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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 1978

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 371 - 373
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Advances in microwave measurement science

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 374 - 384
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB)  

    With the recent impact of digital technology, a review of the subject of microwave measurements is timely. Following a brief summary of those features which make this a unique science, the current status of the so-called "basic standards" for microwave measurements is noted. This is followed by a review of the use of digital techniques, power equation concepts, connector problems, and related deve... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic microwave network measurements

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 384 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB)  

    Network measurements using scattering parameters at microwave frequencies date back to before World-War II in different forms. With the advent of sweepers, the first phase of automation was achieved. Errors in reflection and transmission measurements were reduced by means of better hardware design until the next step of automation took place. Digital computers not only increased the speed of measu... View full abstract»

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  • Automated spectrum analysis

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 392 - 402
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1223 KB)  

    Automatic spectrum analyzers (ASA's) combine a powerful RF measurement system with computer control and data processing. This article discusses a typical ASA block diagram (analog and digital subsystems), shows how the calibration procedures used in such systems enhance the accuracy of measurements, and discusses some of the problems with current ASA systems. The present use of ASA systems in gove... View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and use of small automated-test systems

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 403 - 413
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1030 KB)  

    The advent of microprocessors, the acceptance of a standardized interface system, and recent advances in computer and instrumentation technology have greatly reduced the cost and complexity of small automated-test systems. The principal interest in this paper is the type of system which incorporates a desktop computer as the controller interfaced with peripherals and equipment on a standard bus. I... View full abstract»

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  • Automatic network measurements in the time domain

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 414 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (2)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (989 KB)  

    The time-domain automatic network analyser (TDANA) is described. It utilizes time-domain measurements and the fast Fourier transform to obtain frequency-domain scattering parameters. A TDANA consists of a pulse generator, sampling oscilloscope, and a minicomputer. The present state of the art for TDANA's includes frequency coverage from dc to 18 GHz in a single instrument and complex scattering pa... View full abstract»

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  • Smart instruments

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 423 - 428
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB)  

    Various aspects of the nature of intelligence as applied to measurement science such as mathematical capability, signal routing, signal conditioning, and processing are discussed. The state-of-the-art in providing intelligence in instruments is reviewed. The decreasing cost and increasing capability of CPU, memory, and peripheral-control functions involving the application of microcomputer electro... View full abstract»

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  • Measurements in fiber optics

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 429 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (6)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2275 KB)  

    Recent advances in optical-fiber technology dictate that attention must be given to establishing accurate and precise measurement techniques. In this paper measurements currently employed to determine the characteristics of optical fiber waveguides are reviewed. Included in the review are techniques for measuring attenuation, delay distortion, refractive-index profile, fiber diameter, and mechanic... View full abstract»

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  • Picosecond-domain waveform measurements

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 441 - 454
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1630 KB)  

    A review of the state-of-the-art of picosecond time-domain measurements is presented which draws together techniques from the electrical and optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Measurement methods are listed in categories which exhibit the commonality between electrical and optical methods. State-of-the-art values for temporal resolution are presented with reference citations to speci... View full abstract»

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  • RF instrumentation based on superconducting quantum interference

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 454 - 463
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1268 KB)  

    The application of the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to RF measurements is reviewed. The SQUID can be adapted as a broadband standard of RF current, power and attenuation and may be used as the sensor for an extremely good regulator of RF current. Bandwidths of dc to 100 MHz and dc to 1 GHz have been demonstrated with a power sensitivity of ∼-100 dBm (100-MHz bandwidth,... View full abstract»

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  • Field measurements made in an enclosure

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 464 - 472
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (990 KB)  

    This paper presents a survey of radiated emission and susceptibility measurement methods which can be employed to evaluate the electromagnetic interference (EMI) characteristics of electronic systems. The paper reviews conventional anechoic-chamber and shieldedenclosure-measurement methods, as well as alternate methods which have been developed to circumvent measurement problems associated with ra... View full abstract»

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  • Satellite system measurements

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 472 - 482
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1001 KB)  

    This paper describes the measurement techniques employed to test the elements of a communications satellite system. Techniques for measuring the gain-to-noise-temperature ratio (G/T) of an earth station antenna are presented. The measurement of earth station polarization characteristics is discussed extensively in terms of the new requirement for frequency reuse on orthogonal polarizations. Method... View full abstract»

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  • Antenna measurements—1978

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 483 - 507
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (4)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7498 KB)  

    This paper discusses the techniques in antenna measurements and facilities which have evolved over the last decade. The facilities include the tapered anechoic chamber, the compact range, and the near-field probing range. The significant advances in obtaining improved measurement accuracy for power gain, polarization, and swept-frequency techniques are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "A simple physical picture of tensor Green's function in source region"

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 512
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  • A systematic procedure for scaling wave digital filters

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 512 - 513
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (221 KB)  

    This paper describes a systematic procedure for scaling wave digital filters to avoid overflow problems and at the same time maximizing the output signal-to-noise ratio. Examples are included to illustrate the procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "A new formula for the discrete-time system stability test"

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 513
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  • Comments on "Synthesis of transfer function of a physiological system given magnitude or phase response"

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 513 - 514
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • On the planarity of hypergraphs

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 514 - 515
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB)  

    Two definitions for the planarity of a hypergraph will be given. These definitions are related to the problem of modelling circurs for circuit layout. It is shown that if a hypergraph is planar according to the first definition, then it is planar according to the second definition, but the reverse does not hold. Testing the planarity can be done in linear time by using the first definition, but re... View full abstract»

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  • A simple derivation of minimal and near-minimal realization of 2-D transfer functions

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 515 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB)  

    The realizations of 2-D transfer functions presented in [1] are derived by an alternative procedure. This procedure is very simple, intuitively appealing, and allows cases more general than those in [1] to be effortlessly treated. View full abstract»

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  • RC-oscillator synthesis: Sub-audio-frequency generation with a single control

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 516 - 518
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)  

    The paper looks at RC-oscillator design from a synthesis point of view to develop topologies which permit sub-audio-frequency generation with "reasonable" component values and with a single tuning control which can also be easily adapted for electronic sweeping of this frequency range. View full abstract»

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  • The behavior of the wide-band transmission-line transformer for nonoptimum line impedance

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 518 - 519
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (215 KB)  

    The transmission-line transformer can perfectly match at a single frequency any resistance ratio greater than or equal to four. This requires an optimum choice for the impedance and length of the line. For short lines, the transformer behavior is insensitive to small variations from optimum of the line impedance. A simple easily applied theory predicts the transformer behavior as a function of lin... View full abstract»

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  • A novel surface-acoustic-wave device for electronically variable delay

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 519 - 520
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1206 KB)  

    Continuously variable delay is demonstrated using a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) tapped delay line (TDL) and a digital shift-register (SR). Proper timing of the SR-clock waveform controls the delay, while its frequency determines the maximum processable duration, which can be made greater than the TDL transit time. View full abstract»

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  • A theorem on heat generation in semiconductors devices

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 520 - 522
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (306 KB)  

    An expression is derived which permits the calculation of the heat-density generation rate at any point in an operating semiconductor device in a time-dependent, temperature-dependent analysis. View full abstract»

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  • On an iterative technique for recovery of bandlimited signals

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 522 - 523
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request Permissions | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB)  

    It is shown that Papoulis' iteration for extrapolation of bandlimited signals belongs to a general class based on contraction mapping, with the iteration constant taken as one. This value may also be used when applying the iteration to FM demodulation or reconstruction of a signal from unequally spaced samples. View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University