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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date July 2005

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): c2
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  • New results for self-sensing active magnetic bearings using modulation approach

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 509 - 516
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The concept of self-sensing active magnetic bearings (AMBs) is to eliminate the position sensors and estimate the position of the levitated object by measuring the bearing coil current. The main interest of this approach consists in reducing production costs and hardware complexity. Although the idea of self-sensing itself is not new and research has been carried out for years in this topic, it still remains a challenge. Many self-sensing methods have been proposed in literature, however they are all very delicate to realize. For this reason, there is still no industrial application for self-sensing magnetic bearings. This paper investigates the realization of a self-sensing AMB suitable for industrial use. The system must be robust and relatively low cost. In order to do that, this work explores a self-sensing configuration based on the current amplitude modulation. This approach is applied to an AMB test rig using reference sensors. View full abstract»

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  • A charge controller for linear operation of a piezoelectric stack actuator

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 517 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (37)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines the position control problem of piezoelectric stack actuators and presents a method for overcoming the hysteresis nonlinearity between the applied voltage and the actuator displacement. An inverting charge control circuit is implemented to linearize the stack actuator movement by taking advantage of the linear relationship between charge and displacement. The charge control feedback loop is analyzed in detail. It incorporates an operational amplifier to provide high loop gain, a high-voltage amplifier (HVA) to drive the stack actuator, and a lead compensator to ensure stability. Experiments were conducted to compare the responses of the stack actuator under voltage and charge control. The experimental data show that the charge control provides linear actuator operation from 1 Hz-10 Hz over approximately 35% of the actuator operating range, and from 1 Hz-20 Hz over approximately 19% of the operating range. View full abstract»

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  • Extremum seeking control of a tunable thermoacoustic cooler

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 527 - 536
    Cited by:  Papers (31)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the performance of a prototype standing wave thermoacoustic cooler is optimized using an extremum seeking control (ESC) algorithm. A tunable Helmholtz resonator was developed for a thermoacoustic cooler to change the boundary condition of the standing wave tube. The volume of the resonator is changed by changing the location of a piston on a ball-screw assembly driven by a dc motor. Multiparameter ESC was applied to optimize the cooling power via tuning both the boundary condition (piston location) and the driving frequency. Experiments were conducted for the online optimization under both fixed and varying operating conditions. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of using ESC for maintaining maximum achievable performance. The effect of changing parameters in the ESC algorithm on the transient behavior was also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Learning-based identification and iterative learning control of direct-drive robots

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 537 - 549
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (856 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A combination of model-based and iterative learning control (ILC) is proposed as a method to achieve high-quality motion control of direct-drive robots in repetitive motion tasks. We include both model-based and learning components in the total control law, as their individual properties influence the performance of motion control. The model-based part of the controller compensates much of the nonlinear and coupled robot dynamics. A new procedure for estimating the parameters of the rigid body model, implemented in this part of the controller, is used. This procedure is based on a batch-adaptive control algorithm that estimates the model parameters online. Information about the dynamics not covered by the rigid body model, due to flexibilities, is acquired experimentally, by identification. The models of the flexibilities are used in the design of the iterative learning controllers for the individual joints. Use of the models facilitates quantitative prediction of performance improvement via ILC. The effectiveness of the combination of the model-based and the iterative learning controllers is demonstrated in experiments on a spatial serial direct-drive robot with revolute joints. View full abstract»

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  • Sliding mode tracking for pneumatic muscle actuators in opposing pair configuration

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 550 - 558
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sliding mode techniques are applied to pneumatic muscle actuators arranged in an agonist/antagonist, or opposing pair configuration. The pneumatic muscle (PM) pair actuates a planar elbow manipulator, with PMs in place of bicep and tricep. The control objective is elbow angle tracking under load. A nonlinear mathematical model is derived for this system and a sliding mode controller is designed to give elbow angle tracking to within a guaranteed accuracy despite modeling errors. Static pressure requirements are also derived for stable arm behavior in the absence of a control signal. Stability results are derived, and the results of simulation studies are presented. The simulation studies also address the effects of PM heating. View full abstract»

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  • PID control system analysis, design, and technology

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 559 - 576
    Cited by:  Papers (205)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1768 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Designing and tuning a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller appears to be conceptually intuitive, but can be hard in practice, if multiple (and often conflicting) objectives such as short transient and high stability are to be achieved. Usually, initial designs obtained by all means need to be adjusted repeatedly through computer simulations until the closed-loop system performs or compromises as desired. This stimulates the development of "intelligent" tools that can assist engineers to achieve the best overall PID control for the entire operating envelope. This development has further led to the incorporation of some advanced tuning algorithms into PID hardware modules. Corresponding to these developments, this paper presents a modern overview of functionalities and tuning methods in patents, software packages and commercial hardware modules. It is seen that many PID variants have been developed in order to improve transient performance, but standardising and modularising PID control are desired, although challenging. The inclusion of system identification and "intelligent" techniques in software based PID systems helps automate the entire design and tuning process to a useful degree. This should also assist future development of "plug-and-play" PID controllers that are widely applicable and can be set up easily and operate optimally for enhanced productivity, improved quality and reduced maintenance requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized predictive control robustification under frequency and time-domain constraints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 577 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a methodology for enhancing the robustness of a generalized predictive control (GPC) controlled system by convex optimization of the Youla parameter. This methodology requires, as a first step, the design of an initial GPC controller; this controller is then robustified considering frequency and time-domain constraints. By means of the Youla parametrization, frequency and time-domain constraints are formulated within a convex optimization framework, then the optimal parameter is deduced solving this optimization problem. The developed robustified GPC controller is finally applied on a benchmark including an induction motor, aiming at reducing the impact of measurement noise and inertia variation of the system, while respecting a time-domain template for the disturbance rejection. Comparison with results obtained with a more "classical" proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is finally given. View full abstract»

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  • A shared-control approach to haptic interface design for minimally invasive telesurgical training

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 588 - 592
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, we propose a "shared-control" architecture for design of a haptic interface for hands-on training in minimally invasive surgery. The interface is designed to allow experienced surgeons mentor trainee surgeons through shared control of a surgical robot. During shared control, the interface provides feedback forces to both surgeons, proportional to the difference of their actions and reversely proportional to the control authority shared between them. The control authority shared between the surgeons is chosen based on their relative level of surgical skills and experience and determines the extent to which the motion of the surgical robot depends on their individual commands. We use the H approach to design the haptic interface and present experimental results to demonstrate its suitability for the intended application of minimally invasive surgical training. View full abstract»

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  • Decoupling control by hierarchical fuzzy sliding-mode controller

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 593 - 598
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    A design method using hierarchical fuzzy sliding-mode (HFSM) decoupling control is proposed to achieve system stability and favorable decoupling performance for a class of nonlinear systems. In this approach, the nonlinear system is decoupled into several subsystems and the state response of each subsystem can be designed to be governed by a corresponding sliding surface. Then the whole system is controlled by a hierarchical sliding-mode controller. In this design, an adaptive law is derived based on the Lyapunov function to tune the coupling factor of the hierarchical sliding-mode controller so as to achieve favorable decoupling performance with guaranteed stability. The proposed design method is applied to investigate the decoupling control of a double inverted pendulum system. Simulations are performed and a comparison between the proposed HFSM decoupling control and a conventional fuzzy sliding-mode (FSM) decoupling control is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method. View full abstract»

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  • NARX models of an industrial power plant gas turbine

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 599 - 604
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief reports the experience with the identification of a nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) model for the PGT10B1 power plant gas turbine manufactured by General Electric-Nuovo Pignone. Two operating conditions of the turbine are considered: isolated mode and nonisolated mode. The NARX model parameters are estimated iteratively with a Gram-Schmidt procedure, exploiting both forward and stepwise regression. Many indexes have been evaluated and compared in order to perform subset selection in the functional basis set and determine the structure of the nonlinear model. Various input signals (from narrow to broadband) for identification and validation have been considered. View full abstract»

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  • Output regulation for nonlinear systems: some recent theoretical and experimental results

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 605 - 610
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (256 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief summarizes recent theoretical and presents experimental results of output regulation for nonlinear systems. The main contribution of this brief consists of the first experimental study of output regulation using a two-link underactuated mechanical system-the Pendubot. View full abstract»

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  • Model reaching adaptive control for vibration isolation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 611 - 617
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Adaptive control has drawn attention for active vibration isolation and vehicle suspensions because of its potential to perform in the presence of nonlinearities and unknown or time-varying parameters. Model-reference adaptive control has been used to force the plant to track the states or certain outputs of the ideal reference model. In this brief, we study a new adaptive approach, "model-reaching" adaptive control, to achieve the ideal multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) isolation effect of a skyhook target without using a reference model. We define a dynamic manifold for the target dynamics in terms of the states of the plant, rather than the error of the plant tracking of the reference. Then we describe an adaptive control law based on Lyapunov analysis to make the isolation system reach the dynamic manifold while estimating the unknown parameters. The proposed method directly employs measurement of the payload velocity and its displacement relative to ground, and the effects of imperfect velocity measurements using a geophone are quantified. We carry out a detailed experimental investigation based on a realistic single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) plant with friction, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control, and show that the target dynamics of the skyhook isolator are attained. A framework for achieving general targets is also suggested. View full abstract»

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  • A static-output-feedback design procedure for robust emergency lateral control of a highway vehicle

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 618 - 623
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based procedure for the design of robust static-output-feedback controllers is demonstrated on the problem of emergency lateral control of a highway vehicle with bounded time-varying uncertainties. A linear time-varying (LTV) tire model is used with a yaw-plane model of a highway vehicle to express the problem of emergency lateral control. The vehicle system is parameterized for variation in speed between (15 m/s and 30 m/s) and independent variation of front and rear effective lateral tire stiffnesses (between 30 kN/rad and 60 kN/rad) to form a polytope of linear systems. A stabilizing static-output-feedback controller is designed and its gains are reduced while guaranteeing robust stability. View full abstract»

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  • Dimensionless robust control with application to vehicles

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 624 - 630
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (992 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The selection of a nominal plant model and an uncertainty representation is a central design choice for a robust controller design. In this brief, we examine the choice of both a plant model and an uncertainty representation from a dimensionless viewpoint. We develop a dimensionless representation of a linear bicycle model for vehicle dynamics that is suitable for a generalized vehicle analysis. Within such a dimensionless framework, the average of vehicle parameters becomes well defined thereby giving a nominal vehicle. Additionally, it becomes easy to develop perturbations of the vehicle model about the nominal one that reasonably encompass all production vehicles. These uncertainty bounds are then used to generate a robust controller suitable for any vehicle. Tighter uncertainty bounds result from the dimensionless analysis versus a dimensioned one and therefore provide less conservative controllers. For the purposes of demonstration, the focus of this brief is a lateral-positioning control task. The resulting control design approach is demonstrated on a scaled experimental vehicle as well as through simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Lyapunov-based optimizing control of nonlinear blending processes

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 631 - 638
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (504 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Blending processes consisting of linear dynamics and a static nonlinearity are considered. We propose a control law that optimizes the equilibrium point of the process and regulates the output to the corresponding equilibrium state. A control Lyapunov function (CLF) is used to derive a stable optimizing update law for the equilibrium point, in combination with a linear quadratic (LQ) feedback law for tracking the optimized equilibrium point. The analysis and design also incorporates the use of an observer for state and bias estimation. Experimental results using a laboratory scale colorant blending process illustrate the efficiency of the method. View full abstract»

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  • A reference governor-based controller for a cable robot under input constraints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 639 - 645
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
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  • Variable-structure-based fuzzy-logic identification of a class of nonlinear systems

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 646 - 653
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel approach for identification of a class of nonlinear systems is introduced. It implements a variable-structure based fuzzy-logic identifier (VSFI) model. The proposed approach adopts a serial-parallel structure and, unlike most fuzzy identifiers, does not require measurements of all the system's states. Based on output measurements, the system states are estimated using a recently developed scheme of a high-gain observer. It is shown that the proposed VSFI is stable provided that the system identified is stable. Furthermore, it can be shown that the estimator state-errors tend exponentially to an arbitrarily small ball of convergence. Simulation results illustrate that the identification scheme proposed might serve as a potential candidate for nonlinear system identification. View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative control of a magnetically levitated Interferometer: experimental study

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 654 - 662
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An experimental study is made on the effectiveness of simple cooperative controls for the optical elements of a laboratory interferometer in interference fringe acquisition. The laboratory setup simulates a space interferometer formed by three spacecraft in a triangular formation. Each interferometer element (two collectors and one combiner) is magnetically levitated and free to rotate about a fixed vertical axis. Feedback-controlled disturbance isolation systems are introduced to isolate the optical elements from the collector and combiner motions induced by external disturbances. Fine optical alignment is achieved by cooperative controls for the collectors driven by sensor data communicated between the collector and combiner via onboard radio transceivers. The main accomplishment of this study is the demonstration that quasi-stationary interference fringes can be captured using our magnetically levitated interferometer with simple cooperative optical-alignment controls. The capture time duration is on the order of half a second. View full abstract»

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  • Overlapping reliable control for a cable-stayed bridge benchmark

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 663 - 669
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The brief presents a reliable 1-out-2 reduced order control design strategy for a cable-stayed bridge benchmark using two overlapping subsystems and the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) design. Reliability with regard to controller failures is considered. Local controllers are designed for reduced order subsystems of expanded system. They are implemented and evaluated on the original overall system model. Two different sets of numerical experiments of reliable control design within 1-out-2 controller failure structure have been systematically tested using a SIMULINK scheme and compared to the benchmark sample centralized LQG design. The performance of the reliable control design has been assessed by means of given benchmark evaluation criteria. The dynamics of the closed-loop benchmark model with this multiple controller exhibits an acceptable behavior though slightly worse than in the centralized case. Thereby, the main result is a practical well working 1-out-2 reliable controller designed for a real world large-scale system. The significance of this new strategy lies in its practical systematic approach for reliable control design for large scale systems. View full abstract»

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  • Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles
    Reduced order gain scheduled output/state feedback control based on H/sub ∞/ performance preserved interpolation

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 670 - 681
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Notice of Violation of IEEE Publication Principles

    "Reduced Order Gain Scheduled Output/state Feedback Control Based on H-infinity Performance Preserved Interpolation"
    by Zhongwei Yu, Huitang Chen, Peng-Yung Woo
    IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 13, no. 4, July 2005, pp. 670-681

    After careful and considered review of the content and authorship of this paper by a duly constituted expert committee, this paper has been found to be in violation of IEEE's Publication Principles.

    This paper contains substantial duplication of content from the paper cited below. The original content was copied without attribution (including appropriate references to the original author(s) and/or paper title) and without permission.

    Due to the nature of this violation, reasonable effort should be made to remove all past references to this paper, and future references should be made to the following article:

    "Identification and robust control of linear parameter-varying systems"
    by Lawton H. Lee
    in his PhD thesis, UC Berkeley, CA, 1997

    For a linear parameter varying (LPV) system, a new approach to the design of a reduced order gain scheduled output/state controller without varying-parameter rate feedback based on H/sub /spl infin// performance preserved interpolation is presented. First, the regular LPV output feedback problem is redescribed as an output/state feedback problem in accordance with the fact that certain states are available for direct feedback. After the concept of parameter-varying H/sub /spl infin// performance is introduced, the controller design is translated into parameterized linear matrix inequalities (LMI) with respect to the solution of parameter matrices based on the parameter-dependent Lyapunov function. Then, a sufficient condition to partition the varying-parameter set based on the concept of H/sub /spl infin// performance coverage is given. The varying-parameter set is partitioned into - everal sufficiently small subsets. After the constant matrices, which meet the demands, are found, the required continuous parameter matrices are obtained by using interpolation. The designed controller not only overcomes the drawback of the existing gain scheduled LPV controller synthesis, i.e., no guarantee for finding a gain scheduled controller which meets the demands, but also eliminates the varying-parameter rate feedback. Conservatism is reduced. Simulations and experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Member Digital Library

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 682
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (179 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Have you visited lately? www.ieee.org

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 683
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE order form for reprints

    Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 684
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

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