Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 1 • Jan. 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 67
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):5 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Measurement accuracy—RF to optical

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):7 - 8
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (189 KB)

    Various developments in microwave and optical metrology that have been stimulated by the needs of satellite and optical fiber telecommunications are discussed. A few recent examples of the symbiosis of science, technology, and metrology in the microwave and optical fields are noted. Meeting the challenge of providing calibration support to the new automated measurement systems is seen to require a... View full abstract»

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  • International organization in electromagnetic metrology and international comparison of RF and microwave standards

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):9 - 14
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB)

    The international exchange of information concerning electro-magnetic measurements and standards and arrangements for the international comparison of these standards is fostered by several international organizations and laboratories. These organizations and their objectives are identified in this paper. The history of how the comparisons were organized is reviewed, the results of comparisons made... View full abstract»

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  • Standardization of coaxial connectors in the IEC

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):14 - 18
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    This paper reviews the requirements and standardization of coaxial connectors in the United States. It details the standardization of coaxial connectors within the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Subcommittee SC46D "Connectors for RF Cables." A list of published IEC connector standards and a list of IEC standards under consideration are included. View full abstract»

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  • Commercial calibration services

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):18 - 20
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB)

    Many commercial calibration service companies now in business operate strictly by using procedures and calibration systems supplied by the instrument manufacturers. Some service companies may lack the technical depth and financial resources to contribute much more than business management and technician labor, concentrating on efficiency in turning out repaired and calibrated instruments. The accu... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement assurance and accreditation

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):21 - 23
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB)

    The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has developed a concept to accredit laboratories which provide electromagnetic power, attenuation, and reflection coefficient calibration services. This program, developed under the general procedures of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) would accredit calibration laboratories for levels of uncertainty equivalent to the uncertain... View full abstract»

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  • Quality control of measurements—Measurement assurance

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):23 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (280 KB)

    The ability to relate individual measurements to nationally accepted standards is a requirement of traceability. This paper discusses a perspective in which the goals of traceability are viewed in terms of performance requirements on measurement quality as reflected in a statement of uncertainty. View full abstract»

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  • Fundamentals of error analysis

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):25 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB)

    This paper discusses the process of assessing the uncertainty of measurement results through error analysis. We restrict the discussion to sources of errors, measurement errors, modeling errors, and calibration errors in the context of physical experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Uncertainty charts for RF and microwave measurements

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):27 - 32
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)

    The scope of the calibration services for electrical quantities in the range of frequency from 0 to 100 GHz that are available from the National Bureau of Standards is discussed briefly in a historical context. Some plans for improved services that will be available in the near future are noted. Charts showing the variation of uncertainty with magnitude over the full range of the respective calibr... View full abstract»

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  • Summary of NBS calibration services and systems

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):32 - 35
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (398 KB)

    This paper gives a brief summary of the calibration services available at the Boulder Laboratories of the National Bureau of Standards for attenuation, phase shift, impedance, power, and voltage at RF and microwave frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Measurements at millimeter and micrometer wavelengths

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):36 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB)

    Insertion loss measurements of waveguide components have been made with an accuracy 0.2 dB at the 10-dB level and 2.8 dB at the 30-dB level. Attenuation measurements of 60-mm TE10circular waveguide have been made over the frequency range 33 to 110 GHz with total uncertainty of 0.4 dB. Intercomparison between calorimeters developed by national laboratories at 100 GHz resulted in differen... View full abstract»

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  • National standards and standard measurement systems for impedance and reflection coefficient

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):39 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (838 KB)

    A review of the current status of national impedance and reflection standards at RF and microwave frequencies is presented. In the first part, various proposals are examined for realizing a given characteristic impedance, or a calculable value of reflection coefficient, both in coaxial lines and in hollow rectangular waveguides. The second part describes measurement techniques and systems used in ... View full abstract»

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  • Attenuation and ratio—National standards

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):46 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1263 KB)

    In national standards laboratories, the popular attenuation measurement techniques are: RF, IF, vector IF, and AF substitution; power ratio, voltage ratio, time-interval ratio, and six-port methods; and a procedure that employs a Josephson junction in a superconducting ring. These nine techniques are briefly described, the dynamic ranges and accuracies achieved with them are reported, and their re... View full abstract»

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  • Phase-shift measurements in a standards Laboratory Environment

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):60 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB)

    Methods of precise phase measurements are presented in three frequency regimes--frequencies up to a few megahertz where both digital and analog methods apply, radio frequencies up to about 1 GHz where conversion to low frequencies is most common, and microwave frequencies where direct methods are available which are more effective than downconversion. Standards of phase angle are also considered. View full abstract»

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  • Homodyne network analyzer with cascaded digital phase shifters

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):66 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (251 KB)

    A network analyzer system employing a digital phase modulation and linear frequency conversion of the test signal is described. The system makes use of a microcomputer as a key component and operates as a precise RF-vector voltmeter over the full X-band (8.0-12.4 GHz) without the need for calibration standards. Measurement results for an insertion-loss range of up to 65 dB are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided algebraic analysis of systematic errors in a composite microwave system

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):68 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB)

    A program package is presented which performs complex, algebraic calculations of the systematic errors on the signals in a composite microwave system caused by errors of the subcomponents (i.e., unwanted leakages and reflections). Since the errors of the subcomponents are small the resulting systematic errors on the signals can be described by a multidimensional Taylor series expansion in the erro... View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band de-embedding with a short, an open, and a through line

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):71 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)

    A wide-band procedure for subtracting the effects of fixtures and device packages or carriers from measured scattering parameters with only a short, an open, and a through line as standards is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Conversion of frequency-domain data to the time domain

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):74 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB)

    The advantages and disadvantages of three different algorithms for transforming frequency-domain data to the time domain are reviewed. The algorithms are a direct computation of the Fourier series, the fast Fourier transform, and the chirp-z transform. It is concluded that the fast Fourier transform still has the advantage of speed, but the chirp-z transform offers some additional flexibility that... View full abstract»

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  • Pulse and time-domain measurements

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):77 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (521 KB)

    A review of the state of the art and science of pulse parameter measurements is given including recent advances in the use of real-time oscilloscopes, waveform recorders, equivalent time sampling oscilloscopes, and counter timers in the measurement of repetitive and single transient signals. Recent advances in the use of artifact waveform standards and modern signal analysis techniques to compensa... View full abstract»

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  • The deconvolution problem: An overview

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):82 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (82)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB)

    This paper is a tutorial review of the deconvolution problem. It reviews the definitions of convolution and deconvolution and discusses both the time-domain and frequency-domain methods of performing deconvolution. The paper identifies the true nature of the practical deconvolution problem as an approximation or estimation problem. And, it discusses the concepts of achieving an "acceptable" soluti... View full abstract»

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  • Calibration and error analysis of a picosecond pulse waveform measurement system at NBS

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):86 - 90
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (430 KB)

    The primary system used at NBS, Boulder, CO, to measure fast (picosecond-nanosecond range), repetitive, electrical pulse parameters consists essentially of a wide-band (dc-18 GHz) sampling oscilloscope interfaced to a minicomputer. This paper describes the major calibration and analysis techniques used to reduce the effects of errors inherent in this system, both deterministic and random in nature... View full abstract»

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  • Discussion of de-embedding techniques using time-domain analysis

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):90 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB)

    De-embedding is a mathematical inverse operation used in network analysis to separate and obtain differences. The time-domain analysis process saparates reflections, identifies them, and allows selected reflections to be analyzed. This paper uses both techniques to explain and illustrate the results. View full abstract»

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  • Power and energy: National standards

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):94 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)

    The development of RF and microwave power standards over the last 20 years is reviewed in the light of the evolution of the commercial power meters which they are used to calibrate. Although many different types of power standard have been investigated, the microcalorimeter, the dry-load calorimeter, and in some cases the flow calorimeter continue to serve as the main primary instruments. These ha... View full abstract»

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  • The microcalorimeter as a national microwave power standard

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):102 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)

    The simple construction and good accuracy of the microcalorimeter has resulted in its adoption by many countries as their national standard of microwave power in hollow waveguide. Its use is increasing as a national standard for coaxial microwave power measurement. View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University