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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1539 - 1540
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  • A perspective on man-machine communication by speech

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1541 - 1550
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1214 KB)  

    A perspective is developed of the requirements for and the design of high-performance speech processing systems. These are viewed as complex systems composed of two hierarchies including a structural hierarchy of various sized units and an additional hierarchy of qualitatively distinct constraint domains. The nature of these constraints and their interaction is characterized, as well as the criteria for choice of units in the structural hierarchy. The unbounded set of surface phenomena that must be related to these units is shown to be represented by a range of patterns based on equivalence classes derived from the functional contrasts that must be maintained by the symbolic unit values. These abstract classes are related to surface correlates by complicated integrative processes, the nature of which has only recently been studied. Finally, the influence of computer science, which can be regarded as the study of complex systems, is described and the requirements for aggressive research facilities needed for further progress are developed. View full abstract»

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  • Vector quantization in speech coding

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1551 - 1588
    Cited by:  Papers (357)  |  Patents (75)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3709 KB)  

    Quantization, the process of approximating continuous-amplitude signals by digital (discrete-amplitude) signals, is an important aspect of data compression or coding, the field concerned with the reduction of the number of bits necessary to transmit or store analog data, subject to a distortion or fidelity criterion. The independent quantization of each signal value or parameter is termed scalar quantization, while the joint quantization of a block of parameters is termed block or vector quantization. This tutorial review presents the basic concepts employed in vector quantization and gives a realistic assessment of its benefits and costs when compared to scalar quantization. Vector quantization is presented as a process of redundancy removal that makes effective use of four interrelated properties of vector parameters: linear dependency (correlation), nonlinear dependency, shape of the probability density function (pdf), and vector dimensionality itself. In contrast, scalar quantization can utilize effectively only linear dependency and pdf shape. The basic concepts are illustrated by means of simple examples and the theoretical limits of vector quantizer performance are reviewed, based on results from rate-distortion theory. Practical issues relating to quantizer design, implementation, and performance in actual applications are explored. While many of the methods presented are quite general and can be used for the coding of arbitrary signals, this paper focuses primarily on the coding of speech signals and parameters. View full abstract»

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  • The delta rule development system for speech synthesis from text

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1589 - 1601
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB)  

    Progress in speech synthesis has been hampered by the lack of rule-writing tools of sufficient flexibility and power. This paper presents a new system, Delta, that gives linguists and programmers a versatile rule language and friendly debugging environment. Delta's central data structure is well-suited for representing a broad class of multi-level utterance structures. The Delta language has flexible pattern-matching expressions, control structures, and utterance manipulation statements. Its dictionary facilities provide elegant exception handling. The interactive symbolic debugger speeds rule development and tuning. Delta can not only accommodate existing synthesis models, but can also be used to develop new ones. View full abstract»

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  • The use of speech knowledge in automatic speech recognition

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1602 - 1615
    Cited by:  Papers (33)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1675 KB)  

    In automatic speech recognition, the acoustic signal is the only tangible connection between the talker and the machine. While the signal conveys linguistic information, this information is often encoded in such a complex manner that the signal exhibits a great deal of variability. In addition, variations in environment and speaker can introduce further distortions that are linguistically irrelevant. This paper has three aims: 1) to discuss the nature of variabilities; 2) to describe the kinds of speech knowledge that may help us understand variabilities; and 3) to advocate and suggest specific procedures for the increased utilization of speech knowledge in automatic speech recognition. View full abstract»

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  • The development of an experimental discrete dictation recognizer

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1616 - 1624
    Cited by:  Papers (59)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB)  

    This paper describes an experimental real-time recognizer of isolated word dictation implemented at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, on a system of commercially available computers and array processors. The recognizer's intended use is creation of office memoranda. It is based on a 5000-word vocabulary. A specially designed workstation enables the user to correct and edit the transcribed speech. The paper outlines the self-organized, statistical approach underlying the basic algorithms of the recognizer. Results of several recognition experiments are then presented. The rest of the paper considers important issues in the future development of dictation recognizers, such as vocabulary selection, language model creation, and human factors. View full abstract»

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  • Structural methods in automatic speech recognition

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1625 - 1650
    Cited by:  Papers (58)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2589 KB)  

    The past decade has witnessed substantial progress toward the goal of constructing a machine capable of understanding colloquial discourse. Central to this progress has been the development and application of mathematical methods that permit modeling the speech signal as a complex code with several coexisting levels of structure. The most successful of these are "template matching," stochastic modeling, and probabilistic parsing. The manifestation of common themes such as dynamic programming and finite-state descriptions accentuates a superficial likeness amongst the methods which is often mistaken for the deeper similarity arising from their shared Bayesian foundation. In this paper, we outline the mathematical bases of these methods, invariant metrics, hidden Markov chains, and formal grammars, respectively. We then recount and briefly interpret the results of experiments in speech recognition to which the various methods were applied. Since these mathematical principles seem to bear little resemblance to traditional linguistic characterizations of speech, the success of the experiments is occasionally attributed, even by their authors, merely to excellent engineering. We conclude by speculating that, quite to the contrary, these methods actually constitute a powerful theory of speech that can be reconciled with and elucidate conventional linguistic theories while being used to build truly competent mechanical speech recognizers. View full abstract»

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  • Speaker recognition—Identifying people by their voices

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1651 - 1664
    Cited by:  Papers (71)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1733 KB)  

    The usefulness of identifying a person from the characteristics of his voice is increasing with the growing importance of automatic information processing and telecommunications. This paper reviews the voice characteristics and identification techniques used in recognizing people by their voices. A discussion of inherent performance limitations, along with a review of the performance achieved by listening, visual examination of spectrograms, and automatic computer techniques, attempts to provide a perspective with which to evaluate the potential of speaker recognition and productive directions for research into and application of speaker recognition technology. View full abstract»

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  • Perception of synthetic speech generated by rule

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1665 - 1676
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1356 KB)  

    As the use of voice response systems employing synthetic speech becomes more widespread in consumer products, industrial and military applications, and aids for the handicapped, it will be necessary to develop reliable methods of comparing different synthesis systems and of assessing how human observers perceive and respond to the speech generated by these systems. The selection of a specific voice response system for a particular application depends on a wide variety of factors only one of which is the inherent intelligibility of the speech generated by the synthesis routines. In this paper, we describe the results of several studies that applied measures of phoneme intelligibility, word recognition, and comprehension to assess the perception of synthetic speech. Several techniques were used to compare performance of different synthesis systems with natural speech and to learn more about how humans perceive synthetic speech generated by rule. Our findings suggest that the perception of synthetic speech depends on an interaction of several factors including the acoustic-phonetic properties of the speech signal, the requirements of the perceptual task, and the previous experience of the listener. Differences in perception between natural speech and high-quality synthetic speech appear to be related to the redundancy of the acoustic-phonetic information encoded in the speech signal. View full abstract»

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  • A self-balancing bridge for in-circuit resistance measurement

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1680 - 1682
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB)  

    This letter deals with a novel and versatile bridge setup for the direct measurement of in-circuit resistance. Unlike other directreading bridges, it is a balanced, active bridge. It basically employs an active RC integrator, a fixed standard resistance, and a reference voltage source. The steady-state output voltage of the integrator is found to be directly proportional to the unknown resistance. Test results show the accuracy of measurement to be of the order of 1 percent in the range of 0.4 to 60 kΩ. View full abstract»

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  • High-field microwave incremental conductivity of cadmium selenide at 77 K

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1682 - 1683
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    The microwave conductivity of cadmium selenide has been calculated at 77 K assuming a displaced Maxwellian energy distribution function for the electrons. It is found that the microwave conductivity decreases monotonically with the applied electric field and has a lower value for higher impurity concentration. The frequency dependence of the microwave conductivity shows that it is substantially constant up to the millimeter wavelength range of frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • A triple error-correcting product code for byte-oriented information systems

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1683 - 1684
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB)  

    We propose a triple error-correcting product code, designed to provide additional error protection for data consisting of 8-bit bytes all having even (or odd) parity (e.g., ASCII characters). A practical decoding algorithm for the code is described. View full abstract»

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  • On the stability of two-dimensional continuous filters

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1684 - 1685
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    The Hermite stability criterion for one-dimensional filters is applied to prove the stability theorems for two-dimensional continuous filters. It is shown that the problem in the stability theorems for the two-dimensional continuous filters when the leading coefficient becomes zero is inherent in the Hermite stability criterion for the one-dimensional filters. It is in sharp contrast to the Schur-Cohn criterion which does not have such a problem. View full abstract»

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  • On zero location with respect to the unit circle of discrete-time linear system polynomials

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1686 - 1687
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)  

    The purpose of this letter is to show that the algorithm proposed in [1] to obtain the root distribution of the polynomial with real coefficients with respect to the unit circle is equivalent to one proposed in [2] with the same degree of complexity. View full abstract»

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  • A digital conferencing technique

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1687 - 1688
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    A digital conferencing technique based on pseudo-addition of adaptive delta-modulated channels has been presented. It employs majority logic for routing speech signals of active subscriber to all others in conference. Time sharing allows processing of large number of channels, making it attractive for VLSI realization. View full abstract»

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  • Digital generation of very-wide-band FM

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1688 - 1690
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB)  

    A digital method of generating very-wide-band FM (VWBFM) signal, based on a novel "time-domain FM" (TDFM) concept, has been described. Uniform samples of the sinusoidal carrier, stored in a read-only memory (ROM), are retrieved in synchronization with the zero-crossings of an FM square wave and interpolated using a tracking low-pass filter (TLPF). View full abstract»

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  • A simple method for MSK modulation and demodulation

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1690 - 1691
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    In this letter, a simple method for modulation and demodulation of minimum shift keying (MSK) is proposed. It has a serial structure, and is easier to implement than the conventional parallel type. The MSK signal is generated by a digital synthesis method and the demodulation process is done by a simple sampling scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Digital communications

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1692 - 1693
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  • Introducing the UNIX system

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1692
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  • Acoustic waveguides, applications to oceanic science

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1693 - 1694
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  • Multidimensional digital signal processing

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1693
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  • Acoustic waveguides applications to oceanic science

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1694
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  • Book alert

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1694 - 1695
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): c4
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The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University