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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1980

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): c1
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  • Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield, nobel laureate

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 3
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  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 4 - 5
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  • Population exposure to VHF and UHF broadcast radiation in the united states

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 6 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been collecting broadcast signal field intensity data for over three years to estimate population exposure to this form of nonionizing radiation. Measurement data have been obtained at 486 locations distributed throughout 15 large cities and collectively represent approximately 14 000 measurements of VHF and UHF signal field intensities. The VHF and UHF broadcast service is the main source of ambient radio-frequency (RF) exposure in the United States. A computer algorithm has been developed which uses these measurement data to estimate the broadcast exposure at some 47 000 census enumeration districts within the metropolitan boundaries of these 15 cities. The results of computations provide information on the fraction of the population that is potentially exposed to various intensities of RF radiation. Special emphasis has been placed on determining the uncertainty inherent to the exposure estimation procedure and details are provided on these techniques. A median exposure level (that level to which half of the population is exposed greater than) of 0.005 µW/cm2time averaged power density has been determined for the population of the 15 cities studied, the cumulative population of which represents 20 percent of the total U.S. population. The data also suggest that approximately 1 percent of the population studied, or about 441 000, are potentially exposed to levels greater than 1 µW/cm2, the suggested safety guide for the population in the USSR. Alternative techniques of using the measurement data to estimate population exposure are examined and future extensions of this work are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Occupational exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 12 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Occupational exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electro-magnetic (EM) fields occurs in various industrial processes. The exposure usually takes place in the near field, i.e., within one free space wavelength from the RF source. When a survey of a workplace is performed from a leakage radiation point of view, the near-field situation implies that the electric as well as the magnetic field strengths have to be monitored in order to assess the health hazard. This paper discusses the field strengths typically encountered in some of these occupational situations. Thin sheets of plastic materials can be joined or sealed by application of RF energy. The plastic welding machine, using for this purpose, usually does not have shielded electrodes and this may lead to high levels of RF fields in the immediate vicinity of the machines. The ANSI standard is exceeded in several cases near the plastic welding machines. In medicine, for instance, RF energy is used in shortwave therapy. Due to the construction of the apparatus (i.e. presence of electrodes and cables) the physiotherapist as well as the maintenance personnel may be exposed to very high levels of both E and H fields. The results of measurements of these fields in the vicinity of shortwave diathermy apparatus are discussed. The maintenance personnel working in FM/TV broadcast towers are another group of workers subject to occupational exposure of intense RF fields, and some recent studies of the exposure are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of electric- and magnetic-field strengths from industrial radio-frequency (6-38 MHz) plastic sealers

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 17 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    This paper describes the results of occupational radio-frequency (RF) field strength measurements on RF plastic sealers and compares the results to the ANSI C95.1-1974 personnel exposure standard. The RF sealers are characterized according to operating frequency, duty cycle, and nominal power output. The field strength monitors used in these measurements were constructed and calibrated for near-field exposure measurements by the National Bureau of Standards and Narda Microwave Corporation. Near-field measurements were necessary because RF sealer operators were less than one free space wavelength from the sealers. Results of these measurements showed that at least 60 percent of the RF sealers emitted electric field strengths in excess of the ANSI C95.1-1974 guideline (200 V/m). In addition, at least 29 percent of the RF sealers exceeded the ANSI guideline for magnetic field strength exposure (0.5 A/m). All measurements have been corrected for duty cycle (typically 0.050 to 0.200). Several valuable observations were also made during the surveys. First, shielding can substantially reduce operator exposure. Second, exposure from adjacent sealers can be comparable to that received from the RF sealer being surveyed. Third, all RF sealers surveyed were operated by women. Finally, field strengths measured at seven anatomical locations showed considerable differences. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic radiation from selected telecommunications systems

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 21 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Because of the growing interest in potential health effects associated with exposure to electromagnetic (EM) radiation at microwave and radio frequencies (RF's), a study was initiated within the Bell System to document existing levels of EM energy associated with various radio transmission systems. To this end, power density and electric field strength measurements were made at selected facilities, particularly at locations judged to be representative of those frequently encountered by various crafts personnel. For the case of point-to-point microwave radio, measurements were made in the vicinity of various antenna towers in order to obtain information that could be compared with the corresponding levels predicted by analytical techniques. These data allow one to assess the environmental impact, with respect to EM radiation, of the microwave radio system as well as the impact of future standards and guidelines on the system. This paper describes the instrumentation and measurement techniques used for this study and provides a summary of the results obtained for several different types of radio systems including high frequency (HF) radio, tropospheric scatter, earth-satellite and ubiquitous microwave radio relay. View full abstract»

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  • State of the knowledge for electromagnetic absorbed dose in man and animals

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 24 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
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    The paper gives the EM absorbed dose for man and animals at various frequencies for the plane wave irradiation condition for different orientations of the body relative to incident fields. Also included are the results for the whole-body absorption for conditions of electrical contact with ground and in the presence of reflecting surfaces of high conductivity and multiple animals. The data are given for the ditribution of power deposition in man models for the resonance conditions of highest whole-body electromagnetic absorption. The highlights of the results obtained with proportionately scaled saline- and biological-phantom-filled models of man have been confirmed by experiments with small laboratory animals, from 25-g mice to 2250-g rabbits. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic dosimetry for models of humans and animals: A review of theoretical and numerical techniques

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 33 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (1)
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    Theoretical dosimetry, i.e., calculation of the electromagnetic (EM) energy absorbed by humans in radiation fields, has become increasingly important as the use of EM devices in our society has increased. Since such calculations are difficult and complicated, a number of EM analysis techniques have been used by researchers in the field to obtain dosimetric data and understanding of absorption characteristics. Both analytical and numerical EM techniques have been applied extensively. In this paper, important techniques are reviewed and significant dosimetric data are summarized. Some important areas of future research in EM dosimetry are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave biological effects: An overview

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 40 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Although most investigators accept the fact that "high power density" of microwaves can result in pathophysiological manifestations of a thermal nature, some reports have suggested that "low power density" microwave (MW) energy can affect neural and immunologic function in animals and man. Most of these reports have emanated from the USSR and other Eastern European countries. Since most reported "low-level" effects relate to behavioral and central nervous system changes, studies are needed to determine the nature and mechanism(s) of the nervous system's reactions, if any, to electromagnetic fields and to investigate the degree to which the individual's performance capabilities may be affected. Because of their important integrative and regulatory functions, the neuroendocrine and central nervous system should receive attention as possible sensitive areas. Neurochemical assays and immunologic reactivity could indicate basic mechanisms of interaction. A critical review of studies into the biological effects of MW's indicates that many of the investigations suffer from inadequacies of either technical facilities and energy measurement skills or insufficient control of the biological specimens and the criteria for biological change. There is a great need for systematic and quantitative comparative investigations, using well-controlled experiments. This should be done by using sound biomedical and biophysical approaches at the various organizational levels from the whole animal to the subcellular level on an integrated basis, with full recognition of the multiple associated and interdependent variables. Above all there is a need for scientific competence and integrity. It is important to maintain a proper perspective and assess realistically the biomedical effects of microwave exposure, so that the worker or general public will not be unduly exposed nor will research, development and benficial utilization of this energy be hampered or unecessarily restricted. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave cataractogenesis

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 49 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Experimental investigations of microwave cataractogenesis, as well as the application of theoretical methods, suggest the involvement of thermal damage. Time-intensity cataract thresholds for acute exposures of rabbits indicate dose reciprocity. The induction of lens opacification following repeated exposure at intensities below the threshold for single-dose exposures suggests a cumulative component of lens damage and the existence of repair mechanisms. Repair mechanisms are also indicated, in experimental biochemical studies of microwave effects on rabbit lens epithelial cells with a 10-20-day cellular recovery period. Experimental studies have revealed a relationship between the site of ocular damage and radiation wavelength. Cataract induction has also been reported in humans accidentally overexposed to microwave radiation. Although dosimetric data is not adequate to specify exposure thresholds, acute lens opacification in humans appears to involve thermally induced lens damage that occurs at exposure intensities of 100 mW/cm2or greater. Epidemiological studies of workers have in some instances suggested that occupational microwave exposure may result in lens alterations but there is no evidence that such effects are associated with visual impairment or cataract formation. View full abstract»

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  • Mammalian teratogenesis and radio-frequency fields

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 56 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Evidence of teratogenesis after exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields has been sought in investigations of several species. This review summarizes reports of teratogenic effects in mammals. Investigations performed on the laboratory mouse and rat have revealed that exposure to intense RF fields can result in reduced body mass, in specific anatomical abnormalities (especially exencephaly), and in an increase in resorptions of the fetus. The small number of investigations and clinical reports on human subjects is inconclusive. Whether the reported teratogenesis in infrahuman mammals is derived primarily from thermal stress or results from interactions involving field specific effects and heating has not been determined. The data to date do indicate that there is a marked dose-response relation such that only intense fields that result in significant heating are associated with reliable induction of teratogenesis. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave irradiation and the blood-brain barrier

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 60 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an anatomically and physiologically defined system that is believed to play a role in regulating the fluid environment of the brain. Earlier reports of altered BBB function in small animals after brief exposure to weak microwave fields (30 to 1000 µW/cm2, averaged) are reviewed in the light of more recently reported studies that have generally yielded negative findings. The physiological data indicate that the tight junctions of the BBB's capillaries are loosened by microwaves only at high field strengths that markedly elevate brain temperature. Anatomical data reveal that the tight junctions apparently remain intact but that enhanced blood-to-brain vesicular transport of normally excluded tracer molecules occurs reversibly in small animals exposed for 2 to 8 h to cm waves at a moderate field strength (10 mW/cm2). Recent conceptual and technical advances in measurement of BBB function support the thesis that the early reports of altered permeability actually reflect microwave-induced changes in cerebral circulation. There is no warrant to conclude that brief exposure to weak microwave fields impairs cerebrovascular function, but the question of effects of long-term exposure, which have not been studied, is moot. Hiatuses of reported studies that need to be repaired are absence of dosimetric and thermometric measurements, near-exclusive use of small albinic species, and confounding of experimental endpoints by anesthetics and other sources of stress. View full abstract»

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  • The microwave auditory phenomenon

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 67 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    When human subjects are exposed to rectangular pulses of microwave radiation, an audible sound occurs which appears to originate from within or behind the head. It has been shown that electrophysiological auditory activity may be elicited by exposing the brains of laboratory animals to rectangular pulses of microwave energy. These results suggest that a microwave auditory phenomenon is evoked by a mechanism similar to that responsible for conventional sound reception and that the primary site of interaction resides peripheral to the cochlea. A comparison of the pressure amplitudes, such as those produced in a homogeneous planar layer of brain matter that is irradiated by a microwave pulse, indicates that the peak pressure due to thermal expansion is much greater than either radiation pressure or electrostriction. Theoretical analyses for a spherical brain based on the thermoelastic mechanism of interaction were found to agree with experimentally observed characteristics and indicate also that the induced sound frequency is only a function of the size and acoustic property of the brain. A few suggestions have been made for future research aimed at furthering our knowledge on microwave auditory effect and its health implications. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in microwave-induced neuroendocrine effects: The concept of stress

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 73 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Recent evidence indicates that neuroendocrine effects are induced by microwave exposure with a threshold intensity required for the onset of the response. The level of that threshold is dependent upon intensity and duration of exposure. The threshold can vary with the given endocrine parameter studied. The level of that threshold is yet unclear due to conflicting reports of effect in chronic or repeatedly exposed populations of man or experimental animals. The response of the endocrine systems appears to be a nonspecific stress reaction in the case of adrenocortical and growth hormone changes, but it is apparently a metabolically specific response to increased energy input in the case of pituitary-thyroid changes. View full abstract»

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  • Epidemiologic studies of microwave effects

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 78 - 84
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    This is a selective review of human epidemiologic studies and related information concerning biologic and health effects of microwave radiation. Following a description of the objectives and methods of epidemiology, the approach to microwave effects is considered and two recent but not yet published studies are described, namely, a study of U.S. naval personnel occupationally exposed to radar, and a study of American Embassy personnel in Moscow. Investigations of several reported or suspected adverse effects are assessed: ocular effects, nervous and behavioral effects, congenital anomalies, and cancer. Suggestions are offered for further epidemiologic research. View full abstract»

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  • Soviet and eastern european research on biological effects of microwave radiation

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 84 - 91
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    A large amount of literature on the biological effects of microwave radiation has been obtained from the Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries since 1973. This literature reports changes in almost all biological systems at exposure power densities less than 10 mW/cm2. Since 1976 an increased amount of data using long-term microwave exposures at power density levels below 10 mW/cm2has been published. An overview of research results reported since 1976 are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Study of effects of long-term low-level RF exposure on rats: A plan

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 92 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The study is designed to simulate the chronic exposure of man to 450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at an incident power density of 1 mW/cm2. This paper presents a plan for conducting a lifetime exposure study involving two phases of work. The first phase, up to March 1980, is being spent in preparation for the chronic study. During the second phase, 200 rats, 100 experimental and 100 control, will be exposed 22 h/day over their lifetime to pulse-modulated 2450- MHz RF fields at an incident power density less than 500 µW/cm2. The state of health of each animal will be assessed periodically throughout the exposure period until the death of the animal. Blood chemistry parameters, mortality rates, histopathology, body weight, and water and food consumption will be the biological endpoints of this study. The modulation consists of 16 pulse groups/s (25 pulses/group) with a pulse duration of 10 µs and a period of 500µs. View full abstract»

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  • Biological effects of electric and magnetic fields associated with ELF communications systems

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 98 - 104
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    The U.S. Navy has proposed a submarine communications system that operates at extremely low frequencies (ELF). The land-based transmitting antenna for this system consists of insulated conductors 50 to 100 km long, grounded at each end, and driven by a generator such that the flow of current would be along the cable, into the ground, deep in the earth, and return to the other grounded end of the cable. It would, in effect, be a large loop antenna in which the earth was part of the loop. Over the last ten years the Navy has sponsored a wide variety of research to evaluate the environmental impact of this system. A discussion of this work can logically fall into three periods: 1968 to 1973, 1973 to 1977, and work still in progress. The work during the first period was reviewed by an Ad Hoc Committee formed in 1973 by the Navy. A second committee was formed in 1976 by the National Academy of Sciences and charged to review all existing data. These committees have reported their findings but they are not readily available in the open literature. This paper does not duplicate the work of these committees but rather summarizes their results and combines them with more recent work some of which is still in progress. View full abstract»

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  • RF-field interactions with biological systems: Electrical properties and biophysical mechanisms

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 104 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (70)  |  Patents (8)
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    Electrical properties of tissues, macromolecular solutions, and cell membranes are summarized at frequencies from the extra low frequency (ELF) to microwave range. Previously presented dielectric data are supplemented by new results and a more detailed discussion of the physical mechanisms for the observed temperature coefficients of the dielectric properties. The dielectric data are discussed in terms of the interaction mechanisms which give rise to observed relaxational effects. Possible mechanisms for nonthermal weak interactions between radio-frequency (RF) energy and tissues are discussed and evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Cellular effects: Millimeter waves and Raman spectra—Report of a panel discussion

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 114 - 119
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    On June 22, 1979, a panel discussion was held at the Bioelectromagnetics Symposium in Seattle, WA. In this report, we summarize the statements of the panel members and comment on several common suggestions. We also include written abstracts which correspond to the oral presentations of most of the panel members. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency and power windowing in tissue interactions with weak electromagnetic fields

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 119 - 125
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
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    Effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) fields that raise tissue temperature in general differ very little from effects of hyperthermia induced by other means. However, fields raising tissue temperature orders of magnitude less than 0.1°C may result in major physiological changes not attributable to raised temperature per se. These weak fields have been observed to produce chemical, physiological, and behavioral changes only within windows in frequency and incident energy. For brain tissue, a maximum frequency sensitivity occurs between 6 and 20 Hz. Two different intensity windows have been seen, one for ELF tissue gradients around 10-7V/cm, and one for amplitude modulated RF and microwave gradients around 10-1V/cm. The former is at the level associated with navigation and prey detection in marine vertebrates and with control of human biological rhythms; the latter is at the level of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in brain tissue. Coupling to living cells appears to require amplifying mechanisms that may be based on nonequilibrium processes, with long-range resonant molecular interactions. These cooperative processes are now recognized as important in immune and hormonal responses, as well as in nerve cell excitation. Polyanionic proteinaceous material forming a sheet on cell membrane surfaces appears to be the site of detection of these weak molecular and neuroelectric stimuli. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic techniques for medical diagnosis: A review

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 126 - 132
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (4)
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    In this paper, potential electromagnetic (EM) methods for medical diagnosis are reviewed. These include impedance plethysmography, microwave methods for lung water measurements, EM flowmeters, and microwave radiometry diagnostic techniques. Other techniques that are in preliminary research stages, such as EM imaging and use of microwave Doppler radar to monitor arterial wall movements, are briefly discussed. The principles underlying the operation of each method are described, along with comments about adequacy for medical diagnosis. The important experimental results that identify the advantages and the limitations of each method are presented. In most cases, it is clear that while the electromagnetic diagnostic techniques are attractive and promising, much more research is still needed before these methods are ready for full clinical use. Suggestions for future development and/or possible extensions are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Physical hyperthermia and cancer therapy

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 133 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (3)
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    In general, malignant cells are more sensitive to heat than are normal cells in the range of 41-45°C. In addition, most clinically apparent tumors (above 1-cm diameter) have blood perfusion rates less than 1/5 that of surrounding normal tissue, meaning that they may be preferentially heated. Hyperthermic treatment may be local (tumor only), regional (e.g., a limb), or whole body. Physical techniques for hyperthermia include metabolic heat containment, conduction through the skin (e.g., hot water bath), perfusion of externally heated blood, heated intravenous fluids and anesthetic gases, ultrasound, and electro-magnetic EM coupling modalities. EM modalities include capacitive, inductive, and UHF-microwave radiative techniques, and may be invasive or noninvasive. Hyperthermia is effective against malignant cells not successfully attacked by ionizing radiation and also shows synergism with X-irradiation and some forms of chemotherapy making combination therapy attractive. Thermometric requirements vary with the treatment modality and clinical situation. Characteristics of tumors which may influence the choice of treatment are discussed. Local heating of deep-seated tumors with appropriate thermometry remains a technical challenge. Thermal dose requirements for various tumors and optimal protocols for adjuvant therapy are biological challenges. View full abstract»

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  • Implantable radiators for cancer therapy by microwave hyperthermia

    Publication Year: 1980 , Page(s): 142 - 149
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (9)
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    The treatment of cancer by the combined effects of heat and radiation or chemotherapy is a promising procedure which has attracted wide interest. Microwave radiation is one of the most useful techniques for creating thermal fields in tissue but its use is limited by the rapid attenuation of microwaves in propagation through the body. Consequently, the design of microwave radiators which can be hypodermically inserted into tissue or introduced via a body orifice has been undertaken by a number of investigators. We review this work, the results of in vitro and in vivo animal tests, and the present status and outlook for patient treatment by this method. View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University