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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 9 • Sept. 1979

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 39
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1188 - 1189
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Weighing the benefits and costs of medical technologies

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1190 - 1196
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (905 KB)

    Technological advances enhance our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease, and to administer medical care. But every medical technology that is technically feasible need not be developed. Technologies have been disseminated that are not acceptably safe, efficacious, or cost-effective, or that have indirect, unanticipated effects on the medical care system or on society in general. Because... View full abstract»

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  • The variability and inaccuracy of medical data

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1196 - 1207
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1509 KB)

    Medical data are defined and collected with a marked degree of variability and inaccuracy. The taking of a medical history, the performance of the physical examination, the interpretation of laboratory tests, even the definition of diseases, are surprisingly inexact. We consider the implications of this reality for computerized medical information systems, quantitative techniques for medical diagn... View full abstract»

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  • Knowledge engineering for medical decision making: A review of computer-based clinical decision aids

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1207 - 1224
    Cited by:  Papers (81)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2342 KB)

    Computer-based models of medical decision making account for a large portion of clinical computing efforts. This article reviews representative examples from each of several major medical computing paradigms. These include 1) clinical algorithms, 2) clinical databanks that include analytic functions, 3) mathematical models of physical processes, 4) pattern recognition, 5) Bayesian statistics, 6) d... View full abstract»

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  • Computers and clinical decision making: Whether, how, and for whom?

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1224 - 1226
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)

    Optimal design and implementation of computer-based medical decision aids must give explicit attention to the nature of the intended audience of such programs. The need for sophisticated capabilities and interfaces argues for the incorporation of artificial intelligence techniques. To guard against the premature clinical use of inadequately tested decision aids and to insure both safety and effica... View full abstract»

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  • COSTAR—A computer-based medical information system for ambulatory care

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1226 - 1237
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1391 KB)

    The storage, retrieval, and communication of information are key features of both the practice of medicine and the administration of health care. This paper describes a COmputer-STored Ambulatory Record (COSTAR) which replaces the traditional document-based patient medical record with a comprehensive, centralized, and integrated information system. COSTAR meets both the medical care and the financ... View full abstract»

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  • The technology of PROMIS

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1237 - 1244
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (870 KB)

    A network of computers supports many high-speed terminals equipped with touch-sensitive screens. Users make selections on frames displayed at these terminals to interact with a large data base of medical guidance and patient records while performing patient care. Rapid response times for selections (most are processed in about 230 ms) result from a high-speed communications line, a tailor-made pro... View full abstract»

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  • Computerized tomography with X-ray, emission, and ultrasound sources

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1245 - 1272
    Cited by:  Papers (135)  |  Patents (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3070 KB)

    This paper reviews the major developments that have taken place during the last three years in imaging with computed tomography (CT) using X-ray, emission, and ultrasound sources. Space limitations have resulted in some selection of topics by the author. There are four major sections dealing with algorithms, X-ray CT, emission CT, and ultrosound CT. Since most of the currently used algorithms are ... View full abstract»

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  • Advances and dilemmas in computed tomography

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1272 - 1273
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (245 KB)

    The technology of computed tomography has advanced markedly in recent years, and promises further improvements in medical imaging. The questions for physicians and health care evaluators are the extent to which technically improved images contribute to better patient care and to improved health outcome, and at what cost. Assessing the clinical efficacy and cost of new technology is difficult, but ... View full abstract»

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  • Application of integrated electronics to ultrasonic medical instruments

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1274 - 1285
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1904 KB)

    During the past decade, ultrasonic medical diagnostic instruments have advanced significantly as a result of the resourceful application of electronic-system and acoustic-transducer designs to the problem of noninvasive information acquisition from clinical patients. These advancements are reviewed, with emphasis on the electronic technology by which they were achieved. Current instruments that en... View full abstract»

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  • Decision making in medical technology innovation: The case of ultrasound

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1285 - 1286
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB)

    General characteristics of innovation in medical technology, which are revealed in ultrasound, are indicated. Institutional changes in decision making about medical technology are discussed. The basic change is from prior reliance upon the nongovernmental sector to increasing involvement of the federal government. This change is revealed in the regulation of medical devices and the creation of the... View full abstract»

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  • The role of computers in conjunction with analytical instrumentation

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1287 - 1299
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1276 KB)

    The use of a small or medium size computer as a data acquisition and processing system for a mass spectrometer has greatly enhanced the effectiveness of this instrument, particularly when used in conjunction with a gas chromatograph as the sample input device for the spectrometer. The qualitative information obtainable from the complex mixtures usually represented by biological samples is greatly ... View full abstract»

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  • Commentary: Clinical laboratory information systems

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1299 - 1300
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (243 KB)

    Clinical laboratory testing accounts for over eight percent of health care expenditures in the U.S. The use of computer technology has led to improved analytical instrumentation as well as to data acquisition and data management systems. Clinical laboratory, information systems have demonstrated their ability to reduce clerical and technical labor costs while providing more accurate and readable r... View full abstract»

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  • The computer in the care of critically III patients

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1300 - 1306
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (926 KB)

    Computer technology and biomedical electronics have been successfully employed in the care of critically ill patients by many medical centers and hospitals. In some settings automation of physiological measurements and record keeping have relieved the nurses of time consuming tasks, which enables them to devote more of their time to direct care. Some intensive care systems assist in the clinical d... View full abstract»

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  • The role of computers in the future of intensive care

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1307 - 1308
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (261 KB)

    Computers may enhance the clinician's diagnostic and therapeutic acumen if proper data and well-defined algorithms exist. Computers also can manage patient data rapidly and efficiently, suggesting and even implementing therapy. Why then aren't computers in widespread use today? First, unquantifiable observations not amenable to computer analysis (e.g., pain, skin perfusion) are inherent to the cli... View full abstract»

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  • Devices for the control of diabetes mellitus

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1308 - 1320
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1609 KB)

    New devices are being developed for continuous insulin infusion in diabetes mellitus. Of these the bedside closed-loop system (artificial β-cell) normalizes measured blood glucose in the fasting and fed states, while favorably altering other fuel substrates and hormone levels in short-term studies of one to two days. More recent portable external open-loop insulin delivery devices have been d... View full abstract»

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  • Public policy toward the development and evaluation of devices for the control of diabetes mellitus

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1320 - 1322
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB)

    Recent research progress toward new technologies for managing diabetes mellitus prompts consideration of related public policy. As guides to this technological development: 1) the potential societal value of specific advances should be estimated; and 2) scientific, commercial, and public concerns should be reflected. In evaluating the new technologies: 1) the cost-effectiveness format for comparin... View full abstract»

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  • Automated cardiac dysrhythmia analysis

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1322 - 1337
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2018 KB)

    Automated analysis of abnormal cardiac rhythms (dysrhythmias) is well established for use in real-time ECG monitoring in hospital intensive-care units and for high-speed processing of long-term ambulatory ECG recordings; yet considerable difficulties persist. The many facets of ECG signal acquisition have not been sufficiently well standardized, with a result that definitive signal characterizatio... View full abstract»

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  • Commentary: Why the reservations about medical technology?

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1337 - 1339
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB)

    Medical technologies could improve patient care in at least three ways by: decreasing costs, increasing quality of care, and increasing accessibility or convenience. Yet, they have come under increasing criticism. First of all, they tend to raise rather than lower costs at a time of much concern about rising costs of medical care. Forces leading to increased costs from medical technology use are n... View full abstract»

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  • The electrical stimulation of bone healing

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1339 - 1352
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1911 KB)

    A brief introduction to the structure and electrical properties of bone is followed by an account of investigations into bone growth stimulation using small electric currents. Clinical work using this method is then summarized. The effects of electric and magnetic fields on bone are introduced, and clinical applications of the relevant techniques are described. The review concludes with examples o... View full abstract»

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  • The electrical stimulation of bone healing: Some policy issues

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1352 - 1353
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB)

    Treatment of delayed and nonunion of fractures has economic, social, and psychological implications for individuals and society. This noninvasive technology is rather simple, inexpensive, and the electronics are reliable. Despite the promising and supposedly miraculous achievements of electrical stimulation of bone healing, orthopaedists refrain from employing it on a large scale for all who can p... View full abstract»

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  • Clinical applications of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) limb blood flowmeter

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1359 - 1361
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (394 KB)

    The principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been employed in the design of noninvasive blood flowmeters. This paper describes an NMR limb blood flowmeter which has been used in statistical studies of normal volunteers, and diagnostically on patients with a variety of circulatory problems. Quantitative blood flow measurements are comparable to those obtained by other methods such as ind... View full abstract»

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  • Generation of directed circuits in a directed graph

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1361 - 1362
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB)

    A new matrix algorithm has been presented to generate all directed circuits in a given directed graph. The method is based on multiplication of the modified adjacency matrix of the graph by itself according to some modified rules of matrix multiplication. View full abstract»

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  • A note on sorting sparse matrices

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):1362 - 1363
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB)

    The problem of sorting all the rows of a sparse matrix according to increasing or decreasing column indices is considered. An algorithm for doing the sort in order τ operations (where τ is the number of nonzeroes in the matrix) is given. View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University