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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 2 • Feb. 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):179 - 181
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Fifty years of radar

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):182 - 197
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3560 KB)

    After the almost simultaneous, independent invention of radar in several countries of the world in the mid-1930s, radar development progressed rapidly with its use by both sides during World War II. Since then, radar has been growing through the years in both capability and in applications. In this paper, highlights of the first fifty years of modern radar development are briefly reviewed, current... View full abstract»

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  • Land clutter models for radar design and analysis

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):198 - 204
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)

    Land clutter reflectivity has been described in the literature for many types of terrain, viewed by radars of different frequencies at different grazing angles. Significant gaps remain in the published data, especially for ground-based radars viewing the terrain at grazing incidence, and for bistatic situations where one path is at grazing incidence. An analytical model is proposed here which pred... View full abstract»

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  • Birds and insects as radar targets: A review

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):205 - 227
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2770 KB)

    A review of radar cross-section measurements of birds and insects is presented. A brief discussion of some possible theoretical models is also given and comparisons made with the measurements. The comparisons suggest that most targets are, at present, better modeled by a prolate spheroid having a length-to-width ratio between 3 and 10 than by the often used equivalent weight water sphere. In addit... View full abstract»

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  • Radar cross section of insects

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):228 - 232
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB)

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary ... View full abstract»

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  • Surface-based radar imaging of sea ice

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):233 - 251
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2428 KB)

    The paper examines the use of a surface-based marine radar for imaging the surface features of sea ice in full ice cover. Two aspects of the problem are considered: 1) selection of radar parameters which maximize the effectiveness of the radar for ice imaging, and 2) evaluation of image processing (display) techniques that effectively convey to an operator the information contained in the radar re... View full abstract»

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  • A progression of high-frequency RCS prediction techniques

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):252 - 264
    Cited by:  Papers (63)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1346 KB)

    Since the widespread use of radar in World War II, engineers have grappled with the problem of calculating the radar echo characteristics of a wide variety of bodies, and over the years methods have steadily improved. This paper surveys a progression of methods, not necessarily in chronological order, each of which offers its own peculiar advantage. We begin with the caveat that large, complex tar... View full abstract»

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  • Tropospheric radio propagation assessment

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):265 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (86)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1856 KB)

    The status of tropospheric radio propagation assessment is reviewed and recent advances in this area are described. Special emphasis is given to anomalous propagation in a marine environment. Modeling and measurements of ducting phenomena caused by the oceanic evaporation duct and by elevated refractive layers are discussed. The modeling involves extensive numerical calculations of waveguide propa... View full abstract»

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  • Design of a new airport surveillance radar (ASR-9)

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):284 - 289
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    The ASR-9 marks a significant departure from earlier ASR designs [1]. Major operational benefits are realized by applying modern digital technology and advanced processing concepts. It is evolutionary in that it retains the desirable features of its predecessors. This paper will focus on the principal characteristics that make its design unique. The following topics are covered: aircraft detection... View full abstract»

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  • Airport surface detection equipment

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):290 - 300
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1049 KB)

    A special-purpose, high-resolution, radar that maps the airport surface has proved a useful tool to monitor aircraft movements under conditions of poor visibility. Such radars are referred to as ASDE (Airport Surface Detection Equipment). The rationale for the design and critical parameter selection for the ASDE-3 is presented. Key features of the chosen design are a rotodome with variable focus a... View full abstract»

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  • Medium PRF for the AN/APG-66 radar

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):301 - 311
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (891 KB)

    This paper discusses the medium pulse repetition frequency (PRF) pulse doppler mode of the AN/APG-66, the multimode fire control radar for the F-16A/B aircraft. This radar is currently in production and as of January 1984 over 1700 have been delivered. Included is a discussion of the three PRF types: high, low, and medium PRF, leading to the conclusion that for an airborne, look-down application t... View full abstract»

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  • Airborne early warning radar

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):312 - 324
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2112 KB)

    Airborne Early Warning (AEW) Radar meets the operational requirement of detection and tracking of both low- and high-flying aircraft. The important and fundamental radar parameters of RF, PRF, pulse length, and transmitter power are discussed together with a number of factors relating to the antenna. An overview of the modern fixed-wing systems Nimrod AEW, E-2C Hawkeye, and E-3A AWACS currently in... View full abstract»

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  • Applications of digital technology to radar

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):325 - 339
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1219 KB)

    Digital technology permeates electronic design, especially in the field of radar. This paper describes some ways in, which digital technology is used to overcome the limits of analog circuits, particularly in waveform generation, signal processing, and clutter suppression. Another example of the application of digital technology to radar is the general-purpose computer that is part of every modern... View full abstract»

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  • Multifunction rotating electronically scanned radar (RESR) for air surveillance

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):340 - 354
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1250 KB)

    The system technical features of a new class of multifunction rotating electronically scanned radar systems (RESRSs), that electronically scan in both azimuth and elevation while rotating in azimuth, are described in terms of satisfying modern air defense needs. A brief comparison to classical radar solutions is followed by use of an illustrative example to indicate quantitatively as well as quali... View full abstract»

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  • A radar for the exploration of exstrasolar planets

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):355 - 361
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    A radar for detecting and mapping terrestrial-type planets around distant suns is described. Using technology not greatly beyond that presently available, this radar will detect and image terrestrial planets up to a few tens of light years away with a mapping resolution of a few tens of kilometers. The radar is bistatic with the transmit antenna ensemble in solar orbit inside Mercury's orbit and t... View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) penetration through circular apertures in the frequency domain

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):368 - 369
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (162 KB)

    Equations and curves are given for estimating field coupling from a normally electromagnetic pulse (EMP) incident plane wave through a circular aperture within a thin planar surface. View full abstract»

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  • A necessary and sufficient condition for acyclic graphs

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):369 - 370
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (175 KB)

    This letter gives a new necessary and sufficient condition to determine whether a directed graph is acyclic. View full abstract»

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  • Solution of the two-dimensional spectral factorization problem

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):370 - 371
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB)

    An approximation theorem is proven which solves a classic problem in two-dimensional (2-D) filter theory. The theorem shows that any continuous two-dimensional spectrum can be uniformly approximated by the squared modulus of a recursively stable finite trigonometric polynomial supported on a nonsymmetric half-plane. View full abstract»

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  • A gradient algorithm for center-frequency adaptive recursive bandpass filters

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):371 - 372
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (167 KB)

    Mean-square output of a center-frequency variable bandpass filter is employed as the performance criterion to make the filter self-adjusting to the center frequency of the input signal. A gradient ascending algorithm is proposed to update the center-frequency-dependent coefficients of the filter to maximize the performance function. View full abstract»

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  • A planar back-to-back Schottky-barrier photodiode

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):372 - 374
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (369 KB)

    Re-evaluation of a previously reported phenomenon of an unusual light-sensitive diode led to the construction of a planar back-to-back Schottky diode. Experimental I-V characteristics of this diode provide the missing link pertaining to the unusual phenomenon. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency optimization for microwave imaging of biological tissues

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):374 - 375
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB)

    Theoretical calculations are provided to show that 2 to 8 GHz represents a frequency region most suited for microwave imaging of biological tissue. The attenuation and spatial resolution are both adequate to yield useful diagnostic information. View full abstract»

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  • A microprocessor-based frequency-to-code converter

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):375 - 377
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB)

    A new microprocessor-based linear frequency- to-code converter (fDC) is described in this letter. It consists of the microprocessor, memory, only one inverter as interface, and an ingenious software program. The program execution leads to automatic synchronization and conversion of the input fito an output code. Conversion time is just equal to the period of the input signal. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "Time-weighted quadratic performance indices for linear systems"

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):377 - 378
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  • A new residue to decimal converter

    Publication Year: 1985, Page(s):378 - 380
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB)

    The Chinese Remainder Theorem, or CRT, is investigated in the context of its architecture. A novel architecture based on radix 2shardware is developed. By propedy managing a stack of system-wide carry bits, a CRT can be efficiently designed. The developed method is compared to more traditional techniques and is found to have a significantly reduced hardware budget. View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University