna (LWA) with aperture-coupled patch antenna arrays. This architecture proposes a technique not only having the advantage of suppressing the back-lobe due to the reflected wave in the short LWA but also producing two separate linearly scanned beams, each of them radiating in a different region of space (in both the front side and backside of the LWA). In this design, most of the reflected wave of the short LWA is coupled to the patch antenna arrays on the backside of the substrate. The phase of this coupled signal to each antenna element is adjusted by tuning the individual phase shifter in order to control electronically the patch antenna main beam in the cross plane (x<0). Meanwhile, on the front side, the main beam of the short LWA can be simultaneously scanned in the elevation plane (x>0) by changing the operating frequency. Hence, the two linear beam-scanning radiation patterns of individual direction can be created independently, including a narrow beam in the elevation plane (xy plane at x>0) at the front side and a broadside beam in the cross plane (xz plane at x<0) on the backside. The measured results show that the reflected wave of the short LWA in the proposed design is suppressed 8 dB as compared with a traditional short LWA without the aperture-coupled antenna arrays at 10.5 GHz. As a result, this novel architecture provides more flexibility both in the upward elevation plane (H plane) and the downward cross plane (backside-E plane) for possible beam-scanning applications in microwave communications and remote identification. View full abstract»

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  • Improve the performance of a linear array by changing the spaces among array elements in terms of genetic algorithm

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2226 - 2230
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The pattern of linear array is optimized via adjusting the current allocations and positions of elements simultaneously in terms of improved genetic algorithm (GA). Optimized results show that minute modification of the element positions can improve the array pattern, especially for the fewer elements case. It is found that the improvements are attributed to additional side lobes, which involved some radiation energy and resulted in reduction of relative side lobe level (RSLL). In the optimal process, some skills, such as the soft constraints linked to the fitness function, the adaptive searching area, the injection of simulated annealing and immune operator etc., are used to make the algorithm more effective. View full abstract»

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  • A novel neural network combined with FDTD for the synthesis of a printed dipole antenna

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2231 - 2236
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel synthesis artificial neural network (SYNTHESIS-ANN) is combined with the finite-difference time-domain method. Practical applications are illustrated through the optimization of a dipole antenna input impedance. The ANN architecture utilizes a hetero-associative memory, which exploits a fault tolerant number representation of a neural network for input and output data. In addition, the number representation reveals significant insight into a new method of fault tolerant computing. A new randomization process for the synthesis of antenna geometrical parameters is presented. Additional work is required to investigate the potential of this new paradigm. View full abstract»

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  • A higher order FDTD method in Integral formulation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2237 - 2246
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a fourth-order (4, 4) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-like algorithm based on the integral form of Maxwell's equations. The algorithm, which is called the integro-difference time-domain (IDTD) method, achieves its fourth-order accuracy in space and time by taking into account the spatial and temporal variations of electromagnetic fields within each computational cell. In the algorithm, the electromagnetic fields within each cell are represented by space and time integrals (or integral averages) of the fields, i.e., the electric and magnetic fluxes (D,B) are represented by the surface-integral average, and the electric and magnetic fields (E,H) by the line and time integral average. In order to relate the integral average fields in the staggered update equations, we have obtained constitutive relations for these fields. It is shown that the IDTD update equations combined with the constitutive relations are fourth-order accurate both in space and time. The fourth-order correction terms are represented by the modified coefficients in the update equations; the numerical structure remains the same as the conventional second-order update equations and more importantly does not require the storage of field variables at the previous time steps to obtain the fourth-order accuracy in time. Furthermore, the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability criteria of this fourth-order algorithm turns out to be identical to the stability limits of conventional second-order FDTD scheme based on differential formulation. View full abstract»

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  • A multiresolution method of moments for triangular meshes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2247 - 2258
    Cited by:  Papers (50)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the construction, use, and properties of a multiresolution (wavelet) basis for the method of moments (MoM) analysis of metal antennas, scatterers, and microwave circuits discretized by triangular meshes. Several application examples show fast convergence of iterative solvers and accurate solutions with highly sparse MoM matrices. The proposed basis is organized in hierarchical levels, and keeps the different scales of the problem directly into the basis functions representation; the current is divided into a solenoidal and a quasi-irrotational part, which allows mapping these two vector parts onto fully scalar quantities, where the wavelets are defined. As a byproduct, this paper also presents a way to construct hierarchical sets of Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) functions on a family of meshes obtained by subsequent refinement, i.e., with the RWG of coarser meshes expressed as linear combinations of those of finer meshes. View full abstract»

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  • Two-dimensional transverse-magnetic time-domain scattering using the Nyström method and bandlimited extrapolation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2259 - 2266
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method is presented for the solution of the integral equations that describe the electromagnetic scattering from an infinitely long conducting cylinder in the time domain. The method discretizes the integral equations spatially using a high-order locally-corrected Nyström method and temporally using a filtered kernel. The filtering of the kernel both controls aliasing and reduces the order of its singularity. On the other hand, filtering also gives rise to a noncausal kernel so the time marching is accomplished with a bandlimited extrapolation scheme. Numerical results demonstrate the stability and accuracy of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • On the use of overdetermined systems in the adaptive numerical solution of integral equations

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2267 - 2273
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The residual error incurred when numerically solving integral equations for a number of electromagnetic radiation and scattering problems is calculated with the aid of an overdetermined system. This error is systematically reduced by adaptively refining the model for the surface current. Error reduction is achieved by selectively shrinking cell dimensions (h-refinement), increasing the order of the basis functions representing the current (p-refinement), or a combination of both (hp-refinement). The correlation between residual error and surface current error is investigated and found to be high. The impact of edge singularities and curvature discontinuities is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A highly robust and versatile finite element-boundary Integral hybrid code for scattering by BOR objects

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2274 - 2281
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A hybrid technique is presented that combines the finite element and boundary integral methods for simulating electromagnetic scattering from body-of-revolution (BOR) objects. This technique correctly models the boundary conditions along the axis of revolution in both the finite element and boundary integral formulations and yields highly accurate solutions. Because of the decoupled computations for the finite element and boundary integral equations, the technique is highly efficient as compared to the method of moments, especially for BORs comprising layered or inhomogeneous materials. It is applicable to a variety of complex, large-size BOR objects consisting of perfect conductors, anisotropic impedance surfaces, anisotropic resistive surfaces, and anisotropic inhomogeneous materials. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a frequency selective structure with inhomogeneous substrates as a thermophotovoltaic filter

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2282 - 2289
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)  

    In this paper, the design of a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) filter with high-pass characteristics is presented. The filter is in the form of a frequency selective structure (FSS) with cascaded inhomogeneous dielectric substrates. The goal is to allow for more design flexibility using dielectric periodic structures to deliver a sharper filter response. Therefore, the primary focus is to design a periodic material substrate composition (supporting FSS elements) using a topology optimization technique known as the density method. The design problem is formulated as a general nonlinear optimization problem and sequential linear programming is used to solve the optimization problem with the sensitivity analysis based on the adjoint variable method for complex variables. A key aspect of the proposed design method is the integration of optimization tools with a fast simulator based on the finite element-boundary integral method. The capability of the design method is demonstrated by designing the material distribution for a TPV filter subject to pre-specified bandwidth and compactness criteria. View full abstract»

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  • Direct extrapolation of a causal signal using low-frequency and early-time data

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2290 - 2298
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (500 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we provide three direct procedures to extrapolate the early-time and the low-frequency response of a causal signal simultaneously in the time-and frequency domain. Compared with the extrapolation by orthonormal basis functions, direct extrapolation is straightforward and we do not need to evaluate the basis functions and search for the optimal scaling factor and the optimal number of basis functions. We show that the extrapolation introduced by Adve and Sarkar is equivalent to a Neumann-series solution of an integral equation of the second kind. It is further shown that this iterative Neumann expansion is an error-reducing method. We propose to solve this integral equation efficiently by employing a conjugate gradient iterative scheme. The convergence of this scheme is also demonstrated. We provide the matrix equations and show the equivalence to the integral equations, and demonstrate that the method of singular value decomposition (SVD) of solving the matrix equation provides accurate and stable results. Finally, a number of illustrative numerical examples are presented and the performances of the three direct methods are compared. View full abstract»

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  • A new solution for the problem of plane wave diffraction by a 2-D aperture in a ground plane

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2299 - 2306
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we develop novel closed-form representations for the diffraction integrals associated with the classical problem of plane wave diffraction by a two-dimensional aperture in a ground plane. After approximating the aperture field by the incident field, spectral-domain techniques are used to represent the diffracted fields as inverse Fourier transforms, which are often referred to as the angular spectrum. The resulting inverse Fourier transforms are integrated analytically by using contour deformation techniques, thereby yielding closed-form representations for the diffracted fields that only involve rapidly-computable special functions. The diffracted fields that are computed using the closed-form representations are validated by comparing with results obtained by direct numerical integration of the diffraction integrals. View full abstract»

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  • Long-term rain attenuation probability and site diversity gain prediction formulas

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 2307 - 2313
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Simple models for long-term induced rain attenuation on a slant path and site diversity gain are presented in this work. As verified by numerous tests against the ITU-R databank and other data from the literature, the proposed models exhibit a very good performance. The novel slant path rain attenuation prediction model compared to the ITU-R one exhibits a similar behavior at low time percentages and a better root-mean-square error performance for probability levels above 0.02%. Moreover, comparing the proposed site diversity gain model with other widely accepted models from the literature, an improved performance is observed for distances less than 15 km, while the model performs equally well for greater distances. Furthermore, a sensitivity test between the proposed and Hodge's formula with respect to the separation distance D is also carried out. While the lower limit of the proposed model is found to be D=1.7 km, its extension covering large-scale site diversity is successfully compared with experimental data coming from Japan. The set of presented models exhibits the advantage of easy implementation with little complexity and is considered useful for educational and back of the envelope computations. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation includes theoretical and experimental advances in antennas.

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Editor-in-Chief                                                 Kwok W. Leung