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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 6 • Date June 1975

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 30
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 835
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Interactive computing

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 836 - 842
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In the approximately fifteen years since the beginnings of time sharing, or interactive computing, this mode of operation has greatly influenced the development of computing systems. To summarize this development, a brief review of the projections of a decade ago is made, and then the developments of the intervening years are considered under the headings of hardware, process structure, operating systems, and system models. Finally, some predictions of future developments are made, based on observations of the still rapidly evolving technology and the resultant trend toward the special-purpose application of digital systems. View full abstract»

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  • On the relation of interactive computing to computer science

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 843 - 846
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    Recognition of computer science as a research and educational field in its own right began only a decade ago. The computer science mainstream has been focused upon the understanding and creation of discourse between humans and, more specifically, between humans and their informational resources, both human and machine. This is in contrast with the common and predominate institutional view that the computer is an arithmetic engine. The present and potential informational resources valuable to a human require little concern for arithmetic. The human value of informational resources results through aiding the human's ability to externalize models of issues, things, or events, i.e., the key to understanding and then communicating, Interactive computing issues will continue to be the driving force of computer science resulting in eventual common awareness that the computer is a populist communications medium. View full abstract»

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  • Design of man—Computer interfaces for on-line interactive systems

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 847 - 857
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    An attempt is made to integrate a wide range of material into a conceptual structure for the design of man-computer interfaces for on-line interactive systems. Typical roles for the human in man-computer systems are considered. Suggestions for the design of systems are developed in discussions of displays and input devices, visual information processing, and mathematical models of human behavior. Possible developments and avenues of research in man-computer systems are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Trends in computing-system architecture

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 858 - 862
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The evolution of general-purpose computing-systems architecture has been strongly influenced by the emergence of new technologies, the demand for new system applications, and the identification of significant architectural concepts. It is argued that today's architecture is primarily the product of this evolutionary process rather than the result of a deliberate design process. Current architectural structures age examined in terms of their ability to fully exploit forthcoming hardware technologies, particularly in the memory and data management areas, and also their potential for resolving the serious problems which currently exist in the area of software development. View full abstract»

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  • Modern central processor architecture

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 863 - 870
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (5)
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    A number of significant architectural concepts which have evolved in recent years are reviewed. These concepts are: the notion of process and the facilities for process management, such as dispatching and synchronization; the use of segmentation in organizing address spaces, and the resulting sharing and protection capabilities; the control of access to data and procedures via multiple privilege levels; the use of automatic stack management for procedure calling; and the structure of logical and physical I/O channels and I/O operations queueing. The rationale for including these concepts in modem central processor architectures, such as in the Honeywell Series 60, is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • I/O subsystem architecture

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 871 - 879
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The primary concerns of I/O subsystem architecture include the coordination of central processor and I/O subsystem activities, the mapping of external I/O processing requirements into the basic functionality of the I/O subsystem, and the management of concurrent processing activities within the I/O subsystem itself. Architectural developments such as data and command chaining, channel program interfaces, automatic key searching, rotational portion sensing, and block multiplexing are evaluated in terms of these underlying concerns. A number of new arguments are presented to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of current designs, and several projections are made concerning the future evolution of this area. View full abstract»

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  • Structure of computer programs: A survey

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 879 - 893
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    A survey of reasons fog and methods of dividing large computer programs into parts is presented. The paper concentrates on over-all or external program structures (e.g., methods of sharing data among procedures) rather than on internal program structures, such as arrays, pointers, loops, and conditional statements. The paper classifies reasons for dividing programs as arising from 1) physical constraints such as limited memory space, and 2) human constraints such as division of programming responsibility. The principal tool fog organizing programs to meet human constraints is functional decomposition, i.e., dividing a program and its specifications according to (hopefully simple) functions of the program parts. Unfortunately, the various constraints which impose divisions upon a large program do not necessarily suggest the same program organisation. The central portion of the paper deals with mechanism for program compsition. These mechanisms are classified as 1) routines which are called by sequential process (a routine is any procedure-like software mechanism), 2) mechanisms for data sharing among routines (such as Fortran's common data blocks and Algol's scope rules), and 3) mechanisms for handling asynchronous interactions (such as requesting the scheduling of input/output operations). The paper also discusses techniques for folding programs to meet memory constraints (by overlaying, paging, and segmenting) and methods of linking separately compiled procedures. View full abstract»

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  • Some experience in interactive system development and application

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 894 - 911
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (15)
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    Minicomputers pgoggammed in a high-level interactive language form a very attractive basis fog the development of systems involving close man-computer collaboration. This paper is based on a wide range of experience of interactive minicomputer systems in commercial, medical, industrial, and scientific applications. It is first argued that the development of systems fog effective man-computer collaboration requires not only interactive system use but also interactive system depelopment. The designer needs to be able to tailor the system to user requirements at least partially as an experimental dialogue at a terminal with a user. There follows a critique of certain features of central computer utilities that limit their effectiveness in interactive apllications, leading to a proposal fog the use of minicomputer-based systems programmed, and used, interactively. We then give a number of case histories of our own experience in developing and using such systems in commercial, medical, and scientific appllications. From this experience, we have extracted a number of rules for programming interaction between the user and computer system which are outed. Finally, the main features of the software technology underlying these systems are briefly described. View full abstract»

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  • The michigan terminal system

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 912 - 918
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The Michigan Terminal System (MTS) is a general-purpose operating system fog the IBM 360 and 370 computers. An overview is presented of the internal structure of MTS and the facilities provided to a user of MTS. This includes an introduction to the command language and file system, and a summary of software and hardware supported. Brief descriptions of performance measurement and accounting are also included. View full abstract»

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  • A file system for a general-purpose time-sharing environment

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 918 - 924
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The file system for the Michigan terminal system (MTS) is described. MTS is a general-purpose multiprogramming multiprocessing paged time-sharing system for the IBM 360/67 and 370/168 developed at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. First, an overview of some of the external facilities provided to the users of files is presented; then some of the internal design philosophy and corresponding implementation strategy for the file system are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on how the sharing of files is accomplished, both from the user's point of view and the system's point of view. A retrospective judgment of some of the strengths and weaknesses of the MTS file system is given. Finally, an appendix details the allowable concurrent usage of files and the algorithm used for file deadlock detection in MTS. View full abstract»

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  • Multiprogrammed memory management

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 924 - 939
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (3)
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    A queueing network is used to show that the page-fault-rate functions of active programs axe the critical factors in system processing efficiency. Properties of page-fault functions are set forth in tenns of a locality model of program behavior. Memory management policies are grouped into two fixed-partition and three variable-partition classes acording to their methods of allocating memory and controlling the multiprogramming load. It is concluded that the so-called working set policies can be expected to yield the lowest paging rates and highest processing efficiency of all the classes. View full abstract»

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  • The Utah TENEX scheduler

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 940 - 945
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A scheduling algorithm which is a modification of the standard TENEX scheduler is described. This algorithm differs from those commonly used in time-sharing systems in that it treats the case of multiple critical resources. The Utah scheduler considers CPU usage and real core occupancy, but the same techniques can be applied to cases of more than two critical resources. Similar scheduling tehniques can be applied to interactive batch-processing systems and to resource sharing systems. View full abstract»

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  • Analytic modeling of interactive systems

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 946 - 953
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    An overview is presented of queueing theoretic modeling and analysis of interactive computing systems. While the emphasis is on recent advances, an introduction is given which briefly trices the historical development of this area to put current research in perspective. Models, methods of analysis, and applications to real systems are described. An extensive bibliography provides the references for a more in-depth study. View full abstract»

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  • Queueing network model of interactive computing systems

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 954 - 957
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A closed queueing network model with state dependent routing probabilities is developed for the study of interactive computing systems which use swapping as a memory managmnent strategy. An algorithm to obtain an approximate solution of the mathematical model is proposed. Based on meamuements of a dual-processor PDP-10 system, the model is found to be better in predicting the system performance than the classical model without state dependent routing probabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive optimization of a time-sharing system's performance

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 958 - 965
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
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    The complex task of managing a virtual memory multiprogramming system is considered as one which can be achieved by allowing the operating system to make use of measurement data gathered on-line in the scheduling decisions it has to make. System performance optimization is achieved by continuous monitoring of critical system parameters and workload characteristics and by use of this information in a real-time adaptive feedback control policy. As a specific application of this approach, the maximization of system throughput by the regulation of the degree of multiprogramming in a virtual memory system is examined. The specific form of this performance measure as a function of the number of active processes sharing main memory is used in the design of an adaptive and statistical maximum-seeking algorithm designed to respond to abrupt changes in program locality. The data gathering and smoothing procedures and the optimization policy are then implemented in a simulator of a virtual memory time-sharing system and evaluated in simulation runs with a random and time-varying workload. These experiments are used to tune the various parameters of the algorithm and to demonstrate its ability to maintain the system at an optimal level of performance. Statistical confidence intervals for these simulation runs are given in order to provide a measure of significance to the experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Hierarchical techniques for the development of realistic models of complex computer systems

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 966 - 975
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    This paper presents a case study of the development of a realistic, but analytically soluble, model of a very complex Computer system. This modeling project required the development and application of new dements of technology to support the modeling process. These included the use of a hierarchic structuring procedure to provide a fonnal control structure for the modeling process, and the use of perturbation analysis to correct known deficiencies in the faithfulness of the model representation of the actual system. Particular attention was paid to the effects of passive resources, and to contention and interference effects caused by competition for shared resources. The system actually modeled is the Advanced Logistics System of the United States Air Force Logistics Command. The computer configuration of this system includes multiple CDC Cyber 70 mainframes, a large quantity of extended core storage, and approximately 100 disk drives. The analytic model was validated against a simulation which uses the logical queue structure of the software system as its basis. Excellent agreement was obtained. The entire modeling process was completed and documented in two months by a team of six analysts. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "Schottky-barrier devices with low barrier height"

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 980 - 981
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  • On the mechanism of glow discharge detection of microwave and millimeter-wave radiation

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 981 - 982
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
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    A simplified and unified model of glow-discharge detection of microwave/millimeter wave radiation, compatible with experimental data reported to date, is presented. Emphasis is placed on the roles of the potential gradient and the electrode geometry. View full abstract»

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  • Verifications of the Kalman conjecture for irrational transfer functions

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 982 - 983
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The sufficient conditions for the Kalman conjecture to be satisfied given by Fannin and Rushing [1] are relaxed in such a way as to allow their approach to be applied to irrational transfer functions. Specific results for a class of systems containing transportation lag are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "Effect of source lead inductance on the noise figure of a GaAs FET"

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 983 - 984
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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  • Unambiguous measurement of volume flow using ultrasound

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 984 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
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    A new modality for transcutaneous measurement of blood flow is described. Two ultrasonic pulsed Doppler techniques (Doppler imaging and average Doppler shift detection) are combined to measure net flow across an arbitrary sample plane. This estimate of volume flow is independent of lumen shape, orientation, and velocity profile. View full abstract»

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  • On the convergence of the scattering statistics of finite number of randomly oriented dipoles to Rayleigh

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 985 - 986
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    For randomly oriented half-wavelength dipoles, the scattering statistics of an ensemble, containing as few as five members, is shown to be indistinguishable from Rayleigh statistics, which is the limiting form as the number of scatterers becomes infinite. View full abstract»

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  • Observability for identification of cancer cell cycle and proliferative kinetic state

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 986 - 988
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    The observability condition, which describes the cancer cell cycle kinetic state, is developed for determination of the initial cell age vectors. This condition, in conjunction with experimental cell size distribution, will assist in rapid determination of the cancer cell cycle kinetic state. View full abstract»

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