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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 9 • Sept. 1976

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 49
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1267 - 1269
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Franklin as electrician

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1270 - 1273
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (485 KB)

    Benjamin Franklin's electrical work is reviewed, much of it through his own words. Emphasis is placed on the important role new instrumentation-the improved electrostatic machine and the Leyden jar-played in the development of his theoretical views. View full abstract»

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  • The electric motor, the telegraph, and Joseph Henry's theory of technological progress

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1273 - 1278
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (783 KB)

    Joseph Henry (1797-1878), America's foremost electrical physicist of the early nineteenth century, stood at the center of the developing science and technology of the newly discovered electric current. The electromagnetic telegraph and the battery-powered motor were two leading technological efforts of the period. Although Henry chose not to engage in the actual inventive process, he closely follo... View full abstract»

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  • Stray sparks from the induction coil: The volta prize and the page patent

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1279 - 1286
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    In 1864, following the recommendation of a committee of eminent French scientists, Emperor Napoleon III awarded "Le Prix Volta," 50 000 francs, to a Paris instrument maker, Heimich D. Ruhmkorff, for "l'invention de la bobine d'induction." When news of this reached Washington, Charles G. Page, a patent examiner, claimed to have anticipated Ruhmkorff's first coils by 13 years. Page was subsequently ... View full abstract»

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  • Growing pains at the crossroads of the world: A submarine cable station in the 1870's

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1287 - 1292
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2001 KB)

    Soon after the first Atlantic cable was laid in 1866, social and technical adjustments were made at the terminal stations which were essential to its successful operation. This critical period of change extended through the 1870's. Activity at Heart's Content is examined through reference to the original logs and letter books. View full abstract»

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  • Telecommunications—The resource not depleted by use. A historical and philosophical resumé

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1292 - 1299
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1013 KB)

    Telecommunications is unique among technologies in its minimum demands upon the material and energy resources of nature. Throughout its history-particularly in the past century-it has found ways to increase its message handling capacity and reduce the unit costs by engineering developments, particularly by improved coding procedures. These coding procedures exploit both the single worldwide common... View full abstract»

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  • American contributions to electronics: Coming of age and some more

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1300 - 1305
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    The rise of a "science-intensive" industry, electronics, illustrates the transition of the United States from a scientifically underdeveloped nation to a world leader in science. View full abstract»

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  • Bell and gray: Contrasts in style, politics, and etiquette

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1305 - 1314
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1253 KB)

    In the late 1870's both Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray claimed to be "the inventor" of the telephone. Both held substantial claims to this title. Yet, conventional folk wisdom tells us that Bell invented the telephone. This paper explores one reason for this outcome: the difference in the style of invention between Bell, a professional speech teacher, and Gray, a professional inventor. Just... View full abstract»

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  • The origins of the electronics industry on the pacific coast

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1314 - 1322
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3302 KB)

    The pattern of growth of the United States electronics industry on each of the two coasts is decidedly different. In the years 1920 to 1940, while the large eastern firms controlled the electronics market, a small group of entrepreneurs laid the basis for the present electronics industry on the Pacific Coast. The background to and the growth of this industry can be viewed as a four-stage process-d... View full abstract»

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  • Perspectives on television: The role played by the two NTSC's in preparing television service for the American public

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1322 - 1331
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1218 KB)

    This paper recounts the adventures of the two National Television System Committees (NTSC's)in preparing monochrome and color television service for the American public. The first NTSC had the active encouragement of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Building on the important prior work of the Television Standards and Allocations Committeees of the trade association of the time, the Rad... View full abstract»

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  • A history of color television displays

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1331 - 1338
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1867 KB)

    During the first half of the 50-year period covered by this paper, the color television display progressed from crude mechanical methods and rudimentmy cathode-ray-tube ideas to a more sophisticated combination of these with a rotating color disk in front of a black-and-white picture tube. By 1950, the need to make practicable a compatible color system resulted in an intensive program to develop s... View full abstract»

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  • The damnable alternating current

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1339 - 1343
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB)

    While the struggle over the use of alternating cunent (ac) versus direct cunent (dc) in the United States lasted from 1886 to 1895, the critical year was 1888. Early in 1888 the Edison dc interests first launched public attacks on the technical aspects of ac. Later they redirected the controversy, from a general consideration of comparative merits, to concentrate on only the safety issue. The deci... View full abstract»

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  • The Niagara system: The evolution of an electric power complex at Niagara falls, 1883-1896

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1344 - 1350
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This paper analyzes the evolution of the universal electric power system introduced at Niagara in 1895. The establishmemt of public parks at the site destroyed the former pattern of individual power consumption and made Niagra utilization a necessarily large, difficult and costly venture. The Cataract Construction Company and its engineering subsidiary, the Niagara Falls Power Company, organized -... View full abstract»

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  • Railroad electrification in the United States

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1350 - 1360
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6290 KB)

    The history of railroad electrification falls into three phases that we might designate the primitive, the pioneer, and the mature. The first was the period of preliminary experiment covering the mid-Nineteenth Century. The second, concentrated in the decade of 1895- 1905, was marked by the first successful installations in Europe and the United States. The third, the age of technological maturity... View full abstract»

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  • Technology and public policy: The failure of giant power

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1361 - 1371
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1718 KB)

    Interconnections of utilities, stimulated by shortages of power during World War I, and the availability of high-voltage transmission technology encouraged projects for regional electrification years before the TVA was established. Morris Llewellyn Cooke, a progressive and controversial engineer, and Gifford Pinchot, the governor of Pennsylvania, proposed a regional electrification plan for Pennsy... View full abstract»

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  • Triumph and irony—The TVA

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1372 - 1380
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    In the years since 1933, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) electric power operations have passed through three phases. The first, lasting from the early days until 1941, was characterized by the construction of multiple-purpose dams, a quest for power markets and consequent battle with private companies, and innovative experiments with utility rate structures. The gamble of very low rates p... View full abstract»

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  • The history of induction motors in America

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1380 - 1383
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1611 KB)

    This paper briefly reviews the history of the induction motor from its invention by Nicola Tesla in 1888 through the various stages of its development-the invention of the cast aluminum squirrelcage winding, improvements in magnetic steel and insulation, and the progressive reduction of the dimensions for a given horsepower rating, so that today a 100-hp motor has the same mounting dimensions as t... View full abstract»

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  • Corporate technology: The social origins of the American institute of electrical engineers

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1383 - 1390
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2688 KB)

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers came into being almost one hundred years ago, calling itself in the years before the advent of electronic technologies the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. The AIEE was founded in 1884 by an active group of managers, telegraphic electricians, inventors and manufacturers, and a few professors of physical science. Just over half of the ... View full abstract»

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  • Scientists and engineers: The evolution of the IRE

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1390 - 1392
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB)

    The IRE was unique; it was the most scientific of American engineering societies. This spirit found expression in high membership standards, a stress upon crativity, democratic elections, and dedication to international scientific ideals. The relationship between professional standards and the style and direction of the work fostered by a professional society has not been clear historically, howev... View full abstract»

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  • Ten vignettes of an engineering institute

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1392 - 1399
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    As a cooperative activity of the Bicentennial Year, 1976, the present operations of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, now in its 93rd year by succession, are examined from ten viewpoints. View full abstract»

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  • A brief history of electrical engineering education

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1399 - 1407
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (990 KB)

    Electrical engineering curricula made their first appearance in the U.S. in the early 1880's as options in physics that aimed to prepare students to enter the new and rapidly growing electrical manufacturing industry. As this industry developed, so did electrical engineering education, and within a decade made a place for itself as an equal among the older engineering departments. The curricula th... View full abstract»

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  • Early impacts of communications on military doctrine

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1407 - 1413
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    Airborne radiotelephony was one of the most important, yet least discussed developments of World War I. It evolved from a successful organization of science and engineering created by Chief Signal Officer of the Army, Major General George Owen Squier. Under the leadership of such early notables in the history of electrical engineering as John J. Carty, Frank B. Jewett, and Nugent H. Slaughter the ... View full abstract»

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  • C. P. Steinmetz and E. F. W. Alexanderson: Creative engineering in a corporate setting

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1413 - 1417
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (621 KB)

    A Consulting Engineering Department was organized by the General Electric Company in 1910. It was designed to complement the General Electric Research Laboratory through a focus on creative engineering rather than basic science. The Department was conceived and directed during its early years by C. P. Steinmetz. It continued under the able leadership of a Steinmetz protegé, E. F. W. Alexander... View full abstract»

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  • The U.S. transition from muscle extension to brain expansion

    Publication Year: 1976, Page(s):1418 - 1423
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB)

    To develop perspective for the discussion of root-force influences shaping our culture today, a short oversimplified time-structuring review of important science and engineering developments is related to the 75-year life-spans of three individuals standing lifetime to lifetime. During the past 75 years the rising complexity and the profligate use of materials and fossil fuels have brought us to t... View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University