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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 7 • Date July 2005

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1 - c4
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  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • Guest Editorial Nanotechnologies for Communications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1305 - 1307
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  • Fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal-based symmetric Mach-Zehnder (PC-SMZ) structures based on GaAs membrane slab waveguides

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1308 - 1314
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1088 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have experimentally demonstrated two- dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal (PC) waveguides (WGs) such as straight, bent, Y-branch, directional coupler (DC), and quantum dots (QDs)-based nonlinear optical (NLO) WGs using a GaAs air-bridge membrane with triangular-lattice line-defect WGs. These WGs are necessary for a 2-D PC-based symmetric Mach-Zehnder (PC-SMZ) type ultrafast all-optical switch. Experimental results on the clear observation of the optical interference at the Y-junction DC, nonlinearity-induced phase shift at the NLO waveguide, and transmission spectra in the total PC-SMZ WG configuration will be addressed, as well as measured results on each WG element. View full abstract»

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  • Low propagation losses in single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on GaAs membranes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1315 - 1320
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have fabricated and characterized straight single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides on GaAs films with lengths of 1, 4, and 10 mm. By optimizing key processes for smooth top and bottom waveguide-surface, as well as fine patterning process of the air holes, extremely low propagation loss was achieved. The optimization includes wet etching process of a sacrificial AlGaAs clad layer and oxygen plasma process for complete resist removal. AFM measurement resulted that the surface roughness is less than 1 nm at the top surface of the line-defect waveguide. From the transmittance spectra for different-length samples, the propagation loss is estimated as small as 0.76±0.5 dB/mm. Besides the loss for the straight waveguide, the loss per bend for the 60° bend waveguide was estimated as 0.3 dB/bent with the bandwidth of broader than 40 nm. The present results are promising for key passive elements such as photonic-crystal symmetric Mach-Zehnder switches needed in future optical communication applications. View full abstract»

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  • An optical-fiber-based probe for photonic crystal microcavities

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1321 - 1329
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We review a novel method for characterizing both the spectral and spatial properties of resonant cavities within two- dimensional photonic crystals (PCs). An optical fiber taper serves as an external waveguide probe whose micron-scale field is used to source and couple light from the cavity modes, which appear as resonant features in the taper's wavelength-dependent transmission spectrum when it is placed within the cavity's near field. Studying the linewidth and depth of these resonances as a function of the taper's position with respect to the resonator produces quantitative measurements of the quality factor (Q) and modal volume (Veff) of the resonant cavity modes. Polarization information about the cavity modes can be obtained by studying their depths of coupling when the cavity is probed along different axes by the taper. This fiber-based technique has been used to measure Q∼40,000 and Veff∼0.9 cubic wavelengths in a graded square lattice PC microcavity fabricated in silicon. The speed and versatility of this fiber-based probe is highlighted, and a discussion of its applicability to other wavelength-scale resonant elements is given. View full abstract»

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  • Surface plasmon coupling in hexagonal textured metallic microcavity

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1330 - 1334
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The coupling of surface plasmons to the photonic modes in hexagonal textured metallic microcavity was studied. Two types of sample structures (symmetric and asymmetric) were investigated. Both angle-resolved transmission and photoluminescent measurements showed the presence of surface plasmon modes for the textured metallic microcavity samples. For the asymmetric structured sample, the bandgap was observed at the Brillouin zone edge. The simulation of the photonic band structure using decoupled approximation for the standing wave modes agrees with the experimental result. We have derived the surface modes due to various interfaces in the microcavity. It was found that the surface plasmon modes from metal/air interface are most dominant, and was observed to couple strongly with both the transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes. Light extraction enhancement due to surface plasmon coupling was achieved with directional enhancement as much as 12 times compared with planar microcavity for the symmetric structured sample. View full abstract»

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  • Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1335 - 1340
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The possibility of single-mode oscillation over a large cavity area for photonic crystal lasers emitting at the photonic band edge has resulted in much interest in such materials for new forms of solid-state laser. In this paper, we measure the photonic bandstructure in our sample and identify the lasing band edge. By mapping out the bandstructure at the Γ-point, we have observed fine structure at the band edge. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted bandstructure. Above threshold, we observe a lasing peak at 965 nm at one of the band edges. The far-field distribution of the laser is measured, showing an annular profile and azimuthal polarization. Calculations on the far-field distribution at the lasing band edge suggest the annular profile is due to an anti-symmetric resonant mode. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of self-collimated beams in photonic crystals for optical interconnect

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1341 - 1347
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Self-collimated beams and photonic bandgap mirrors in photonic crystals are evaluated for applicability in an on-chip interconnect system. Simulations using the plane-wave expansion and finite-difference time-domain methods are utilized to design and evaluate the theoretical performance of these systems, called a virtual waveguide due to borderless confinement of the signal. The effect of systematic and random fabrication errors on the performance is characterized. Coupling efficiency is virtually unaffected by misalignment, but is found to be a strong function of the length of the waveguide and the frequency of light. Additional routing capabilities of sharp 90° turns and signal crossings with no crosstalk are demonstrated. Photonic crystal virtual waveguides are ideal structures for on-chip optical signal routing. View full abstract»

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  • Microfluidic integration of porous photonic crystal nanolasers for chemical sensing

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1348 - 1354
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have recently developed planar photonic crystal nanolasers based on porous cavity designs. High-quality factor cavities confine light within the pores of the photonic crystal and, thus, our lasers are ideally suited for the investigation of nanoscale interactions between light and matter. We have demonstrated the operation of photonic crystal lasers within different chemical solutions, embedded them into silicone microfluidic flow channels, and were able to detect refractive index changes as small as Δn=0.005. We predict that our porous nanolasers can detect refractive index changes as small as Δn=8.23·10-4. View full abstract»

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  • Systematic design of superprism-based photonic crystal demultiplexers

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1355 - 1364
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, design of photonic crystal demultiplexers based on superprism effect is discussed. Figures of merit for performance of these demultiplexers are defined and a systematic design procedure is presented. We consider different design schemes, based on equal angular separation between channels and equal frequency separation between channels, and find the optimum structures among conventional photonic crystal lattices for each case. Our results provide design solutions for a range of current applications. View full abstract»

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  • Inverse design of photonic crystal devices

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1365 - 1371
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the inverse design in the field of photonic crystal (PC)-based devices. Here, an inverse method containing a fast and accurate simulation method integrated with a competent optimization method is presented. Two designs yielded from this conjunction of multiple scattering theory with a genetic algorithm are analyzed. The potential of this approach is illustrated by designing a lens that has a very low F-number (F=0.47) and a conversion ratio of 11:1. We have also designed a coupler device that introduces the light from an optical fiber into a PC-based waveguide with a predicted coupling efficiency that exceeds 87%. View full abstract»

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  • Optical add-drop multiplexers based on autocloned photonic crystals

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1372 - 1377
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe and demonstrate the operation of optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) based on photonic crystal (PC) structures fabricated by autocloning technology. In these OADMs, a three-dimensional PC structure was utilized as a Bragg reflector. We obtained a drop bandwidth of 2 nm at a wavelength of 1560 nm. We also demonstrate for the first time add and drop operations of the PC-based OADMs in a wavelength-division multiplexing optical transmission system. View full abstract»

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  • An interconnected 2D-TM EBG structure for millimeter and submillimeter waves

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1378 - 1384
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to their unique properties, electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) materials are of high interest for applications in communication technology for many frequency bands from microwave up to optical frequencies. We have investigated in both simulation and experiment a two dimensionally periodic EBG structure made by reactive ion etching of silicon with a bandgap for transverse magnetic waves in the millimeter wave range around 100 GHz. The structure comprises both a large bandgap and a high mechanical stability due to interconnecting dielectric bridges. View full abstract»

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  • Highly oriented molecular aggregates in 1-D photonic crystal slabs: toward the control of molecular arrangement from submicron to nanometer region

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1385 - 1389
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (352 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have investigated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic crystal slabs (PCSs) of molecular aggregates, and reported the vacuum Rabi splitting of 50 meV in pseudoisocyanine (PIC) J-aggregates in the strong coupling regime. The mode splitting should increase with the increase of the molecular density. Then, we fabricated PIC J-aggregates without any polymer matrix. As a result, we can observed Rabi splitting over 200 meV. Moreover, the strong J-band is observed only with the light polarization along the grooves. The observed strong anisotropy around the J-band indicates that almost all of the molecules are oriented along the grooves. It means the grooves with the several hundred nanometers period arrange the direction of molecules, nevertheless, the size of a molecule is less than 1 nm. This is one of the attractive features of molecular PCs, because we will be able to arrange nanometer structures with the use of the submicron structures. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1390 - 1395
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the experimental measurement of a photonic crystal (PhC) device comprising an injector, Y-splitter, and 60° bend. The complete device consists of a 9-μm-long injector tapering down from 5 μm into a triangular-lattice-of-holes single-line defect waveguide with period a=430 nm and 36.2% air filling factor (corresponding to a radius over period (r/a) ratio of 0.30), an optimized Y-junction, 60° bend and output injectors, with a total device footprint of 30 μm. This is etched into a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure using chlorine/argon chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE). An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-based source and Fabry-Perot technique are used to characterize the device. The device displays a bandwidth of approximately 110 nm in the 1.55 μm window, and a transmission of 70% relative to the same length of 5-μm-wide waveguide. This is compared with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3-D FDTD) results, which have a bandwidth and transmission of 120 nm and 75%, respectively. The highlight of this paper is the close agreement of the numerically optimized complete microcircuit with its experimental equivalent, and the significant improvement in bandwidth over previous work on Y-junctions. View full abstract»

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  • Dispersion compensation with photonic crystal line-defect waveguides

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1396 - 1401
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A concept for dispersion compensation in transmission is proposed, based on modes anti-crossing in photonic crystal (PC) line-defect waveguides. Quasi-constant positive and negative dispersion is possible in order of 100 ps/nm/mm on the bandwidth of 100 GHz. An adiabatic taper is proposed for efficient coupling into PC structure. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of photonic mode dispersion and linewidths in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1402 - 1410
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The dispersion of photonic modes in one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) patterned silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides, also containing line defects, is fully investigated both above and below the light line. Quasi-guided (radiative), as well as truly guided modes are probed by means of angle- and polarization-resolved microreflectance and attenuated total reflectance measurements. For the 1-D case, the sharp resonances observed in reflectance spectra are analyzed in terms of the Airy-Fano model, and the measured linewidths are shown to be very close to theoretical predictions. In the 2-D lattices containing W1 line defects the presence of a supercell repetition leads to the simultaneous excitation of defect and bulk modes which are folded in a reduced Brillouin zone. The measured dispersion is in very good agreement with full three-dimensional calculations based on expansion on the waveguide modes, indicating that a deep understanding of the propagation properties of patterned SOI waveguides is achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Carrier and photon analyses of photonic microlasers by two-dimensional rate equations

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1411 - 1417
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (712 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In photonic crystal (PC) microlasers with point defect cavities, effective carriers are reduced by the leakage to outside of the defect, surface recombination, spatial carrier hole burning, and Auger recombination. To estimate these effects, we calculated carrier and photon behavior by solving two-dimensional rate equations in space and time domains. The result clearly shows these effects and their dependence on cavity structure, pump area, and so on. Compared with that for the microdisk laser, higher threshold values are estimated for PC microlasers. However, a comparably low threshold density and a high efficiency are expected for the quasi-periodic PC microlaser, because the hole burning by the whispering gallery mode of this cavity suppresses the carrier leakage. View full abstract»

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  • Band-edge lasing in gold-clad photonic-crystal membranes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1418 - 1423
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We investigate the possibility to achieve band-edge lasing in optically thick gold-clad photonic-crystal (PhC) membranes, with a dielectric thickness of around 1 μm. We have performed a two-dimensional eigenmode-expansion analysis of band-edge resonators in one-dimensional PhCs. Material thresholds, quality factors, and emission efficiencies have been calculated for TE band-edge laser resonances on the second and third Γ-point. The second Γ-point sustains band-edge laser modes with quality factors above 2500 for a membrane thickness of 1 μm and a cavity length of 20 periods, however, with a very poor surface-emission efficiency. Band-edge laser modes located on the third Γ-point have lower quality factors but higher surface-emission efficiencies. In both cases, the PhC should be designed specifically to avoid coupling with lossy, higher order modes. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum communication for wireless wide-area networks

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1424 - 1432
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a quantum routing mechanism is proposed to teleport a quantum state from one quantum device to another wirelessly even though these two devices do not share EPR pairs mutually. This results in the proposed quantum routing mechanism that can be used to construct the quantum wireless networks. In terms of time complexity, the proposed mechanism transports a quantum bit in time almost the same as the quantum teleportation does regardless of the number of hops between the source and destination. From this point of view, the quantum routing mechanism is close to optimal in data transmission time. In addition, in order to realize the wireless communication in the quantum domain, a hierarchical network architecture and its corresponding communication protocol are developed. Based on these network components, a scalable quantum wireless communication can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Call for papers on high-speed network security - architecture, algorithms and implementation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1433
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  • Call for papers on nonlinear optimization of communication systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1434
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Call for papers on multi-hop wireless mesh networks

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1435
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Call for papers on sampling the internet: Techniques and applications

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 1436
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT