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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): c1
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  • The proceedings and its changing character

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 4 - 5
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  • Optical computing, an example of change

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 6 - 9
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Some ways in which the new technologies of optical computing can add, and thereby change, the growing capabilities of present day digital techniques, are briefly reviewed. Among these are two-dimensional Fourier transforms, including complex (holographic) two-dimensional filters, the remarkable parallel nature of certain optical applications in radar, and the significant increase in bit packing densities offered by holographic memories. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized linear processors for coherent optical computers

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 10 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Generalized optical processors are examined from the point-of-view of developing a systematic method for determining which linear processing operations may be performed in a coherent optical system. In this paper a procedure is presented for examining a general n-plane processor and expressing the resulting system in terms of a conventional linear processing model. The generalized kernel of the resulting integral equation is used to describe currently well understood coherent linear processors as simple examples of a more general n-plane processor. A 2-plane processor is shown to correspond to the Fourier transform operation with a simple lens, and the 3-plane processor is associated with convolution or correlation. The kernel of a 4-plane system is shown to resemble the ambiguity function, and to represent an oblique to rectangular plane inverter, when an appropriate assumption is made about the complex amplitude-transmittance function of one optical plane. The more general n-plane kernels have integral representations for which simple physical realizations remain to be developed. View full abstract»

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  • Complex spatial filters for image deconvolution

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 18 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1973 KB)  

    The history and principles of image distortion correction by means of holographic spatial filtering are reviewed. Both predetection and postdetection filtering are considered. These and other principle applications of complex spatial filtering are assessed. The major problem areas are discussed, along with possible solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Operations achievable with coherent optical information processing systems

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 29 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1001 KB)  

    Coherent optical information processing systems are well known to be capable of performing a certain limited class of operations, such as Fourier transformation, Fresnel transformation, and linear, space-invariant filtering. Recently, advances have been made in broadening the class of achievable operations to include nonlinear operations and space-variant linear filtering. In this paper we review the operations commonly achieved in the past, and discuss newer techniques which are capable of significantly extending the class of achievable operations. View full abstract»

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  • Image improvement and three-dimensional reconstruction using holographic image processing

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 39 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Holographic computing principles make possible image improvement and synthesis in many cases of current scientific and engineering interest. Examples are given for the improvement of resolution in electron microscopy and 3-D reconstruction in electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, following an analysis of optical versus digital computing in such applications. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid processing systems—An assessment

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 62 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
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    The potential of hybrid processing systems is reviewed. The specific systems discussed involve the combination of coherent optical, electrooptical, electronic, and digital subsystems. In particular, progress in diffraction-pattern analysis is reviewed when the diffraction pattern is produced optically, detected, and then operated on electronically. The second type of system is the optical processing system, in which the diffraction pattern is appropriately changed to produce a modified image of the original input. Input transducers, addressable filters, and detection and logic subsystems are key elements of these systems. View full abstract»

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  • New optical transforms for pattern recognition

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 77 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1033 KB)  

    New optical transformations are discussed. These include Mellin transforms, Fourier-Mellin transforms, and combinations of Geometrical transformations and Fourier-Mellin operations. Scale, postional, and rotational invariant correlations with no loss in SNR are demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Laser stereometry

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 84 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (467 KB)  

    Laser stereometry is the direct photography of unencoded three-dimensional object information using a laser. The particular laser stereometer described here employs range-dependent time delays in the return of light incident on the object from a mode-locked laser pulse. Submillimeter depth resolution over objects meters deep is achievable. View full abstract»

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  • Analog reconstruction methods for transaxial tomography

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 89 - 107
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1708 KB)  

    Transaxial tomography is a radiographic technique that provides an image of an isolated two-dimensional section of a three-dimensional object. The basic principles of this technique are reviewed here and the equivalence of various mathematical formulations is shown. The properties of the resulting image for various filter functions are described and the limitations imposed by the quantum statistics of the radiation source are briefly discussed. Then various optical approaches to implementing the reconstruction process are described. The distortions arising from the use of a diverging beam of X-rays are detailed, and some simple modifications of the optical systems are shown to substantially eliminate them. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave holography: Applications and techniques

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 108 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (9)
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    The techniques and applications of microwave holography are described. The connections with related fields, acoustical holography, and quasi-holography are summarized. View full abstract»

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  • Incoherent optical correlators

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 121 - 129
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1026 KB)  

    The use of optical systems in signal processing applications can offer significant advantages over an equivalent electronic approach. These advantages stem chiefly from the high-speed analog multiply and parallel processing capability inherent in an optical system. This can be used to advantage in application areas requiring large quantities of data to be processed in near real time. Presented in this paper is a review of a variety of incoherent optical analog techniques for performing correlation and linear transform operations. Both scanning and nonscanning systems using spatial and/or temporal inputs are considered. View full abstract»

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  • Tse computers

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 129 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1202 KB)  

    An ultra-high-speed computer that utilizes binary images as its basic computational entity is being developed. The basic logic components perform thousands of operations simultaneously. Technologies of the fiber optics, display, thin film, and semiconductor industries are being utilized in the building of the hardware. View full abstract»

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  • Imaging through randomly fluctuating media

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 138 - 143
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    The formation of images observed under poor seeing conditions is discussed. Our interest is in situations where the seeing disk (this is the time-averaged image of a small object viewed through a fluctuating medium) is much larger than the true image of the object, so that the seeing problem is severe. We extend a previous discussion of how the theory of interferometry is related to successful solutions to the seeing problem. Two extensions of speckle interferometry, allowing true imaging of arbitary objects, are described. One of them is illustrated by explaining how images of the star Betelgeuse have recently been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial light modulators

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 143 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (11)
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    Near real-time reusable spatial light modulators for coherent optical data processing are reviewed. The PROM, liquid crystal, and electron beam addressed DKDP and oil film light valves appear to be the most promising devices for coherent optical data processing. View full abstract»

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  • An algorithm for summing series and their derivatives

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 163 - 165
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    An algorithm for summing series in terms of functions satisfying general recurrence relations is presented. Extension to the summing of the derivatives is considered. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency transformations for digital filters

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 165 - 166
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    It is shown that the reactance transformation for an analog filter corresponds to an all-pass function transformation in the case of a digital filter. It is further shown how this result could be used to obtain in a simple way the spectral transformations for digital filters derived by Constantinides. View full abstract»

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  • A quartz multivibrator using two regenerative switches

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 166 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB)  

    A new quartz multivibrator having a 10-ns transition time is described. The frequency dependence on the supply voltage is less than 10-6per volt. The output voltage is nearly equal to the supply voltage. The circuit can be heavily loaded. View full abstract»

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  • Group delay ripple resulting from multiple reflections in SAW devices

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 167
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (132 KB)  

    A simple formula is derived for the spurious fractional group delay ripple in the passband of systems with delay. This same formula also gives the spurious amplitude ripple in the passband. These spurious ripples are due to multiple reflections in the system, and it is shown that the fractional peak-to-peak ripple is a function of only the round-trip reflection loss or triple-transit ratio. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "An alternate derivation of the maximum likelihood estimator of a covariance matrix"

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 168 - 169
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    The alternate derivation of the maximum likelihood estimate of a covariance matrix, as recently presented by Nitzberg, contains several significant errors. The problem areas are identified and discussed in this letter. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive line enhancement and spectrum analysis

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 169 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    The notion that adaptive filters may estimate and track the frequency of a phase-modulated sinusoid in noise better than a spectrum analyzer is examined. It is argued, using both theoretical and experimental results, that spectrum analysis performs better than adaptive filtering. In addition, the method of spectrum analysis can be improved for such applications by the use of frequency-slope processing, or by the generation of a partially coherent reference waveform by maximum posterior probability estimation of the phase function. View full abstract»

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  • Realization of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) module for incorporation in FFT processors

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 173 - 174
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    For applications requiring high-speed and in-place treatment, it is often advantageous to realize special-purpose computers. This paper describes a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) module for incorpration in fast Fourier transform (FFT) processors. The module is highly suitable for real input applications requiring high-speed transformations. It attributes one point to all frequency channels in one clock cycle. This treatment is not only well suited for the present technology, but appears to be more attractive in view of recent trends in digital circuitry. View full abstract»

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  • Corrections to "A perceptual channel for information transfer over kilometer distances: Historical perspective and recent research"

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 174
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