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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 1980

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 53
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 1172
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Overview of telecommunications via optical fibers

    Page(s): 1173 - 1174
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    Light-wave transmission on a glass-fiber transmission medium has reached a fully commercial stage, with carrier wavelengths in the 0.82-0.85-µm region. Second generation systems will operate with carrier wavelengths in the 1.2-1.6-µm region where high-silica fibers have more attractive loss and dispersion characteristics. Research continues at a high level, and will lead to continued rapid evolution of light-wave systems. View full abstract»

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  • Structures, parameters, and transmission properties of optical fibers

    Page(s): 1175 - 1180
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    Signal-transmission characteristics of optical-fiber waveguides are determined largely by their structural geometries, physical parameters, and materials properties. This paper reviews these factors and discusses the roles they play in determining loss and bandwidth in both single-mode and multimode fibers. Effects of polarization and of waveguide perturbations are included, and recent work on tailoring the bandwidth spectrum of single-mode fibers is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Materials and processes for preform fabrication—Modified chemical vapor deposition and plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Page(s): 1181 - 1184
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    This paper summarizes recent achievements and current directions of process developments for making optical fibers by modified chemical vapor deposition and plasma deposition. View full abstract»

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  • Materials and processes for fiber preform fabrication—Vapor-phase axial deposition

    Page(s): 1184 - 1187
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    The vapor-phase axial deposition (VAD) process was developed to realize continuous fabrication of high-silica fiber preforms. This process could be used to fabricate various kinds of optical fibers such as graded-index, single-mode, and high NA fibers. Transmission characteristics of these VAD fibers have improved to the level almost comparable to the best values attained by the MCVD process. The VAD process has excellent prospects as an economical means to produce long-length fibers with good transmission characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of optical waveguides by the outside vapor deposition process

    Page(s): 1187 - 1190
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    The outside vapor deposition process (OVD) represents one of the principle vapor deposition methods used to make glass fiber optical waveguides [1], [2]. In this brief review, each of the basic process steps (deposition, sintering, drawing) are described and the present performance capabilities are presented. Process improvements leading to hydroxyl removal, increased numerical aperture (NA), and long wavelength operation are discussed. Selected examples of fiber compositions and properties are tabulated which range from high-NA fibers suitable for short-distance applications through very-high-performance fibers for long-distance transmission. View full abstract»

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  • Multicomponent glass fibers for optical communications

    Page(s): 1191 - 1194
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    The preparation of low-loss multicomponent glasses, and the methods by which both step- and graded-index fibers can be drawn from them are described. The optical performance of fiber prepared by each technique is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber drawing, coating, and jacketing

    Page(s): 1194 - 1198
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    The fiber drawing and coating process impacts strongly on the transmission and strength properties of optical fibers. Current practices which lead to realization of optimum fiber properties are discussed with reference to recent achievements and results in these areas. View full abstract»

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  • The index-profile characterization of fiber preforms and drawn fibers

    Page(s): 1198 - 1203
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    The information carrying capacity of multimode optical fibers is mainly determined by the quality of the refractive index distribution of their cores which, in turn, is determined by the distribution existing in the fiber's parent--the preform. This paper reviews methods that can be used to measure the index profiles of preforms--both multi-mode and single mode. Attention is also given to the effects of profile perturbations and means of eliminating them, as well as to applications of the techniques to fiber profiling. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental techniques for evaluation of fiber transmission loss and dispersion

    Page(s): 1203 - 1209
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    This paper describes state-of-the-art measurement techniques for the characterization of fiber loss and dispersion. Special emphasis is placed on the achievement of high measurement accuracy, and on novel techniques to determine the loss and dispersion of single-mode and graded-index fibers in the 0.8 to 1.7-µm wavelength region where fiber loss and material dispersion are both small. View full abstract»

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  • Multimode fiber bandwidth: Theory and practice

    Page(s): 1209 - 1213
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    We review the causes of pulse broadening in multimode fibers with special emphasis on the importance of designing and producing fibers whose refractive index profiles conform to a theoretical optimum. Also discussed are attempts to broaden the wavelength range of high signal bandwidth by use of fiber cores produced with multiple dopants. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber cable design and characterization

    Page(s): 1214 - 1219
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    Optical-fiber cable design differs from the design of metallic cables principally because of two factors: i) the physical properties of fibers are more limiting than those of metals, and ii) the transmission performance of a fiber can be altered by cabling operations due to a phenomenon called microbending. After reviewing these factors, methods are considered for mitigating their effects by appropriate design procedures. This leads to the consideration of different types of cable structures. In order to evaluate an optical cable design, it is necessary that its important mechanical and optical properties be characterized. The tensile, bending, and impact performance, as well as cabling added loss, temperature dependence of loss, and concatenated fiber bandwidth are then considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of "long-term" stability of optical cables. View full abstract»

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  • Optical cable design and characterization in Japan

    Page(s): 1220 - 1226
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    Discussion is made on physical parameters of graded-index fiber, design of coated fiber, design concept of optical cables including various types of cables developed in Japan. Optimum design of the fiber physical parameters is described from the viewpoints of fiber properties and cost. The basic approach to fiber buffering and coating is discussed in consideration of the preservation of transmission characteristics, mechanical properties, and reliability in a long term. The design concept of fiber cables is summarized. Various types of fiber cables fabricated in Japan are introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Splices, connectors, and power couplers for field and office use

    Page(s): 1226 - 1232
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    The functions of splices, connectors, and power couplers are reviewed. Parameters of interest to system designers are identified. The sources of loss in splices and connectors are summarized and typical loss values given. Specific designs of splices, connectors, and couplers for telecommunications and computer network applications are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinearity in fiber transmission

    Page(s): 1232 - 1236
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    Procedures are presented for estimating critical powers for nonlinear optical processes in single-mode fiber transmission systems. Crosstalk due to Raman gain in multiplexed systems can appear at powers of a few mW. The effects of self-phase modulation and stimulated Brillouin scattering can appear around 100 mW while typical stimulated Raman threshold powers are a few watts. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber transmission losses in high-radiation fields

    Page(s): 1236 - 1240
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    A summary is provided on the effects of ionizing radiation on present generation optical fibers. In particular, the paper focuses on the magnitude and the spectral and temporal characteristics of the radiation-induced transmission losses in irradiated fibers. The most radiation resistant classes of fibers are identified and possible approaches for further improvements in fiber performance are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Optical sources for fiber transmission systems

    Page(s): 1240 - 1247
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    Two types of semiconductor devices are available for use as light sources in fiber transmission systems. The simpler device, the light-emitting diode (LED), emits light in many directions and is useful with large core diameter, multimode fibers. The more complicated semiconductor laser emits more collimated light and can couple 10-100 times more power into a multimode fiber and can also be efficiently coupled to small-core single-mode fibers. LED's will be adequate for use in the more numerous data bus and low-to-medium capacity transmission systems, and will be used whenever possible because of their simpler driving circuit requirements, lower temperature sensitivity. and lower cost. Semiconductor laser with their higher power and narrower emission spectrum will be required for high-capacity and long-span transmission systems. View full abstract»

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  • Photodetectors for fiber transmission systems

    Page(s): 1247 - 1253
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    A review of the basic features of photodetectors including p-i-n and avalanche types is presented. At the present time silicon devices for use in the 0.8-0.9-µm region have been successfully developed and are readily available. Present efforts are aimed at developing devices for use in the 1.3-1.6-µm region where improved fiber performance is possible. View full abstract»

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  • Contrasting fiber-optic-component-design requirements in telecommunications, analog, and local data communications applications

    Page(s): 1254 - 1262
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    This paper contrasts the system requirements in the three major applications of fiber optics: digital telecommunications, analog, and local data communications. These comparisons reveal how differing system requirements result in very different architectural design for the fiber optics components, particularly the receiver design. Some alternative receiver architectures are discussed along with performance tradeoffs. View full abstract»

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  • Single-mode digital transmission technology

    Page(s): 1263 - 1268
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    Single-mode fiber technologies, including fibers, semiconductor devices and transmission systems, are delineated. Transmission experiments up to 1.6 Gbit/s in the 1.3- and 1.5-µm bands show the feasibility of applying single-mode fiber application to high data rate systems. View full abstract»

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  • Multimode-fiber technology for digital transmission

    Page(s): 1269 - 1275
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    Multimode-fiber systems are presently being installed to meet some of the burgeoning demands for digital transmission in the telecommunications industry. These first-generation systems operate near 0.85-µm wavelength with laser transmitters and avalanche-photodiode receivers. Second-generation multimode systems may use simpler and more reliable LED's and p-i-n photodiodes operating near 1.3 µm, where fibers exhibit much lower loss and dispersion. This paper summarizes the state of the art of multimode-fiber digital transmission with special emphasis on emerging technologies for operation in the 1.1-1.7- µm wavelength region. Graded-index multimode fibers, lasers, LED's, photodetectors, receiver sensitivities, and noise penalties are considered. Finally, some of the requirements and challenges in applying these technologies are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Optical fibers for computer systems

    Page(s): 1275 - 1280
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    The opportunities for the use of fiber optics in computer systems are explored and functional requirements described. The evolution of many computer-system applications is in the direction of high bandwidth interconnections for which fiber optics offers substantial advantages over other approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Optical-fiber communications for electric power companies in Japan

    Page(s): 1280 - 1285
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    The Japanese electric power companies have long been interested in the optical fiber communication-system features, such as non inductivity, high-insulation property, large transmission capacity etc. Since 1974 they have been conducting field experiments utilizing optical-fiber communications for transmitting power-system protection, supervision, and control data. Based on these works, six Japanese electric companies have installed nine optical fiber communication systems since 1978, and their performance records are fully satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • FT3—A metropolitan trunk lightwave system

    Page(s): 1286 - 1290
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    FT3 is a 44.7 Mbit/s (DS3) digital lightwave transmission system intended primarily for metropolitan trunking. The system terminal includes a new multiplex, MX3, which provides interfaces for lower rate DS1, DS1C, or DS2 signals. The multiplex and lightwave line terminal are integrated into a single equipment configuration. Regenerators, containing laser transmitters and APD receivers, are spaced at approximately 4-mi intervals. A ribbon structured cable, containing up to 144 fibers, provides a maximum system capacity of about 40000 voice circuits. System parameters, maintenance, and performance features are consistent with requirements imposed by metropolitan digital trunk networks. The first fully standard application is planned for Atlanta, GA in December 1980, with several early follow-on applications already committed. View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University