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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 7 • July 1973

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):804 - 806
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • New display technologies—An editorial viewpoint

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):807 - 813
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (835 KB)

    Present-day display technologies, both exploratory and in common use, are reviewed in outline form with emphasis on areas of applicability, advantages, and disadvantages. The comments reflect the authors' own bias, but the basic ideas probably reflect the thinking of most of the members of the display community. View full abstract»

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  • Nematic liquid crystal materials for displays

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):814 - 822
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB)

    Nematic liquid crystals are being used in a variety of display devices that capitalize on unique characteristics of these organic fluids. This paper discusses the purification and preparation of nematic liquid crystals, their operating temperature ranges, and the extent to which their properties meet the requirements of current dynamic-scattering and field-effect displays. While device performance... View full abstract»

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  • Surface-produced alignment of liquid crystals

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):823 - 828
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (697 KB)

    The surface-generated orienting forces acting on liquid crystals (LC's) result from physicochemical processes, e.g., hydrogen bonding, Van der Waal's interactions, or dipolar interactions, and from mechanical interactions as a result of the LC's anisotropic elasticity. For flat, untextured surfaces, the physicochemical processes prevail, while for textured surfaces, the anisotropic elastic interac... View full abstract»

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  • A hybrid liquid-crystal display with a small number of interconnections

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):829 - 832
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB)

    A numerical display cell (nine digits of seven segments) with nematic liquid crystals can be driven in a dynamic or a static mode. The static mode combines a flicker-free display with optimum contrast, but it has the drawback of a large number of interconnections (63). This paper describes a method to reduce this number to only four: a 63-b buffer memory in the form of an I2L shift regi... View full abstract»

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  • Electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):832 - 836
    Cited by:  Papers (79)  |  Patents (112)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB)

    A new reflective-type electrophoretic image display (EPID) panel is described which is based on electrophoresis. In the EPID panel, a suspension is mainly composed of pigment particles and a suspending liquid. A dc voltage applied across a suspension layer changes the reflective color of the suspension as a result of the electrophoretic migration of the particles. The precipitation of the particle... View full abstract»

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  • The future of electroluminescent solids in display applications

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):837 - 861
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2962 KB)

    A thorough investigation of human color vision and vectorial color space is linked to chemicophysical properties of electroluminescent (EL) solids. Three separate cases are discussed: a single color, several discriminable colors, and full-color-gamut EL displays. A review of chromaticness discrimination, chromatic abberation, color vision abnormalities, and color naming experiments indicates that ... View full abstract»

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  • Vapor phase epitaxial materials for LED applications

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):862 - 880
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2228 KB)

    The growth and performance of vapor phase epitaxial (VPE) III-V materials and devices for light-emitting diode (LED) and display applications are reviewed. Because of the commercial importance of the GaAsP ternary alloys and GaP, this paper is primarily concerned with these materials. With the addition of nitrogen doping high-performance red, yellow, and green devices can be fabricated using GaAsP... View full abstract»

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  • Green and yellow emitting devices in vapor-grown gallium phosphide

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):880 - 884
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (611 KB)

    Green and yellow emitting diodes can be made in nitrogen-doped gallium phosphide by a simple vapor-growth and diffusion process. The color is controlled by the nitrogen concentration, and bright yellow emission is made possible at room temperatures by the high nitrogen concentrations attainable in the vapor-growth process. As there are no problems of mismatch and strain in the homoepitaxial growth... View full abstract»

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  • A new method of growing GaP crystals for light-emitting diodes

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):884 - 890
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (834 KB)

    A method named synthesis, solute diffusion (SSD) has been developed for growing compound semiconductor crystals, GaP in particular, for light-emitting diode (LED) use. The grown crystal is cylindrically shaped and is composed of fairly large-size grains. Growth rate is limited by the diffusion process of phosphorus in the gallium melt. The diffusion coefficient was obtained from the growth rate an... View full abstract»

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  • Monolithic LED arrays by selective liquid-phase epitaxy in GaP

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):891 - 894
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (663 KB)

    Progress in the fabrication of monolithic matrix-addressed arrays of light-emitting diodes (LED's) in GaP using selective liquid-phase epitaxy is reviewed. The structures of two red arrays and one green array are discussed in detail. Photographs of the arrays are shown to demonstrate their capability as alphanumeric displays which may be easily interfaced with silicon integrated circuits. The use ... View full abstract»

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  • Electroluminescent phosphors

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):894 - 901
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    A review of the properties of electroluminescent phosphors of the zinc sulfide family is presented. In the past, these phosphors found few device applications because of material limitations that resulted in inadequate brightness and poor life as well as drive problems. The properties of two particular configurations are discussed in detail: ac-excited evaporated films of Zns:Mn and dc-excited pow... View full abstract»

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  • Direct-current electroluminescence in zinc sulphide: State of the art

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):902 - 907
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)

    A review is made of the characteristics of direct-current electroluminescent (dc EL) displays based on powders of zinc sulfide doped with manganese and copper. These panels show yellow emission with efficiency of about 0.1 percent watt per watt and can be operated under both continuous and pulsed operation. The preparation of the panels is described and the brightness-voltage-current relationships... View full abstract»

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  • DC EL materials and techniques for flat-panel TV display

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):907 - 915
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (902 KB)

    The preparation and properties of direct current electroluminescent (dc EL) materials using manganese-activated ZnS powders for a flat-panel TV display are described. The firing process, the copper coating process, and the ferming process have been investigated. Suitable powder phosphors for the display panel contain 0.1-0.5 wt % manganese and 0.25-0.35 wt % copper coated on the ZnS powder surface... View full abstract»

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  • Cathode-ray-tube phosphors: Principles and applications

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):915 - 926
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1563 KB)

    Principles and applications of phosphors in cathode-ray tubes are discussed. Among the basic parameters covered are: back-scattering, secondary emission, penetration, electronic transitions, dead voltage and energy, and optical efficiencies. Various relevant aspects of television kinescopes are discussed, including commercially used phosphor characteristics and screening techniques, radar tubes, i... View full abstract»

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  • Cathodochromic materials and applications

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):927 - 941
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2250 KB)

    Recent advances in cathodochromic dark trace storage-display tubes are reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on sodalite screen materials; their synthesis, physical properties, and light scattering characteristics are discussed in detail. An analysis of the distinct thermal and optical modes of coloration is presented, and the corresponding device constructions are described. Brief descriptions of ... View full abstract»

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  • Single-crystal ferroelectrics and their application in light-valve display devices

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):942 - 958
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2193 KB)

    Following a brief outline of the main display applications of single-crystal ferroelectric light valves, two categories of ferroelectric materials are distinguished--materials operated above their Curie temperature, which are electrically monostable, and materials operated below it, which are electrically bistable. Typical examples are KD2PO4in the first category and Bi4... View full abstract»

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  • Polymorphism and penferroelectricity in PLZT ceramics

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):959 - 966
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB)

    The interaction of structure with optical and electrical properties in lanthanum-doped lead zirconate-titanate (PLZT) ceramics is complex. An interpretation is presented which shows the critical dependence of structure and, hence, properties on the state of polarization, the temperature, and the La content. To explain the behavior of PLZT ceramics two new concepts are presented: polymorphism and p... View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric and optical properties of a quasi-ferroelectric PLZT ceramic

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):967 - 974
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (858 KB)

    Certain compositions within the quaternary lead-lanthanum-titanate-zirconate (PLZT) system exhibit neither a "true" ferroelectric nor a "true" paraelectric behavior and are therefore best characterized as quasi-ferroelectric. The dielectric, hysteresis, and optical properties of quasi-ferroelectric PLZT ceramics have been investigated for the representative 9/65/35 composition which was prepared a... View full abstract»

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  • PLZT ceramic display devices for slow-scan graphic projection displays

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):975 - 981
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (918 KB)

    A projection display device for slow-scan graphics has been developed using the scattering properties of PLZT ferroelectric ceramics. The device consists of a ferroelectric-photoconductor sandwich in which a Cd1-xZnxS mixture is used as a photoconductive film. The composition of the film is controlled to provide peak photosensitive response at 441.6 nm, corresponding to the b... View full abstract»

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  • Convolution scattering model for ferroelectric ceramics and other display media

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):981 - 991
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (987 KB)

    A theoretical model has been developed which is based upon the approximation that the multiple scattering from ferroelectric ceramics and other display media can be described in terms of geometrical optics. The model has been used to describe the scattering from PLZT, liquid crystals, and display screens and has agreed well with exprimental data. The scattering characteristics of several current d... View full abstract»

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  • Electrooptic materials for digital light beam deflectors

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):992 - 1007
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1730 KB)

    The technology of digital deflectors made significant progress in the past. The success of this development was primarily based on the advances made in the preparation of electrooptic materials. The selection criteria are described here for a material suitable for the particular application under consideration, and a survey is made of the most promising electrooptic materials, both solid state and... View full abstract»

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  • Infrared laser addressing of media for recording and displaying of high-resolution graphic information

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):1007 - 1013
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1229 KB)

    Projection display systems which use a scanned infra-red laser beam to thermally record graphic information on different media may offer a useful alternative to CRT and other display systems. Three different types of thermal-recording projection display systems are reviewed. Laser micromachining of thin bismuth film has proved to be a very simple and efficient way to obtain instant high-quality im... View full abstract»

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  • Sputtered films for display devices

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):1013 - 1018
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB)

    Sputter deposition techniques have been developed which yield directly usable films of transparent conductors and of photoconductors for display devices. These devices have been primarily light-valve structures incorporating a ferroelectric ceramic plate or a liquid-crystal layer as the control medium. The deposition techniques may be modified to allow deposition on a variety of substrates includi... View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University