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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • Date April 1976

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 403 - 404
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Computers that talk and listen: Man-machine communication by voice

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 405 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (45)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3226 KB)  

    Computer techniques now emerging in the laboratory promise new capabilities for voice communication between man and machine. Three modes of interaction are of special interest: computer voice readout of stored information, automatic verification of a caller's identity by means of his voice signal, and automatic recognition of spoken commands. Applications extend to: voice-directed installation of telephone equipment, authentication by voice of a credit customer or of an individual requesting readout of privileged information, and voice-controlled services such as repertory dialing or automatic booking of travel reservations. View full abstract»

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  • Digital techniques for computer voice response: Implementations and applications

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 416 - 433
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2014 KB)  

    Digital techniques for implementing voice response systems are discussed. In particular, attention is focused on practical methods for computer voice response that are likely to be important in the near future. The general method of concatenating isolated words and phrases to form a message is discussed, along with the various possibilities for digital representations of speech signals. The techniques used to implement an all-digital voice response system with multiline capability are presented. A wide variety of experimental applications of this particular system are also included. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of speech from unrestricted text

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 433 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (3)
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    For many applications, it is desirable to be able to convert arbitrary English text to natural and intelligible sounding speech. This transformation between two surface forms is facilitated by first obtaining the common underlying abstract linguistic representation which relates to both text and speech surface representations. Calculation of these abstract bases then permits proper selection of phonetic segments, lexical stress, juncture, and sentence-level stress and intonation. The resulting system serves as a model for the cognitive process of reading aloud, and also as a stable practical means for providing speech output in a broad class of computer-based systems. View full abstract»

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  • Linguistic rules for text-to-speech synthesis

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 443 - 451
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Prosody plays the role in speech ot producing a spoken message meaningful to a particular circumstance, from otherwise unweighted abstract units called phonemes. In the process of message formation, phonemes are given proper acoustic characterization according to the syntactic and semantic structure of the message, the location of stress and boundaries, and surrounding phonemes. Since this process occurs at a subconscious level, it has not received attention from researchers in the language related fields until recently. The recent progress in speech-synthesis techniques has made us aware of the importance of prosody in speech communication, and has encouraged the rule formation for this process. This paper concerns work at Bell Laboratories in the area of purely automatic (i.e., nonhuman) text synthesis. It summarizes the development of related prosody rules from natural speech data. View full abstract»

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  • A model of articulatory dynamics and control

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 452 - 460
    Cited by:  Papers (32)  |  Patents (4)
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    A model of human articulation is described whose spatial and dynamic characteristics closely match those of natural speech. The model includes a controller that embodies enough articulatory "motor skill" to produce, from discrete phonetic strings, properly timed sequences of articulatory movements. Together with programs for dictionary searching and rules for duration and other phonetic variables, the model can produce reasonably acceptable synthetic speech from ordinary English text. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic recognition of speakers from their voices

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 460 - 475
    Cited by:  Papers (84)  |  Patents (15)
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    This paper presents a survey of automatic speaker recognition techniques. The paper indudes a discussion of the speaker-dependent properties of the speech signal, methods for selecting an efficient set of speech measurements, results of experimental studies illustrating the performance of various methods of speaker recognition, and a comparision of the performance of automatic methods with that of human listeners. Both text-dependent as well as text-independent speaker-recognition techniques are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic speaker verification: A review

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 475 - 487
    Cited by:  Papers (49)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1566 KB)  

    The relation of speaker verification to other pattern-recognition problems in speech is discussed, especially the distinction between speaker verification and speaker identification. The prospects for automatic speaker verification, its settings and applications are outlined. The techniques, evaluations, and implementations of various proposed speaker recognition systems are reviewed with special emphasis on issues peculiar to speaker verification. Two large-scale operating systems using different analysis techniques and applied to different settings are described. View full abstract»

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  • Practical applications of voice input to machines

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 487 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3820 KB)  

    Voice input to machine is the most natural form of man-machine communications. In this type of system the machine responds to the mode of communications preferred by the user, rather than vice versa. Many practical applications exist today for limited capability voice input systems. The first operational voice input systems have taken place with limited vocabulary, isolated word voice input systems. Most of these initial systems were for industrial applications in which the users' hands or eyes were already busy with their normal work requirements. Future developments in both new applications and increased capability voice input systems can be expected to considerably expand the usage of this form of man-machine communications. View full abstract»

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  • Speech recognition by machine: A review

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 501 - 531
    Cited by:  Papers (37)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3490 KB)  

    This paper provides a review of recent developments in speech recognition research. The concept of sources of knowledge is introduced and the use of knowledge to generate and verify hypotheses is discussed. The difficulties that arise in the construction of different types of speech recognition systems are discussed and the structure and performance of several such systems is presented. Aspects of component subsystems at the acoustic, phonetic, syntactic, and semantic levels are presented. System organizations that are required for effective interaction and use of various component subsystems in the presence of error and ambiguity are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Continuous speech recognition by statistical methods

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 532 - 556
    Cited by:  Papers (220)  |  Patents (43)
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    Statistical methods useful in automatic recognition of continuous speech are described. They concern modeling of a speaker and of an acoustic processor, extraction of the models' statistical parameters and hypothesis search procedures and likelihood computations of linguistic decoding. Experimental results are presented that indicate the power of the methods. View full abstract»

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  • An ideal integrator as a reciprocal two-port network using two time-varying passive elements

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 559
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    It is shown that a voltage gatio transfer function (1/s), representing an ideal integrator, can be exactly realized by a reciprocal netwogk consisting of two time-varying passive elements. A design parameter in this network can be arbitrarily chosen to make the time variation of these two elements as small as desired from practical considerations. View full abstract»

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  • A few more analog computer simulations of RC voltage transfer functions

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 560 - 561
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    A new synthesis procedure is described to obtain additional analog computer simulations of RC voltage transfer functions. View full abstract»

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  • On sensitivity invariance of multi-input multi-output networks

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 560
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    It is shown that the sum of the sensitivity functions (over all components) of a linear time-invariant passive multi-input multi-output network function is not constant. View full abstract»

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  • A triggerable latch using a "Hybrid-mode" MOSFET bistable circuit

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 561 - 562
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    The potentialities which result from exploiting both types of conduction mechanism (majority and minority carriers) possible with an insulated-gate FET are exemplified in the design of a simple "hybrid-mode" regenerative circuit constituting a triggerable latch, which is switched on following the closure of two contacts and switched off via a separate input. The circuit is TTL-logic compatible and useful for such applications as touch-sensitive switching. View full abstract»

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  • A note on Bach's low-pass active RC filter

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 562 - 564
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    A procedure for noniterative functional tuning of Bach's low-pass filter is presented. A modification of the filter circuit is also proposed which reduces the spread of the resistive elements, with equal capacitor values, from Qp2to Qp. Experimental results are given which agree closely with the theoretical predictions. View full abstract»

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  • Design parameters for varactor frequency triplers using idealized punchthrough varactors

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 564 - 565
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    This letter gives the design parameters for a varactor frequency tripler using idealized punchthrough varactors. It is shown that there are many operating points that give approximately the same efficiency, and that the matching network will determine which one is chosen. View full abstract»

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  • The frequency to time domain conversion for a class of nonideal transmission line responses

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 565
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Sinusoidal oscillators using avalanche transistors

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 565 - 566
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    Sinusoidal oscillators are described which use the negative resistance observed in Si bipolar transistors operated in the invertedmode breakdown region. View full abstract»

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  • A new fabricating method of planar Gunn-effect devices and integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 566 - 568
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A new method for the fabrication of Schottky gate planar Gunn-effect devices and circuits has been developed, whereby gate contacts with small geometrical dimensions and improved electrical characteristics are produced. This method is carried out simply and with a high yield. A monolithic integration of these devices has been demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Lithium iodate—A new material for surface acoustic wave applications

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 568 - 569
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Lithium iodate (LiIO3) is proposed as a new material for possible use in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. The variation of the SAW velocity, an estimate of the electromagnetic to acoustic coupiing (Δv/v), the temperature coefficient of delay (TCD), and the power flow angle have been theoretically predicted for the standard crystallographic cuts. This material is shown to have more than 1.5 times the coupling of LiNbO3, SAW velocities only slightly higher than Bi12GeO20, low temperature coefficients of delay, and low power flow angles. View full abstract»

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  • Intervalley scattering in gallium arsenide avalanche diodes

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 569 - 571
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The velocity-field characteristic of electrons in GaAs has been shown to have an important bearing on the properties of IMPATT diodes fabricated from this material. In this letter, the manner in which this characteristic varies with frequency is discussed and the properties of conventional and high-efficiency structures are compared. It is concluded that the effects of intervalley scattering are important, even in X band, and become increasingly significant as frequency increases. View full abstract»

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  • Probability distribution of surges and fades

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 571 - 572
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    A new approximation for file distribution of the surge or fade durations of a random process has recently been found [1], but an explicit formula was derived only for a normal process. The present letter extends the calculation to non-Gaussian processes. View full abstract»

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  • Anent codes, priorities, patents, etc.

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 572
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    First Page of the Article
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North Carolina State University