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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): c1
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  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 499 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The sampling and reconstruction of time-varying imagery with application in video systems

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 502 - 522
    Cited by:  Papers (122)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1745 KB)  

    Sampling is a fundamental operation in all image communication systems. A time-varying image, which is a function of three independent variables, must be sampled in at least two dimensions for transmission over a one-dimensional analog communication channel, and in three dimensions for digital processing and transmission. At the receiver, the sampled image must be interpolated to reconstruct a continuous function of space and time. In imagery destined for human viewing, the visual system forms an integral part of the reconstruction process. This paper presents an overview of the theory of sampling and reconstruction of multidimensional signals. The concept of sampling structures based on lattices is introduced. The important problem of conversion between different sampling structures is also treated. This theory is then applied to the sampling of time-varying imagery, including the role of the camera and display apertures, and the human visual system. Finally, a class of nonlinear interpolation algorithms which adapt to the motion in the scene is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in picture coding

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 523 - 548
    Cited by:  Papers (394)  |  Patents (69)
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    This paper presents a review of the advances in digital coding of video signals during the last four years. Displacement estimation algorithms for coding applications are compared first and the relationship between the algorithms is pointed out. The developments in predictive and transform coding are described and discussed with view to broadcast television and video-conferencing applications. One chapter summarizes the first promising results of motion adaptive frame interpolation. Some problems to be solved in the future are pointed out in the conclusions. View full abstract»

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  • Second-generation image-coding techniques

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 549 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (288)  |  Patents (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4036 KB)  

    The digital representation of an image requires a very large number of bits. The goal of image coding is to reduce this number, as much as possible, and reconstruct a faithful duplicate of the original picture. Early efforts in image coding, solely guided by information theory, led to a plethora of methods. The compression ratio, starting at 1 with the first digital picture in the early 1960s, reached a saturation level around 10:1 a couple of years ago. This certainly does not mean that the upper bound given by the entropy of the source has also been reached. First, this entropy is not known and depends heavily on the model used for the source, i.e., the digital image. Second, the information theory does not take into account what the human eye sees and how it sees. Recent progress in the study of the brain mechanism of vision has opened new vistas in picture coding. Directional sensitivity of the neurones in the visual pathway combined with the separate processing of contours and textures has led to a new class of coding methods capable of achieving compression ratios as high as 70:1. Image quality, of course, remains as an important problem to be investigated. This class of methods, that we call second generation, is the subject of this paper. Two groups can be formed in this class: methods using local operators and combining their output in a suitable way and methods using contour-texture descriptions. Four methods, two in each class, are described in detail. They are applied to the same set of original pictures to allow a fair comparison of the quality in the decoded pictures. If more effort is devoted to this subject, a compression ratio of 100:1 is within reach. View full abstract»

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  • Digital television: Transmission and coding

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 575 - 591
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    Digital television involves a wide range of coding requirements along the television chain, from picture source to home receiver. All parts of this chain are likely to become digital in some future. This paper concentrates on systems descriptions, state of the present developments of equipments, and state of the international discussions. The production and related activities are first considered (CCIR world standard, parallel and serial interfaces, digital video-tape recorder). Then, the structure of the television systems for mid and long-distance transmission links are presented. Complementing this system approach, we recall some general aspects related to television coding: specificity of television pictures and sequences, properties of the human visual system, aspects of optimization procedures. The results obtained for television signals by intraframe and interframe bit-rate reduction coding techniques are presented. The paper then considers the links of the television chain closer to the user: digital broadcasting and local distribution. The last part is devoted to some aspects of compatibility for coding and transmission standards taking into account their compatibility along the TV system chain and between alternative distribution situations or other picture services that will ultimately come to the user's TV set. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a DPCM codec for VLSI realization in CMOS technology

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 592 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB)  

    Current perspectives on broad-band communication services have made the realization of a DPCM system for video coding on a single integrated circuit particularly important. A nonadaptive intraframe DPCM system is designed for reducing video transmission bit rate by a factor of two. All functional blocks of a DPCM codec have been specified, and modifications have been investigated for reducing speed requirements. Alternative realizations of functional blocks, e.g., adders, subtractors, table look-up operations, are compared with respect to speed by a simple delay model. A one-chip VLSI implementation of an efficient DPCM codec will be possible with a 2-µm CMOS technology. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of television receivers from analog to digital

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 599 - 612
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Digital circuits were introduced into TV receivers for control purposes, for example, remote control, and later for internal integrated circuit (IC) control via a data bus within the receiver. Recently, an external bus system was proposed that allows digital control of a variety of in-home consumer equipment. There are two reasons for extending the digitization of the receiver to the video signal processing in the receiver. Firstly, digitizing existing functions will reduce the cost and increase the reliability, and secondly, new functions will enable extra features and better picture quality to be obtained. The key components are complex, fast VLSI ICs and especially for the new features: the integrated digital field store. Examples of both approaches are given and the choice of sampling frequency, important for both approaches, is discussed. Teletext is a service already popular in many countries. Its viability is due to the early availability of complex digital ICs at economic prices. A review is given of the operation of teletext in the TV receiver and a description of the various system standards is attempted. The future use of time-multiplexed color-TV transmission systems, such as the C-MAC and D2-MAC/Packet systems (MAC = Multiplexed Analog Components), is considered. Decoders for these systems will probably use digital methods. Moreover, when digital field storage and processing are introduced in the TV receiver, interesting extensions to the MAC approach will become possible. View full abstract»

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  • Image acquisition technology

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 613 - 637
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2730 KB)  

    This survey includes a description of all types of two-dimensional image sensors in current use in television. Television is loosely defined as the acquisition, transmission, and display of moving pictures by electronic means. The technology of image acquisition is greatly complicated by the requirement in many parts of the industry that the images be in natural color. Some imagers include the color analysis means as an inherent part of their makeup. However, many color cameras use two or more monochrome sensors and a substantial peripheral system of optical, control, and signal-processing functions. Both of these major classes of color imagining systems are described. An outline is included of major categories of camera users, their equipment, and numbers. Finally, a tabulation is presented, giving the physical and electrooptic properties of a variety of cameras. View full abstract»

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  • The evolution towards high-definition television

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 638 - 645
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1120 KB)  

    The paper discusses the impact on our multimedia society of the recent practice of using different TV standards for the various parts of the chain from studio to receiver. This trend to optimize the standard for each stage rather than stick to one standard throughout paves the way for the evolutionary approach to HDTV. High-definition studio sources will also have to provide signals for existing terrestrial networks as well as the newer media distribution methods such as cable, DBS, tape, and disc. The paper discusses the relationship of possible HDTV studio standards to these other channels and attempts to quantify, the magnitude of the problems of achieving compatibility and "transparency." The main question of compatibility is identified as the need to solve the problem of using the same studio source as a signal for 60- as well as 50-Hz transmissions. "Transparency" can be achieved in a compatible way by adding bandwidth to carry the higher definition. However, if sophisticated bandwidth reduction techniques using picture storage in the receiver are to be used to achieve optimum spectrum usage a new starting point of standardization for transmission is required. View full abstract»

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  • High-definition television systems

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 646 - 655
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1071 KB)  

    Fifteen years ago, in 1970, the NHK (the Japan Broadcasting Corporation) forecast today's information society and started research and development of a high-resolution and wide-screen television system which we now call high-definition television (HDTV) system, to produce a new television system most suitable to the creation of "video culture of the future." Wide ranging studies have been carried out by NHK on the establishment of desirable picture quality, picture aspect, and signal standards for transmission. The provisional HDTV system proposed by NHK based on the result of many studies and the performances of the system are described. Early in 1984, the MUSE system has been developed by NHK and the desirable HDTV information can be compressed with 8 MHz and packed with this system. Thanks to the development of the MUSE system, there is the potential of HDTV broadcasting via satellite and early introduction of HDTV into package media such as video discs and videotapes. The NHK's HDTV system was designed to match many other applications. Many kinds of HDTV equipment have been developed in Japan and HDTV is approached and studied in the relation to various aspects such as electrocinematography, printing, and medicine. NHK has been working on the development of the entire broadcasting system of HDTV to unite the whole world into one "television community" in the coming generation by a worldwide single standard. Video engineers all over the world should be aware of the importance of every possible effort toward the establishment of a global HDTV system. View full abstract»

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  • Audio and visually augmented teleconferencing

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 656 - 670
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (19)
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    As an efficient tool for office automation, teleconferencing systems have recently been attracting considerable attention. This paper describes the audio and visually augmented teleconferencing (AVAT) systems which facilitate the mutual exchange of the audio and visual information through an ordinary telephone network or a 64-kbit/s ISDN. First, the teleconferencing systems are analyzed and classified hierarchically from the standpoint of communication media and their functions, and then AVAT system features are clarified among the systems. Through existing AVAT system examples, the present status of and future tendencies for technologies that are vital to the configuration of AVAT systems are reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Video conferencing systems

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 671 - 688
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1514 KB)  

    In this paper several video conferencing systems are discussed. These include single person-camera, voice-switched, split-screen, continuous presence, and virtual space systems. Special emphasis is placed on the more recent video conferencing systems, i.e., the continuous presence and the virtual space systems. The role of digital signal processing in the video conferencing environment is discussed. The interaction between service definition, the video conferencing system, and the digital signal processing requirements is highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Behavioral and user needs for teleconferencing

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 689 - 699
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1090 KB)  

    Four forms of teleconferencing service are considered: audio only, audio plus freeze frame, teleseminar (consisting of one-way video and both-way audio), and full motion video conferencing, offering audio and video connexion on an equal basis from each location. For each service type, the authors seek to identify the nature of the constraints imposed, related to the dual--and occasionally opposing--needs of the user and of the company. Room, transmission, and network aspects are discussed in detail, and schemes for simultaneous multiple-location conferencing outlined. Practical examples from around the world are included to highlight the very real human factors challenges with which we are concerned. Full motion video conferencing is probably the most demanding service in terms of complexity of terminal equipment, coding equipment, and appropriate network structure. Currently such service is generally offered at transmission rates of 1.5 or 2 Mbits/s. Over the next few years there is expected be a move towards lower rates, e.g., 384 kbits/s, but domestic provision at 128 or 64 kbits/s is still considered much longer term. View full abstract»

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  • Visual communication systems: Trials and experiences

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 700 - 705
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (671 KB)  

    Over the last fifteen years, a wide variety of visual communication systems have been introduced. Past experience with their use for business teleconferencing, telemedicine, and two-way cable television services has fallen short of expectations. This experience is reviewed and issues are identified which may influence the direction of future applications. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in FAX

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 706 - 730
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2351 KB)  

    One of the most important techniques introduced into the recent facsimile is redundancy-reduction coding. The CCITT already standardized the coding schemes to be employed in Group 3 and Group 4. There are, however, left for further study the optional non-information-preserving coding scheme for black-and-white pictures and the coding scheme for multilevel and color pictures. Much work has been carried out with respect to these kinds of coding, including pattern-matching coding for black-and-white pictures and various information-preserving and non-information-preserving coding for multilevel and color pictures. The Group 4 apparatus is a new generation facsimile apparatus, which is mainly operated on public switched data networks. This kind of facsimile apparatus features higher resolution and error-free reception, and has the teletex-facsimile mixed mode capability as an option. The most important technical problem in the standardization of the Group 4 facsimile is the communication protocol which has been developed based on the existing teletex protocol. Facsimile communication is carried out not only on general public switched telephone or data networks, but also on specialized networks dedicated to it. Some sorts of communication processing such as speed conversion, automatic appending function, repeated delivery attempt, etc., are incorporated into these networks. The development of facsimile equipment has also shown progress in these few years. For example, a very compact apparatus has been developed using a new contact type imager and a codec built by special-purpose LSIs. The press fax apparatus employing flat-bed scanner and multicolor facsimile apparatus have also been put into market. This paper describes the outline of recent advances in facsimile, including the above-mentioned items. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of data compression in advanced group 4 facsimile systems

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 731 - 739
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB)  

    The CCITT (Consultative Committee for International Telephone and Telegraph) has defined Group 4 facsimile apparatus as that which transmits an ISO A4 (210 × 297 mm) document over public data networks including Packet Switched Data Networks (PSDN) and Circuit Switched Data Networks (CSDN). Data compression is employed in Group 4 systems to minimize the number of bits required for transmission of a message. CCITT Recommendation T.6 defines the basic Group 4 coding scheme to be a variation of the modified READ code (MRC II) which is the Group 3 coding option. This paper measures the compression of the MRC II algorithm for three different documents at resolutions of 200, 240, 300, 400, and 480 picture elements per inch. The compression measurement was accomplished by means of computer simulation. It was determined that the bits per page measure increases linearly with resolution. Results are presented and conclusions drawn. The Group 4 CCITT Recommendations include a mode of operation known as Mixed Mode where a page is divided into two parts: character-coded information and facsimile-coded information. This paper describes four alternative mixed-mode algorithms and measures the compression of each coding technique for CCITT document number 1. The compression measurements were performed by means of computer simulation. Conclusions are drawn regarding the relative advantages of the four algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations of NAPLPS, the data syntax for VIDEOTEX and TELETEXT in North America

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 740 - 753
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    Two new information services, VIDEOTEX and TELETEXT, are now being introduced in the United States and Canada. Both are aimed at displaying frames of information retrieved from a database on a color TV set augmented by logic and memory. The frames are mixtures of characters and graphics. Both services have a very "friendly" user interface. Distinctions between the two lie in the transmission medium used and the extent of and degree of interaction with the database. TELETEXT uses broadcast TV channels and permits retrieval from a small database. VIDEOTEX uses telephone or other data communication lines and allows extensive interaction with a conceptually unlimited database. This paper focuses on design considerations and features for the recently adopted standard, North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax (NAPLPS). This new standard specifies the data syntax for the encoding of textual and pictorial information in both VIDEOTEX and TELETEXT services in North America. These services were originally introduced in Europe using alphamosaic formats. Characteristics of the American and Canadian environment that have motivated the new standard to include both alphamosaic and alphageometric formats are examined. The paper concludes with a look at possible additions to NAPLPS. View full abstract»

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  • Image information systems

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 754 - 764
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1286 KB)  

    Recent advances in hardware technology have made feasible the design of sophisticated image information systems. There is need for image information systems in many application areas. A survey of commercial systems that are currently available indicates the diversity of product orientations, nonuniformity, and lack of integration in their capabilities. A survey of R & D efforts indicate that many sophisticated techniques and concepts have been developed, but lack of integration again prevents their immediate applications. Based upon these considerations, an approach to software design for image information systems to achieve system integration is suggested, which emphasizes program portability and modularity, self-descriptive data structures, unified image processing language and programming environment, and flexible user interface. The concept of generalized icons is proposed as a means to help achieve such system integration. View full abstract»

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  • Inter/intraframe coding of color TV signals for transmission at the third level of the digital hierarchy

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 765 - 772
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB)  

    The data rate of the third level of the digital hierarchy is regarded as particularly economical for the international exchange of television programs via satellite. Nonetheless, the exchange is aggravated by the fact that this level has not been standardized on a world-wide scale. For example, a rate of 32 Mbits/s is used in Japan, 34 Mbits/s in Europe, and 44 Mbits/s in North America. The present paper details a procedure which allows digital TV signals of studio standard to be transmitted on 32-, 34-, or 44-Mbit/s channels by means of sampling rate conversion and adaptive source coding. For the case where an international link consists of sections using different data rates, a transcoding method is described and tested in computer simulations which converts the third-level rates into each other, without cascading of DPCM-decoders and-encoders. View full abstract»

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  • A review of cable television: The urban distribution of broad-band visual signals

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 773 - 788
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1625 KB)  

    This paper presents a review of the distribution of broad-band visual signals in urban areas on cable television systems. Following a brief introduction, the early history of cable distribution in the U.S., U.K., and Canada is described. The architecture of wide-band visual distribution networks is presented, based on developments in Canadian cable systems which have formed the model for North American development. The present status of fiber optics in cable systems in reviewed. The paper concludes with a summary of probable development directions. The paper includes an extensive bibliography covering cable television. View full abstract»

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  • An experimental time-compression system for satellite television transmission

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 789 - 794
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB)  

    We describe an experimental system for demonstrating time-compression multiplexing (TCM) of two NTSC color television signals in a satellite channel of 36 MHz. The system employs digital processing to derive line or field differentials from each picture. The television signals are then converted into interleaved lines (or fields) of unimpaired baseband video and companded line (or field) differentials. These signal components are finally time compressed and multiplexed into a combined signal for single-carrier FM transmission. With 4.5-m earth stations, the field-differential technique offers extremely good transmission quality suitable for TV distribution to cable head-ends (weighted signal-to-noise ratio, WSNR ≈ 51.5 dB), while the line-differential method provides a slightly lower WSNR ( ≈ 49 dB). We recommend the field-differential approach because of its superior overall picture quality. For larger receive stations (7m), higher picture quality (WSNR ≈ 56 dB) could be obtained. If 10-m earth stations are employed, the received video performance is practically indistinguishable from the corresponding one in the one-television-per-transponder case, and we infer that three pictures can indeed be sent with a graceful degradation as previously suggested. By choosing the parameters properly, the current TCM system can be optimized for a wide variety of applications with higher channel capacity. View full abstract»

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  • Visual communication at very low data rates

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 795 - 812
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2959 KB)  

    A study is reported of the extraction of two-level cartoons from moving grey-level images for visual communication in the range 4.8-19.2 kbits/s. It is postulated that perceptually significant features of the human face and hands, at which cartoon lines should be drawn in the image, occur wherever surfaces in object space are approximately tangential to the line of sight of the camera or viewer. The implications of this postulate are analyzed for smooth lambertian reflectors seen against a background of the same luminance factor; it is shown that the combined effects of surface gradient and illumination lead to the formation of luminance valleys at the significant features. An experimental comparison of several detectors is described which confirmed the advantage of valley-based detection for deriving economical but recognizable cartoons. View full abstract»

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  • The telesign project

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 813 - 827
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1911 KB)  

    Telesign is designed to offer a means of visual communication over a 56- or 64-kbit/s data network. The purpose is to supply a means of visual telecommunication among the members of the deaf community using sign language or lip reading. The system consists of an edge detector followed by digital compression coding to meet channel requirements. Psychometric experiments have shown the need for 25 frames/s with a minimum definition of 128 × 128 points. Edge-detection techniques are discussed from the viewpoint of an unusual quality criterion: the subjective resemblance of the contoured image to the original and, closely related to this, the intelligibility of the image sequence. A classification of edge detectors is given, based upon the position of the contour with respect to the dark/light contrast boundaries in the picture. The relationship of this classification to the quality criterion yields the definition of a new gradient display, called the "shifted gradient," with improved visual quality. The pseudo-Laplacian, well-suited to the problem, is analyzed. Various binary coding techniques are reviewed, and the results of compression given. A psychovisual experiment, performed in conjunction with the INJS (National Institute for the Education of Young Deaf), Paris, France, is described; the results validate the proposed approach. Guidelines are proposed for the design of a real-time device. The application of Telesign to closed-caption TV programs for the deaf viewer is also suggested. View full abstract»

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  • The Ludwig integration algorithm for triangular subregions

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 837 - 838
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (183 KB)  

    The well-known Ludwig algorithm for numerical treatment of integrals with oscillatory integrands using rectangular subregions is modified so as to make use of triangular subregions. Algebraic expressions are given suitable for programming into a numerical integration subroutine. All of the advantages of the Ludwig scheme are retained. View full abstract»

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