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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • April 1979

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):452 - 453
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Visualization and measurement of ultrasonic wavefronts

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):454 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1807 KB)

    The transmission of ultrasonic wavefronts through a medium and the reflection of these wavefronts from an object or interface depend upon the bulk mechanical properties of the medium or object. Measuring or visualizing the wavefront yields important information about various transmission media and objects under study and has found application in nondestructive evaluation, medical diagnosis, underw... View full abstract»

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  • Holography and its application to acoustic imaging

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):466 - 483
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2478 KB)

    This paper briefly reviews some aspects of holography and its application to acoustic imaging with an emphasis on concept. Included age discussions of the identity of holography, the principle of optical holography, holography applied to the acoustic domain and holography by linear detection, the applications of optical and acoustic holography, the concept and front-end embodiment of acoustic imag... View full abstract»

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  • Ultrasonic imaging using arrays

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):484 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (107)  |  Patents (18)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1146 KB)

    An analysis is presented of the two general types of arrays-the direct imaging array and the phased array. These are analyzed over three levels of approximation: geometric optics, steady-state sinusoidal diffraction, and wide-band diffraction. Systems are studied which provide electronic deflection and focusing. In addition, systems are considered which exhibit high resolution in both lateral dime... View full abstract»

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  • Signal processing in acoustic imaging

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):496 - 510
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2263 KB)

    A review of signal processing methods which can be used to improve the effectiveness of systems designed for acoustic imaging and bearing estimation is presented. Topics covered include a) signal processing for increased resolution, b) the processing of stochastic acoustic signals, c) image processing, enhancement, and pattern recognition. The discussion of resolution processing includes lateral r... View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic imaging for nondestructive evaluation

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):510 - 525
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (22)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1986 KB)

    The application of acoustic imaging techniques to non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials is discussed. After a description of the standard NDT techniques employed in the field and some examples of mechanically scanned imaging devices, most of the paper is devoted to a description of electronically scanned and focused systems. As holographic techniques are described by Ahmed et al. [22] in an a... View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic microscopy—1979

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):526 - 536
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1961 KB)

    Acoustic microscopy is emerging as an important analytical technique serving the needs of both biomedical and materials technology. Based upon imaging of specimens with elastic waves at VHF and UHF frequencies, acoustic microscopes reveal structural-mechanical properties with high magnification. A review of the techniques and their applications are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Seismic imaging by holography

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):536 - 553
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2753 KB)

    During the last half century, seismic imaging techniques have seen steady improvements. With the recent advent of relatively cheap and readily available computers, many complicated algoriths for obtaining seismic images that were formerly only theoretical curiosities can now be implemented. This paper reports on the applications of yet another imaging technique, namely holography, with particular ... View full abstract»

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  • Underwater acoustic imaging

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):554 - 566
    Cited by:  Papers (45)  |  Patents (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1753 KB)

    Underwater acoustic imaging systems are useful in providing underwater observation and inspection capabilities whenever optical systems cannot. Underwater acoustic imaging is a part of the larger field of acoustic imaging, and as such, has its own peculiarities and attributes as compared with the rest of the acoustic imaging field. In this report, the general characteristics of underwater acoustic... View full abstract»

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  • Reconstructive tomography and applications to ultrasonics

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):567 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (230)  |  Patents (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2438 KB)

    Computer technology has brought about a revolution in radiology. By combining the computer with X rays it is possible (in principle) to obtain tomographic images of any cross section in the human body. These techniques are now used for medical diagnosis in all the major hospitals of the world. But X rays are not the only kind of radiation for which computer-assisted tomography is feasible. Microwa... View full abstract»

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  • Bragg-diffraction imaging

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):587 - 603
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2026 KB)

    This paper briefly reviews the field of Bragg-diffraction imaging starting with the history of the investigation of light-sound interaction which led up to the development of the Bragg-diffraction imaging systems. The operation of two different systems are described along with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. A rigorous analysis of the imaging principles is presented. The analys... View full abstract»

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  • Biological effects of ultrasound—A review

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):604 - 619
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2016 KB)

    The history of ultrasound related to bioeffects studies begins in the 1920's and continues to the present. Because of the type of effects exhibited between high-frequency mechanical waves and biological systems, there emerged a low-intensity medical therapeutic regime using ultrasound in the 1930's. In the late 1940's and early 1950's, research began on the use of ultrasound in the pulse-echo mode... View full abstract»

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  • Medical ultrasonic imaging: An overview of principles and instrumentation

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):620 - 641
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3336 KB)

    Recent advances in electronics and digital processing techniques have significantly improved conventional ultrasonic imaging systems and allowed the development of new and sophisticated scanning methods. As a result, ultrasonic imaging devices have become an important modality for the clinical radiologist, complimenting the images obtained from X-ray and nuclear cameras. A particular advantage of ... View full abstract»

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  • Methods and terminology for diagnostic ultrasound imaging systems

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):641 - 653
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1496 KB)

    This paper presents a survey of the basic technical methods and related terminology in common use to describe features of ultrasonic imaging instruments for medical diagnostics. Emphasis is on current commercial practice using the pulse-echo modality. This form of diagnostic technique is in a period of rapid technical change with a consequent proliferation of descriptive terminology. The approach ... View full abstract»

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  • Digital scan converters in diagnostic ultrasound imaging

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):654 - 664
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (28)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1528 KB)

    The use of digital scan converters in ultrasonic imaging is presented. The basic principles of ultrasound physics and imaging are briefly reviewed. A detailed description of the components and principles of operation of digital scan converters follows. The capabilities of current digital scan converters in terms of resolution, writing speed, pre-processing and postprocessing, and new rapid scannin... View full abstract»

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  • A survey of abdominal ultrasound scanners: The clinician's point of view

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):664 - 671
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB)

    To obtain information on the characteristics of abdominal ultrasound scanners available in the United States, a survey of fifteen manufacturers was undertaken between January and August of 1978. Fourteen manufacturers responded, providing data on thirteen dynamic image scanners and six static image scanners. The latter were of only one type but the former could be subdivided into four classes: lin... View full abstract»

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  • A general formulation of Faraday's law of induction

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):676 - 677
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB)

    An alternative method for deriving the electromotive force generated by the time-varying magnetic flux in a deformable and moving closed circuit is shown by introducing the modern vector analysis to the original Maxwell's treatment. View full abstract»

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  • An approximation to the Fresnel integral

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):677 - 678
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB)

    A concise approximation to the Fresnel integral is given for all real values of argument. Errors in the amplitude and phase components are contained within 8 and 2 percent, respectively. The approximation can be easily generated on a scientific programmable pocket calculator. View full abstract»

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  • A formula for equivalent bandpass networks and their comparison

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):678 - 680
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)

    Realization of a bandpass function as the canonic lossless ladder network terminated in a resistive load is not unique. This paper presents a theorem to determine and generate the exact number of equivalent networks. An example is provided to illustrate the possibility of comparing the equivalent networks for specified merits. View full abstract»

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  • Remark on an algorithm for factoring polynomials

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s): 680
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (139 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Efficient calculation of the discrete state transition matrix

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):680 - 682
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)

    A simple direct numerical procedure is shown for the evaluation of the discrete state transition matrix of linear time-invariant systems with a prescribed accuracy. The procedure uses a power-series expansion and checks the accuracy of the elements of the truncated series in the course of computation by using a relative error criterion. The results demonstrate that this procedure, in general, requ... View full abstract»

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  • A continuations algorithm for sparse matrix inversion

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):682 - 683
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Determination of a transfer function from phase response data

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):683 - 684
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)

    This letter discusses the use of an iterative least squares procedure for rational function curve fitting to determine a transfer function from phase frequency response data. View full abstract»

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  • Computer simulation of operational amplifier

    Publication Year: 1979, Page(s):684 - 685
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (199 KB)

    A technique for the computer simulation of an op-amp is described. Results of the simulation of an inverting integrator configuration using this technique is also presented. View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University