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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):499 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The sampling and reconstruction of time-varying imagery with application in video systems

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):502 - 522
    Cited by:  Papers (130)  |  Patents (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1745 KB)

    Sampling is a fundamental operation in all image communication systems. A time-varying image, which is a function of three independent variables, must be sampled in at least two dimensions for transmission over a one-dimensional analog communication channel, and in three dimensions for digital processing and transmission. At the receiver, the sampled image must be interpolated to reconstruct a con... View full abstract»

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  • Advances in picture coding

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):523 - 548
    Cited by:  Papers (411)  |  Patents (77)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2276 KB)

    This paper presents a review of the advances in digital coding of video signals during the last four years. Displacement estimation algorithms for coding applications are compared first and the relationship between the algorithms is pointed out. The developments in predictive and transform coding are described and discussed with view to broadcast television and video-conferencing applications. One... View full abstract»

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  • Second-generation image-coding techniques

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):549 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (296)  |  Patents (38)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4036 KB)

    The digital representation of an image requires a very large number of bits. The goal of image coding is to reduce this number, as much as possible, and reconstruct a faithful duplicate of the original picture. Early efforts in image coding, solely guided by information theory, led to a plethora of methods. The compression ratio, starting at 1 with the first digital picture in the early 1960s, rea... View full abstract»

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  • Digital television: Transmission and coding

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):575 - 591
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1932 KB)

    Digital television involves a wide range of coding requirements along the television chain, from picture source to home receiver. All parts of this chain are likely to become digital in some future. This paper concentrates on systems descriptions, state of the present developments of equipments, and state of the international discussions. The production and related activities are first considered ... View full abstract»

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  • Design of a DPCM codec for VLSI realization in CMOS technology

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):592 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB)

    Current perspectives on broad-band communication services have made the realization of a DPCM system for video coding on a single integrated circuit particularly important. A nonadaptive intraframe DPCM system is designed for reducing video transmission bit rate by a factor of two. All functional blocks of a DPCM codec have been specified, and modifications have been investigated for reducing spee... View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of television receivers from analog to digital

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):599 - 612
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1560 KB)

    Digital circuits were introduced into TV receivers for control purposes, for example, remote control, and later for internal integrated circuit (IC) control via a data bus within the receiver. Recently, an external bus system was proposed that allows digital control of a variety of in-home consumer equipment. There are two reasons for extending the digitization of the receiver to the video signal ... View full abstract»

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  • Image acquisition technology

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):613 - 637
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2730 KB)

    This survey includes a description of all types of two-dimensional image sensors in current use in television. Television is loosely defined as the acquisition, transmission, and display of moving pictures by electronic means. The technology of image acquisition is greatly complicated by the requirement in many parts of the industry that the images be in natural color. Some imagers include the col... View full abstract»

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  • The evolution towards high-definition television

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):638 - 645
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB)

    The paper discusses the impact on our multimedia society of the recent practice of using different TV standards for the various parts of the chain from studio to receiver. This trend to optimize the standard for each stage rather than stick to one standard throughout paves the way for the evolutionary approach to HDTV. High-definition studio sources will also have to provide signals for existing t... View full abstract»

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  • High-definition television systems

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):646 - 655
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB)

    Fifteen years ago, in 1970, the NHK (the Japan Broadcasting Corporation) forecast today's information society and started research and development of a high-resolution and wide-screen television system which we now call high-definition television (HDTV) system, to produce a new television system most suitable to the creation of "video culture of the future." Wide ranging studies have been carried ... View full abstract»

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  • Audio and visually augmented teleconferencing

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):656 - 670
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1577 KB)

    As an efficient tool for office automation, teleconferencing systems have recently been attracting considerable attention. This paper describes the audio and visually augmented teleconferencing (AVAT) systems which facilitate the mutual exchange of the audio and visual information through an ordinary telephone network or a 64-kbit/s ISDN. First, the teleconferencing systems are analyzed and classi... View full abstract»

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  • Video conferencing systems

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):671 - 688
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (25)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1514 KB)

    In this paper several video conferencing systems are discussed. These include single person-camera, voice-switched, split-screen, continuous presence, and virtual space systems. Special emphasis is placed on the more recent video conferencing systems, i.e., the continuous presence and the virtual space systems. The role of digital signal processing in the video conferencing environment is discusse... View full abstract»

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  • Behavioral and user needs for teleconferencing

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):689 - 699
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1090 KB)

    Four forms of teleconferencing service are considered: audio only, audio plus freeze frame, teleseminar (consisting of one-way video and both-way audio), and full motion video conferencing, offering audio and video connexion on an equal basis from each location. For each service type, the authors seek to identify the nature of the constraints imposed, related to the dual--and occasionally opposing... View full abstract»

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  • Visual communication systems: Trials and experiences

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):700 - 705
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB)

    Over the last fifteen years, a wide variety of visual communication systems have been introduced. Past experience with their use for business teleconferencing, telemedicine, and two-way cable television services has fallen short of expectations. This experience is reviewed and issues are identified which may influence the direction of future applications. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in FAX

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):706 - 730
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2351 KB)

    One of the most important techniques introduced into the recent facsimile is redundancy-reduction coding. The CCITT already standardized the coding schemes to be employed in Group 3 and Group 4. There are, however, left for further study the optional non-information-preserving coding scheme for black-and-white pictures and the coding scheme for multilevel and color pictures. Much work has been car... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of data compression in advanced group 4 facsimile systems

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):731 - 739
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB)

    The CCITT (Consultative Committee for International Telephone and Telegraph) has defined Group 4 facsimile apparatus as that which transmits an ISO A4 (210 × 297 mm) document over public data networks including Packet Switched Data Networks (PSDN) and Circuit Switched Data Networks (CSDN). Data compression is employed in Group 4 systems to minimize the number of bits required for transmission... View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations of NAPLPS, the data syntax for VIDEOTEX and TELETEXT in North America

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):740 - 753
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1262 KB)

    Two new information services, VIDEOTEX and TELETEXT, are now being introduced in the United States and Canada. Both are aimed at displaying frames of information retrieved from a database on a color TV set augmented by logic and memory. The frames are mixtures of characters and graphics. Both services have a very "friendly" user interface. Distinctions between the two lie in the transmission mediu... View full abstract»

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  • Image information systems

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):754 - 764
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1286 KB)

    Recent advances in hardware technology have made feasible the design of sophisticated image information systems. There is need for image information systems in many application areas. A survey of commercial systems that are currently available indicates the diversity of product orientations, nonuniformity, and lack of integration in their capabilities. A survey of R & D efforts indicate that m... View full abstract»

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  • Inter/intraframe coding of color TV signals for transmission at the third level of the digital hierarchy

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):765 - 772
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB)

    The data rate of the third level of the digital hierarchy is regarded as particularly economical for the international exchange of television programs via satellite. Nonetheless, the exchange is aggravated by the fact that this level has not been standardized on a world-wide scale. For example, a rate of 32 Mbits/s is used in Japan, 34 Mbits/s in Europe, and 44 Mbits/s in North America. The presen... View full abstract»

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  • A review of cable television: The urban distribution of broad-band visual signals

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):773 - 788
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1625 KB)

    This paper presents a review of the distribution of broad-band visual signals in urban areas on cable television systems. Following a brief introduction, the early history of cable distribution in the U.S., U.K., and Canada is described. The architecture of wide-band visual distribution networks is presented, based on developments in Canadian cable systems which have formed the model for North Ame... View full abstract»

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  • An experimental time-compression system for satellite television transmission

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):789 - 794
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB)

    We describe an experimental system for demonstrating time-compression multiplexing (TCM) of two NTSC color television signals in a satellite channel of 36 MHz. The system employs digital processing to derive line or field differentials from each picture. The television signals are then converted into interleaved lines (or fields) of unimpaired baseband video and companded line (or field) different... View full abstract»

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  • Visual communication at very low data rates

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):795 - 812
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2959 KB)

    A study is reported of the extraction of two-level cartoons from moving grey-level images for visual communication in the range 4.8-19.2 kbits/s. It is postulated that perceptually significant features of the human face and hands, at which cartoon lines should be drawn in the image, occur wherever surfaces in object space are approximately tangential to the line of sight of the camera or viewer. T... View full abstract»

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  • The telesign project

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):813 - 827
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1911 KB)

    Telesign is designed to offer a means of visual communication over a 56- or 64-kbit/s data network. The purpose is to supply a means of visual telecommunication among the members of the deaf community using sign language or lip reading. The system consists of an edge detector followed by digital compression coding to meet channel requirements. Psychometric experiments have shown the need for 25 fr... View full abstract»

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  • The Ludwig integration algorithm for triangular subregions

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):837 - 838
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB)

    The well-known Ludwig algorithm for numerical treatment of integrals with oscillatory integrands using rectangular subregions is modified so as to make use of triangular subregions. Algebraic expressions are given suitable for programming into a numerical integration subroutine. All of the advantages of the Ludwig scheme are retained. View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University