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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 7 • Date July 1974

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 868 - 871
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Computers in power system planning

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 872 - 883
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Applications of computers in the planning of power system generation, transmission, and distribution are surveyed. Following a brief description of significant developments in the growth of these applications over the 22 years since the first published paper, the stages in planning (policy, standardization, outline, and detail design) and the mathematical techniques which can be applied to the numerical solution of quantifiable problems arising in these stages are outlined. The greatest concern is with the technical and economic studies commonly used in the major areas of planning, i.e., load forecasting, assessment of generation capacity and mix, transmission and distribution network development. Approaches using simulation and optimization techniques are described. Reference is made to developments in corporate planning. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time computer control of power systems

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 884 - 891
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
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    A dramatic transformation in system monitoring and control is taking place in the electric utility industry. New control centers are being equipped with multiprocessor real-time computers scanning and controlling the generation and transmission system via high-speed data-acquisition subsystems and interacting with the human operator via dynamic, color, graphic displays. Within the computer as many as a hundred or more programs are available to run in a multiprogramming environment in response to changing power-system conditions and to operator's demands. The main objective of this new development in on-line control is the enhancement of the security of the power system in order to maintain a high reliability of electric power service. The concept of security control is discussed and the noteworthy features of its present state of development in recently designed and installed control centers are described. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of the security of operating electric power systems using probability methods

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 892 - 901
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    A review is given of probability methods which have been proposed for the assessment of the security of operating electric power systems. The goal of all the methods presented is to provide the system operator with a consistent, on-line, indication of system security in the near-term future as a guide for operating decisions. Mathematical models used in the various methods are described and data requirements are discussed. Finally, areas of desirable future investigation are outlined. View full abstract»

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  • Power system modeling

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 901 - 915
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
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    A discussion of the philosophy of modeling of three-phase transmission lines, three-phase transformers, three-phase generators, and power system loads is presented. Although the topic is very basic, the material covered is not all conventional. Single-phase representation of a three-phase power system is discussed in detail. Assumptions usually employed in the power industry are stated. Also discussed is the mathematical representation of a non-symmetrical three-phase power system in which the symmetrical-component method is not applied. An important aspect is the study of the models used in present-day problems as well as the models that may be required in the near future. View full abstract»

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  • Review of load-flow calculation methods

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 916 - 929
    Cited by:  Papers (161)
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    A survey is presented on the currently available numerical techniques for power-system load-flow calculation using the digital computer. The review deals with methods that have received widespread practical application, recent attractive developments, and other methods that have interesting or useful characteristics. The analytical bases, computational requirements, and comparative numerical performances of the methods are discussed. Attention is given to the problems and techniques of adjustments in load-flow solutions, and the suitabilities of various methods for modern applications such as security monitoring and optimal load flow are examined. View full abstract»

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  • Diakoptics—The solution of system problems by tearing

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 930 - 940
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
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    A piecewise procedure called diakoptics is described. An overview of the theory is presented, and a summary of the applications that have been carried out to date in the power industry has been included. This paper is not a mere recapitualtion, but contains a number of new ideas which have not been presented previously. Only relevant mathematics have been included, and derivations or detailed mathematical presentations that appear elsewhere have been referenced. The paper starts with a historical review in which the classic problem through which diakoptics was conceived is presented. The tearing cases considered include torn subdivisions radially attached as well as torn subdivisions not attached. Only the most basic cases are considered for brevity and clarity of presentation. View full abstract»

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  • Recent trends and progress in synchronous machine modeling in the electric utility industry

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 941 - 950
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
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    Models of synchronous machines which have been developed and used to analyze problems in the electric utility industry are described. The development of alternative models, the transitions among the models, and the relations between problem and model are demonstrated. Lower order models using standardized data are used in multigenerator stability studies. Machine and system tests and the computer results of simulating these tests are reviewed. The areas of agreement and differences between simulation and test for alternate models point to ways in which improvements may be made in the economy and accuracy of computer simulations. This leads to suggestions for future work and a discussion of an IEEE Working Group in this field. View full abstract»

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  • Solution methods for transient and dynamic stability

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 951 - 958
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    The transient stability study is used to examine the dynamic behavior of a power system following a disturbance. Transient stability programs have grown in the size of the power system under study, in the duration of the study, and in the magnitude of the disturbance. Each prime mover is represented by as few as two or as many as forty ordinary differential equations. These equations are coupled to a set of algebraic equations (two per node) which describe the network. Available programs frequently use explicit fixed step integration methods and the sequential solution of the differential and algebraic equations. Recent advances in solution methods have been directed toward implicit integration techniques and the simultaneous solution of the whole set of differential-algebraic equations. The transient stability problem, the unit models currently in use, and recent advances in solution methods are briefly reviewed. A dynamic stability program is described which incorporates comprehensive dynamic models of prime movers; the results of several experiments using this program are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Some applications of optimization techniques to power systems problems

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 959 - 972
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
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    Important power system planning and operation problems have been formulated as mathematical optimization problems. Such problems as the economic dispatch, in many of its facets; var scheduling and allocation; pollution dispatch; maximum interchange; hydrothermal unit commitment and dispatch; generation, transmission, and distribution expansion planning; maintenance scheduling and substation switching, have been formulated and solved. Modern mathematical optimization techniques, such as nonlinear, quadratic, linear, integer and dynamic programming and their many combinations and extensions, have been exploited. Some of the formulations and solutions to these problems as presented in the recent literature within the power systems field are reviewed. The large number of papers available is a measure of the current immense activity in this area. Attempts are made to point out some specific areas where more work needs to be done. View full abstract»

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  • Static state estimation in electric power systems

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 972 - 982
    Cited by:  Papers (116)
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    A static state estimator is a collection of digital computer programs which convert telemetered data into a reliable estimate of the transmission network structure and state by accounting for 1) small random metering-communication errors; 2) uncertainties in system parameter values; 3) bad data due to transients and meter-communication failures; and 4) errors in the network structure due to faulty switch-circuit breaker status information. The overall state estimation process consists of four steps: 1) hypothesize mathematical structure; 2) estimate state vector; 3) detect bad data and/or structure errors; and identify bad data and/or structure errors. The problem is characterized by high dimensionality and the need for real-time solutions using limited computer time and storage. Various methods of solution are discussed and compared. View full abstract»

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  • Computation of electromagnetic transients

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 983 - 993
    Cited by:  Papers (101)
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    Switching operations, faults, and other disturbances produce surges on transmission lines and oscillations in transformer and generator windings. Such electromagnetic transients have primarily been studied with transient network analyzers since the late 1930's. In recent years, digital computer programs have been de-. veloped which make simulation by digital computer competitive. The solution techniques of such programs are described, and their usefulness is illustrated with practical examples. Possibilities for further improvements are mentioned. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of analog and hybrid computation in electric power system analysis

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 994 - 1009
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A historical development of mechanical and electronic differential analyzers as well as the significant developments in simulation techniques are discussed. Present-day application of modern analog and hybrid computers to electric power systems are presented. Included are the simulation of electric machines, static converter drives, transmission lines, and dc power systems. Special-purpose analog and hybrid computers are also discussed briefly. The material presented in this paper should enable an informed evaluation of the capabilities of analog and hybrid computers in the analysis of power system problems. View full abstract»

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  • Interactive computation in power system analysis

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1009 - 1018
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
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    The analysis of power system performance has always been enhanced by close interaction between engineer and computation, and recent developments in high-speed displays, minicomputer capacity, and computational technology are encouraging major revisions of computing practices for power system analysis. A comprehensive power system analysis package, PSS/2, is described which has been developed specifically for use with dedicated computers. This dedicated computer approach allows load flow, short-circuit, and dynamic simulation work, data base maintenance, and printed report preparation to be handled in the interactive mode at lower cost than could be possible by alternative batch or time-shared computing methods. The subjects covered are data organization, computational techniques, user interface, and operational experience. View full abstract»

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  • Ion-implanted double-drift Ka-band diodes

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1025 - 1026
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    The application of a doubly charged boron (11B+2) beam to the formation of p-type drift regions in symmetrical Ka-band double-drift silicon IMPATT diodes is discussed. Devices fabricated with these implanted impurity distributions exhibited output powers ∼1.2 W with 10-percent conversion efficiencies over the frequency range of 29 to 39 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Comment on "The social costs of producing electric power from coal: A first-order calculation"

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1026 - 1028
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  • Transformation of rational functions

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1028 - 1029
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    A procedure for transforming a rational function F(z) to another rational function G(s) under a transformation z=(P)s is outlined. View full abstract»

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  • A microstrip TRAPATT amplifier for X-band operation

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1029 - 1030
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    The performance characteristics of pulsed TRAPATT amplifiers in X-band with microstrip RF circuits are described. The amplifiers utilize the second-harmonic extraction technique to produce output powers between 10 and 20 W with efficiencies larger than 10 percent and bandwidths of several hundred megahertz. View full abstract»

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  • Minority carrier lifetime measurement in GaAs

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1030 - 1031
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    A technique for the determination of relatively short carrier lifetimes (< 1 ns) is presented. By measuring the frequency dependence of the diffusion capacitance of a one-sided abrupt-junction GaAs diode, the minority carrier lifetime can be obtained. The method has the advantages that it is repeatable after exposing the diode to further processing, the diode can be mounted in a convenient package so that no special handling precautions are necessary, and the method can be automated. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical calculations of the potential due to an arbitrary charge density using the fast Fourier transform

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1031 - 1032
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The Green's function method of finding the voltage due to an arbitrary charge density is related to a convolution integral for simple geometries. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is used to calculate the voltages on the grid points and it is argued that significant reduction of computer time is achieved for a large number of grid points. View full abstract»

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  • On time domain representations for vestigial sideband signals

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1032 - 1033
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Two time domain representations for vestigial sideband signals, one believed to be new, are examined and compared. The new representation has its greatest application to signal design for pulse transmission systems. View full abstract»

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  • Numerical computation of functions satisfying known differential equations

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1033 - 1034
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    Computation of values of a transcendental function by numerically integrating the differential equation of which it is the solution is proposed as a useful approach for computer time saving. This saving in the total computation time may be very large, often by an order of magnitude, and becomes most significant when many values of a function are to be computed at closely spaced values of the argument. View full abstract»

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  • Current dependency of the gain-frequency characteristics of inversely operated transistors

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1034 - 1036
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    Inversely operated transistors show a gain-frequency characteristic whose logarithmic slope is a function of the current density. View full abstract»

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  • Comment on "Basic relations between a Rayleigh-distributed randomly varying voltage and a decibel record of the voltage"

    Publication Year: 1974 , Page(s): 1036
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