By Topic

Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1972

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 41
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Page(s): 4 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The design of large-scale networks

    Page(s): 6 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (613 KB)  

    The application of computer techniques to difficult large-scale network problems is discussed. The physical characteristics of two types of systems are described--computer-communication networks and cable television distribution systems. Two fundamental algorithms are presented, and applications to routing, reliability, and design of computer networks are given. The detailed engineering decisions that can be made by computer in the design of practical large-scale networks are illustrated by example for cable television systems. These examples are chosen to indicate the richness and difficulty of the problem of applying computers to network design. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Recent developments in the automated design and analysis of digital systems

    Page(s): 12 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1762 KB)  

    Some of the recent developments in the automated design and analysis of digital systems are reviewed. Two new areas alluded to are centralized data base systems for design automation and interactive graphic computer-aided design. The areas of gate level simulation, synthesis, partitioning, interconnection, and fault test generation are dealt with in more detail. New algorithms in each of these areas are presented and compared, and a few important unsolved problems are mentioned. Some of the systems, techniques, and/or algorithms discussed are: A. Gate level simulation; 1) fault list propagation, 2) three-valued simulation. B. Synthesis; 1) register transfer level, 2) logic gate level. C. Partitioning; 1) clustering algorithms, 2) functional partitioning via simulation. D. Interconnect; 1) path seeking algorithms, 2) Steiner's problem. E. Fault test generation; 1) D algorithm, 2) Boolean difference, 3) equivalent normal form, 4) extensions to sequential circuits. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A computer-based-design approach to partitioning and mapping of computer logic graphs

    Page(s): 28 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)  

    A system of design automation computer programs is described which is capable of assigning blocks of a logic design to modules so as to satisfy certain constraints specified on the assignment. System features which enable designer-computer cooperation are discussed, and quality of solutions obtained with the system are compared to manual solutions for the same tasks. Three conclusions are reached. First, these computer programs make it possible to perform partitioning and mapping experiments which were not possible before. Second, for one-level partitions (e.g., logic gates on chips), highly automatic solutions obtained by the system are at least as good as manual solutions and are less costly to obtain. Third, for multilevel partitions (e.g., logic gates on chips on cards) or for mappings, the solutions obtained with the program are again at least as good as manual solutions; furthermore, the system allows a designer to try more alternatives than he could manually, so that he can trade off the time and cost of trying additional alternatives against the value of a better solution. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The design of interactive graphics aids to mask layout

    Page(s): 35 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (595 KB)  

    Recently a number of interactive graphics aids to integrated circuit mask layout have been described. A review of the particular problems involved in implementing programs of this kind will be given with a description of hardware and software techniques available for their solution. Some features of these previously described programs will be compared and used to illustrate the range of solutions available. A program, IMP, will be described that uses some software techniques, not previously employed, to provide a capable and highly flexible mask layout facility on relatively inexpensive graphics terminals. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • CIRCAL-2: General-purpose on-line circuit design

    Page(s): 39 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)  

    CIRCAL-2 is a second-generation general-purpose on-line circuit-design program with the following main features: 1) multiple-analysis capability; 2) uniform and general data structures for handling text editing, network representations, and output results, regardless of analysis; 3) special techniques and structures for minimizing and controlling user-program interaction; 4) use of functionals for the description of hysteresis and heat effects; and 5) ability to define optimization procedures that "replace" the user. The paper discusses the organization of CIRCAL-2, the aforementioned main features, and their consequences, such as a set of network elements and models general enough for most analyses and a set of functions tailored to circuit-design requirements. The presentation is descriptive, concentrating on conceptual rather than on program implementation details. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Description of electrical networks using wiring operators

    Page(s): 49 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB)  

    A scheme is presented for describing the interconnection of elements and subnetworks into networks by means of "wiring operators." This scheme is algebraic and is intended for conversing with computers. It is especially suitable for two-parts such as amplifiers, filters, microwave networks, and in general, transmission-type networks with an input and an output. The algebra is direct, convenient, and versatile. Each of the wiring operators corresponds to a specific set of calculations on the parameters of the networks involved. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • An optimal formulation and solution of short-range operating problems for a power system with flow constraints

    Page(s): 54 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (719 KB)  

    The complete problem, to minimize the operating cost of a hydrothermal generation system over one day (or one week) is formulated and solved through a few assumptions: the dc approximation and a linear law for the fuel costs, primarily the methods used mix the combinatorial and the electrical features of the problem. New methods employed are a branch and bound method for the thermal unit commitment, a gradient method to set the hydropower, and an economic dispatch routine with active flow constraints. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimal power-flow solutions for power system planning

    Page(s): 64 - 70
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (643 KB)  

    Since the development of sparsity techniques by Tinney, the power-flow program has become an extremely effective and often used tool for planning electric power networks. This program solves for the unknowns--voltages, phase angles, etc.--of a set of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations, the ac power-flow equations. The optimum power flow is likely to replace, in due time, the normal power flow in many important planning functions discussed in this paper. A number of mathematical programming techniques have recently been studied to solve the optimum power flow and several small-to-medium sized experimental programs have been written. The generalized reduced gradient (GRG), one of the most elegant nonlinear-programming techniques, is described and it is shown how it can be extended to solve optimum power flows of very high dimension (of the order of several thousand nodes). This extension consists mainly of using sparsity techniques in several of the solution steps of the GRG. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Time-shared hybrid computers: A new concept in computer-aided design

    Page(s): 71 - 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2836 KB)  

    A hybrid computer system with electronic patching at the University of Michigan Simulation Center is described. The system allows automatic digital setup of problems on the analog subsystem within 20 ms. This fast turnaround permits time sharing of the hybrid computer using remote terminals. In addition to generating high-speed solutions to non-linear differential equations, the hybrid system also generates alphanumeric and graphic displays for use at each terminal. A high-level compiler using simulation-language statements to program automatically the analog subsystem is decribed, along with an example problem. The authors feel that this time-shared hybrid system, which provides two to three orders of magnitude speed advantage in access time and solution time when compared with digital terminal systems, offers a new dimension to computer-aided design of dynamic systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modeling for circuit and system design

    Page(s): 78 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    The role of characterization and modeling is a vital one in bringing computers progressively into tighter loops in the design cycle. While a coordinated characterization effort provides the backbone of computation, it can also become an end in itself; it provides a bridge between several disciplines, particularly device development, circuit design, and computer analysis. Complete characterization includes several activities; selecting mathematical models for devices; developing measurement techniques, and measurement jigs; and devising statistical representations to account for manufacturing variability, environmental changes, and aging effects. Such a characterization effort with details of recent advances in bi-polar transistor modeling is outlined. In addition to tying together computer ac, dc, and transient analysis capability, the modeling approach allows investigation of "real world" effects such as manufacturing variability, temperature changes, and aging effects. This is an essential prerequisite for valid design studies. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A new efficient one-dimensional analysis program for junction device modeling

    Page(s): 86 - 98
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (927 KB)  

    A new program for one-dimensional semiconductor device analysis is described and shown to be more general and more efficient than competitive methods. Numerical results from a study of high-frequency bipolar transistors are given with emphasis on the effect of Fermi statistics and velocity limitation in high-current density situations. A method for device modeling directly from the partial differential equation (PDE) solutions is described, and applied to the problem of simulating the performance of high-speed emitter-coupled logic circuits. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A new efficient algorithm for solving differential-algebraic systems using implicit backward differentiation formulas

    Page(s): 98 - 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB)  

    The backward differentiation formulas (BDF), of order 1 up to 6 are described as they are applied to a system of differential algebraic equations. The BDF method is compared to the Gear-Nordsieck method, and is shown to be more efficient, more flexible in the selection of variables for prediction and error control, and more stable under conditions of rapidly varying Δt. For Δt fixed, the two methods are equivalent but for Δt varying they are not equivalent. Numerical experiments are described which demonstrate that the Gear-Nordsieck and BDF methods are unstable under rapidly changing Δt, but BDF is more stable. The two methods are distinguished numerically by identifying the modification of the Gear-Nordsieck method which makes it equivalent to the BDF method even if Δt changes. The computational advantage of using backward differences Δx, instead of the Nordsieck vector, for storing the backward-time information is treated by giving an operations count which shows the BDF using backward Δx's is more efficient. Finally, additional numerical evidence is given to support the use of variable order methods and the use of higher order methods. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Steady-state analysis of nonlinear circuits with periodic inputs

    Page(s): 108 - 114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (622 KB)  

    In the computer-aided analysis of nonlinear circuits with periodic inputs and a stable periodic response the steady-state periodic response is found for a given initial state by simply integrating the system equations until the response becomes periodic. In lightly damped systems this integration could extend over many periods making the computation costly. In this paper a Newton algorithm is defined which converges to the steady-state response rapidly. The algorithm is applied to several nonlinear circuits. The results show a considerable reduction in the amount of time necessary to compute the steady-state response. In addition, the initial iterates give information on the transient response of the system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Hybrid computer aided design of thick electrostatic electron lenses

    Page(s): 115 - 119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (730 KB)  

    The synthesis of space charge free electron lenses can be approached by first assuming solutions for Laplace's partial differential equation in terms of cylindrical harmonics. The hybrid computer can quickly generate these assumed solutions and their gradient by working with the differential equations obtained from product separation of variables. The gradient is used in the integration for the trajectory to determine if the lens is useful. If so, either equipotential surfaces or the potentials along a desired surface are generated with the computer to guide the physical realization of the lens. Certain cases where space charge cannot be neglected are solved by truncation of rectilinear electron flow. Poisson's equation is solved in the computer to serve as a Cauchy boundary condition to Laplace's equation outside the electron beam. The hybrid computing technique and the experimental verification of some of the results in cathode-ray tube electron lenses are presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Noise spectra of a CW silicon TRAPATT oscillator

    Page(s): 125 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB)  

    Noise measurements on a double-sided silicon TRAPATT oscillator have been made and show that the noise is comparable to that of the silicon IMPATT oscillator. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Noise effect in oscillators using multiple active devices connected in series or in parallel

    Page(s): 126 - 127
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (253 KB)  

    The effect of noise in an IMPATT or Gunn diode oscillator on a phase or frequency fluctuation can be reduced when the oscillator is constructed of multiple diodes connected in series, compared with the oscillator using a single diode. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Optimum filters for narrow-band frequency modulation

    Page(s): 127 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB)  

    A computer search was made for the optimum second- and third-order bandpass filters for use in narrow-band FM and PM systems. The optimum filter for minimum distortion was found to be near the Bessel filter. The results were fairly independent of modulation index and bandwidth. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • On the analysis of active networks containing voltage, operational, and differential-input operational amplifiers

    Page(s): 128 - 130
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (302 KB)  

    A method of drawing by inspection the signal-flow graph of an active network containing voltage, operational, and differential-input operational amplifiers is given and it is shown that the network functions can easily be determined from the signal-flow graph. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comment on "High-electric-field electron velocity in InSb in transverse and parallel magnetic fields"

    Page(s): 130 - 132
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB)  

    An attempt by Gandhi and Verma to explain the behavior of the electron velocity in InSb in strong magnetic and electric fields as due to optical phonon interaction to fail quantitatively. Several errors in the calculations and data presentation are corrected. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Interaction of 10.6-µm radiation with current carriers in germanium

    Page(s): 132 - 133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)  

    The absorption of 10.6-µm energy by excess carriers in germanium is used to study carrier density profiles within the bulk of intrinsic materials. Excess carriers are injected into blocks of germanium. The material is probed by an optical beam from a CO2laser and the energy in the exit ray is measured to determine carrier absorption. Carrier density in the material is found to correspond to two distinct patterns. The determination of carrier cross section is discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A note on the stability of a class of sampled data systems

    Page(s): 133 - 134
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB)  

    It is shown that if the coefficients of the denominator of the transfer function of a sampled data system satisfy certain conditions the question of stability can be decided by inspection. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A criterion to determine if two multivariable polynomials are relatively prime

    Page(s): 134 - 135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB)  

    A necessary and sufficient condition to determine whether any two multivariable polynomials are relatively prime or not is given. Two simple examples are included to illustrate the applicability of the foregoing condition. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Improved calculation for the output spectra of unlocked driven oscillators

    Page(s): 135 - 136
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (199 KB)  

    A method is reported providing the frequency spectrum of an oscillator operating in the modulated mode. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University