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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 3 • March 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):292 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Satellite communication—An overview of the problems and programs

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):294 - 307
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1575 KB)

    This paper introduces the subject of satellite communication in its broadest aspects, recounts its history and discusses the principal technical problems. It is primarily communications-oriented but relevant spacecraft and launch considerations are summarized. Tabular summaries of the world's satellite communication programs are given. View full abstract»

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  • Effective utilization of the geostationary orbit for satellite communication

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):308 - 317
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1207 KB)

    The geostationary satellite orbit has a finite capacity for communication satellites operating in the frequency spectrum available, but saturation could be delayed for a long time if various practices and principles of system design and use were agreed internationally and applied. Three broad areas are identified where action is needed, namely system engineering for an interference-limited environ... View full abstract»

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  • A survey of interference problems and applications to geostationary satellite networks

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):317 - 331
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1495 KB)

    The fundamental limitation in the utilization of the geostationary orbit is the mutual interference generated by satellite networks. A review of the theory of operation of communication systems in an interference environment is provided, with particular attention to those systems of importance in space communications, namely multi-channel FM telephony, frequency-modulated television, and coherent ... View full abstract»

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  • Satellite capacity allocation

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):332 - 342
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1151 KB)

    Several allocation strategies are investigated for sharing the satellite capacity among user communities requiring circuit-switched or store-and-forward (message-switched) communication service. Teletraffic and queueing models are used to obtain analytical results by which the allocation strategies are compared. It is shown that the capacity required to provide a specified grade of service is stro... View full abstract»

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  • Design problems of spacecraft for communication missions

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):342 - 356
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1669 KB)

    The process of designing a spacecraft for geosynchronous communications is described from the point where the mission and key payload performance requirements have been defined. Following a description of the launch and injection process, the constraints which this and the communications requirements impose on the satellite platform are described together with their potential design implications. ... View full abstract»

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  • Communication satellite antennas

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):356 - 369
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1748 KB)

    During the previous two decades, communication satellites have developed from the pioneering Telstar to the highly sophisticated ATS-6. Concurrrently, the spacecraft antennas have developed from a low-gain "omnidirectional" antenna to the multifrequency multifunction antenna farm on ATS-6. Tomorrow's communication satellites will carry antennas whose radiation patterns can be changed to accommodat... View full abstract»

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  • Antenna technology for frequency reuse satellite communications

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):370 - 378
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1422 KB)

    In the past few years, the capacity of communications satellite systems has become limited by the available bandwidth. One method of overcoming this limitation is to reuse the bandwidth by employing spatially isolated antenna beams and/or orthogonal polarizations. This paper surveys the required antenna technology. The multiple-beam spacecraft antenna problem is addressed, and the curreent design ... View full abstract»

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  • Cross-polarization in satellite and earth-station antennas

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):378 - 387
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (965 KB)

    Cross-plarization in axially symmetric reflector antennas can be reduced, theoretically, to zero by use of special feeds like the Huygens' source. Alternatively, paraboloidal reflectors with large f/D ratio do not deteriorate further the cross polarization level relative to the value due to the feed itself. The Cassegrainian optics is equivalent to a large f/D paraboloid. The reflector of linearly... View full abstract»

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  • Traveling wave tubes for communication satellites

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):387 - 400
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1472 KB)

    Traveling wave tubes (TWT's) have contributed markedly to the development of communications satellites. As the prime-power consuming and transmitting device, the major transponder gain element, and the largest contributor to transmission nonlinearities, the TWT has been the focal point for continuous but carefully measured evolutionary improvements. Efficiency improvements continue to be made with... View full abstract»

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  • On-board regenerative repeaters applied to digital satellite communications

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):401 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)

    In pulse-code modulation/time-division multiple access (PCM/TDMA) satellite communications, though the number of repeating stage is usually only one, the regenerative repeater will be worthwhile enough to be introduced on board the satellite. This is because the improvement of the communication quality by the increase of the transmission power is difficult in the satellite link and the regenerativ... View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a switch matrix for an SS/TDMA system

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):411 - 419
    Cited by:  Papers (67)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (813 KB)

    Time slot scheduling problem for a satellite switched/time-division multiple access (SS/TDMA) system is discussed and an algorithm called "Greedy Algorithm" is presented. This algorithm guarantees a most efficient utilization of a frame period with n2- n (n is the number of beams) number of switchings at most. Another problem discussed in this paper is the choice of the type of microwav... View full abstract»

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  • Frequency modulation and variable-slope delta modulation in SCPC satellite transmission

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):419 - 434
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1422 KB)

    This paper analyzes and presents subjective assessments of the performance that can be expected with FM, companded FM, and vaniable-slope delta modulation in single-channel-per-carrier (SCPC) service to small earth stations. In addition, it points out some of the problems that may be encountered in applying FM and digital techniques to an operational system. View full abstract»

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  • Synchronization methods for TDMA

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):434 - 444
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1315 KB)

    A survey is given covering synchronization techniques for large-capacity time-division multiple-access (TDMA) systems using geosynchronous satellites. Five important classes are identified and compared. Also, several methods of initial acquisition are described. The fundamentals of multiple access and TDMA in particular are presented. Summary descriptions and comparisions of the TDMA systems devel... View full abstract»

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  • Echo cancellation on time-variant circuits

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):444 - 453
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (994 KB)

    Echo cancellation is rapidly becoming a viable alternative to the conventional method of echo suppression currently in use to curtail echoes on long-distance telephone circuits. Echo suppressors introduce a switched loss into the return speech path when echo is present, and are inherently incapable of sustaining reduction of echo during periods of double-talk-while both parties are talking simulta... View full abstract»

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  • Intercontinental television conference trials

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):454 - 455
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB)

    In late 1973 trial television conferences were held between Sydney, Australia, and London, England, using the Intelsat Indian Ocean Region Satellite. Nonswitched voice channels were used in an attempt to obtain a natural conference atmosphere although it was realized that echo would be a problem. Careful attention was paid to the acoustic levels in the system and, for the prevailing conditions, op... View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of the effects of rain on satellite communication systems

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):456 - 474
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1742 KB)

    The major propagation effects for satellite communication systems operating above 4 GHz are caused by rain. With the possible exceptions of depolarization and multiple scattering at frequencies above 20 GHz, these effects may be calculated if the distribution of rain intensity is known in both time and space. The major effects-attenuation and interference-require information about path and volume ... View full abstract»

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  • Propagation experiments at 11/14 GHz as part of the European communications satellite program

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):475 - 477
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (277 KB)

    A Comprehensive program of propagation measurements is being carried out in Europe in connection with the planning of a regional satellite communication system for operation at 11/14 GHz. Statistics of atmospheric attenuation are collected by means of static radiometers and the feasibiity of frequency reuse techniques by polarization discrimination is investigated on several point-to-point links u... View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of an XPD event at 30 GHz measured with ATS-6

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):477 - 479
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)

    Power level and phase difference of two linearly polarized, wanted and unwanted, 30-GHz signals transmitted by ATS-6 during its European campaign are measured. The analysis of a cross-polar discrimination (XPD) event reveals the possibility of improving XPD by a simple rotation of the feed systmn. The procedure applied could be self-adaptive where the phase difference between both components could... View full abstract»

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  • Tropical rain attenuation at 11 GHz on earth-space paths—Radiometric measurements in Australia

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):480 - 481
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (175 KB)

    Radiometers operating at 11 GHz, measuring sun and sky noise, are providing attenuation data on earth-space paths in a high rainfall coastal area of tropical Australia. Attenuation characteristics over three years, and their relationship to one-minute rain intensity measurements are discussed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity comparison of low-pass RC structures

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):488 - 489
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)

    The third-order structure of Naimpally and Mahapatra is compared to that of Gopal without recourse to the Soderstrand and Mitra formulas. Each system is a cascade of first- and second-order sections, thereby facilitating sensitivity analysis in terms of a resonator section. Previous results are generalised and a high Q-sensitivity to the active elements and capacitors is noted. View full abstract»

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  • On the periodic variations in the shape of moving Bloch waves

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):489 - 490
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (206 KB)

    Bloch wave packets are decomposed into individual subpackets and the periodic variations in the shape of moving Bloch waves are explained in terms of subpacket velocities. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized small signal impedance for microwave BARITT diodes

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):490 - 491
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB)

    A general treatment is outlined and equations are developed for the small signal impedance of microwave teach-through BARITT diodes. The results are expressed in terms of "injection phase delay," φiand "drift transit," θdangles. It is shown that substantial improvements in the negative resistance and hence efficiency of such oscillators can be expected as φ View full abstract»

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  • Quasi-real-time inertialess microwave holography

    Publication Year: 1977, Page(s):491 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB)

    A simple inertialess quasi-real-time microwave holographic recording system is described and preliminary results are presented. By sequentially activating antennae arranged in two orthogonal arrays, a 100-point hologram is recorded in 1 s. View full abstract»

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