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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 1971

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1388 - 1389
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Thin-film processes for microelectronic application

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1390 - 1403
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1759 KB)

    The rapid development of the microelectronics industry over the last decade has placed exceptional demands on thin-film technology since, to a large extent, it controls the technological pace of that industry. This demand has challenged the thin-film technologist to develop new and improved processes for both thin-film devices as well as for the thin-film conductors and insulation needed by semico... View full abstract»

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  • Multilayer metallization for LSI

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1403 - 1409
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2210 KB)

    Recent advances in the manufacture of complex bipolar integrated circuits have led to a variety of techniques for metal interconnection on the chip. As the need for more and more devices has increased chip size, the problem of random defects has become catastrophic. Functional yields are often seen to drastically decrease or even vanish with attempts to fabricate very large bipolar parts. Since th... View full abstract»

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  • Electromigration and failure in electronics: An introduction

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1409 - 1418
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2292 KB)

    Some fundamental aspects of electromigration phenomena as they have been studied in "bulk" metallic conductors are reviewed. In an electric field atoms are subjected to a force due to the field, and to a force which results from the motion of electrical carriers, electrons, or holes. In bulk samples, and at high temperatures, these forces cause the displacement of atoms by a lattice mechanism whic... View full abstract»

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  • Termination materials for thin film resistors

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1418 - 1424
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (719 KB)

    The resistance of a thin film resistor can be considered as consisting of three parts: 1) the resistance of the resistor material, 2) the resistance of the termination material, and 3) the interfacial resistance. The aging of the interfacial resistance can dominate the aging of low valued resistors, especially under corrosive conditions. The interfacial resistance using a distributed parameter ana... View full abstract»

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  • Silicide resistors for integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1425 - 1429
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)

    Thin-film resistors are useful in monolithic integrated circuits whenever high sheet resistance (ρs> 1 kΩ/sq) or radiation hardness are required. Silicide resistive films (MoSi2, CrSi2, and Si-Cr) deposited by dc sputtering have been shown to be compatible with monolithic circuit production end require no protective overlayer. Si-Cr films 200-300 Å... View full abstract»

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  • Applications of scanning electron microscopy to thin film studies on semiconductor devices

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1429 - 1433
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    Some of the various uses of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) as applied to thin film studies on semiconductor devices are illustrated. Examples presented include the use of the SEM to measure thickness variations in an aluminum film, to determine evaporation coverage of aluminum films over oxide steps, to locate θ phase (CuAl2) particles in an Al-2% Cu thin film, to determine... View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric films for capacitor applications in electronic technology

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1434 - 1439
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (782 KB)

    In microelectronic applications, various approaches have been used to provide high capacitance thin film components. None of these has been widely accepted for reasons that are both technical and economic. Limited applications have been made of silicon and other simple oxides, e.g., of aluminum or tantalum, as dielectric media. Particularly in the area of microwave integrated circuits, requirement... View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of RF sputtered barium titanate thin films

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1440 - 1447
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1151 KB)

    Results of a study on the deposition of thin-film barium titanate (BaTiO3) by RF sputtering are discussed. BaTiO3was deposited onto Pt foil and onto thin-film electrodes on various substrates, and counterelectroded to form metal-dielectrio-metal structures. Dielectrics were deposited at substrate temperatures from 23° to 1000°C, some of the dielectrics fired in air ... View full abstract»

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  • An overview of today's thick-film technology

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1448 - 1454
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)

    How thick-film systems are used in all facets of today's electronic industry, starting with their initial application in the computer and defense industries, is described. As the state of the art grew, composition suppliers broadened their lines, developing new higher performance materials to meet changing and more sophisticated packaging requirements. The present technology offers advantages of s... View full abstract»

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  • Metal-ceramic constraints for multilayer electronic packages

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1455 - 1462
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (777 KB)

    Ceramic formulations set in an organic binder are currently being cast in thin paper-like sheets. These sheets may be punched, screened with metal pastes, and laminated to form a composite of metal and ceramic particles held together by an organic medium. By slowly burning off the organic binder and then sintering the ceramic and metal together, a substrate with many layers of interconnecting wiri... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of alumina substrate surface defects on thin-film interconnect patterns

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1462 - 1467
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1102 KB)

    An investigation was made into the occurrence of substrate surface defects, such as surface pits, low-density regions and burrs, and their effect on fine-line thin-film conductor patterns fabricated on the substrate. Substrate surface quality was characterized through examination of fine-line thin-film test patterns (50-µm lines on 100-µm centers). The results of these observations are s... View full abstract»

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  • Interconnection systems for solid-state components in hybrid integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1468 - 1473
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1497 KB)

    The factors which can influence the performance and reliability of the interconnection system for solid-state components in hybrid integrated circuits are examined. The main emphasis is on materials that have received most attention in the tantalum film and silicon technologies in the Bell System. However, other materials that are being used are discussed. The interrelation of various factors in c... View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic film materials

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1474 - 1480
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (811 KB)

    Magnetic films are used in the information processing area in two principal applications: random access high speed memory and serial access lower speed memory. The application requirements for magnetic films of these two types, the material properties needed to meet these requirements, and the metallurgical structures which give rise to the properties are described. The directions of present devel... View full abstract»

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  • Film technology in microwave integrated circuits

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1481 - 1489
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1831 KB)

    A review of the material technology for microwave integrated circuits (MICs) is presented. The types of microwave circuit media that have been used are described and classified as a function of the amount of size reduction or integration which corresponds to the effective dielectric constant of the media. The materials used for substrates, conductors, dielectrics, and resistors are considered in t... View full abstract»

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  • Current status of negative electron affinity devices

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1489 - 1497
    Cited by:  Papers (33)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1481 KB)

    The introduction of electron emitters utilizing negative electron affinity has greatly improved the performance of many conventional light-sensing devices. The unique properties of such emitters have also made possible devices which were heretofore not feasible. Since their arrival as laboratory curiosities about five years ago, these emitters have had a large impact in the area of low-light-level... View full abstract»

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  • The liquid phase epitaxy of AlxGa1-xAs for monolithic planar structures

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1498 - 1502
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB)

    The most promising electroluminescent materials used for visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) are GaAsP, GaAlAs, GaP, and GaAs with phosphors. Presently, GaAsP, which is prepared by vapor phase epitaxy, is the only material which has found widespread commercial use. In this work an effort was made to explore the feasibility of fabricating planar monolithic GaAlAs LED arrays prepared by the liquid ... View full abstract»

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  • Electrical properties of some thin-film semiconductor alloys

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1503 - 1505
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB)

    The Müller technique of flash evaporating powdered compound semiconductors was used to form polycrystalline thin-film solid solutions of CdSe-CdS and CdSe-CdTe onto heated glass substrates. The composition of each alloy was varied from 10 to 90 percent of one compound by weight. X-ray diffractometer was used to determine their crystalline structures and lattice parameters. The results show th... View full abstract»

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  • Recent advances in thin-film silicon devices on sapphire substrates

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1506 - 1510
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1081 KB)

    The growth of silicon films on insulating substrates, their fabrication into active devices, and the advantages of such devices, especially for fast memory applications, were previously reported. Recent advances in these devices are described, including techniques of material growth and characterization, fabrication procedures, and device results. Thin-film resistors and capacitors operating at UH... View full abstract»

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  • Electrical properties of tellurium thin films

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1511 - 1517
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)

    Semiconducting properties of evaporated tellurium thin films, in the thickness range of 100 to 400 Å, are studied and correlated with observed structural properties. It is found that less-than-monolayer gold films can act as nucleation sites and stimulate the growth of large crystallites in deposited Te films. The Au-nucleated Te films are preferentially oriented with the c axis in the substr... View full abstract»

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  • A note on necessary bandwidth in FM systems

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1522 - 1523
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (201 KB)

    A digital computer simulation has been used in an effort to define the RF bandwidth needed for good transmission in FM systems in terms of given amounts of interchannel distortion. The computed results have been converted into a relationship that is similar to Carson's rule but perhaps more meaningful. View full abstract»

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  • Encoding and decoding with elastic surface waves at 10 megabits per second

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1523 - 1525
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (318 KB)

    The use of elastic surface waves to generate and correlate a 31-bit maximal length bi-phase modulated code is described. The theoretically predicted main correlation peak to sidelobe ratio of 15.8 dB was achieved experimentally on Y-cut quartz at a 70-MHz center frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Interaction at 4.85 GHz between drifted current carriers and n-InSb

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1525 - 1526
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)

    The interaction between an applied microwave field at 4.85 GHz and a conical sample of n-InSb at 77°K used as a microwave circuit element is described. The principal interaction is found only when the cone axis contains the 〈111〉 crystal axis. The maximum interaction is found when the applied microwave electric field, a steady magnetic field, and an applied current pulse are in th... View full abstract»

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  • A high-speed adder using Gunn diodes

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):1526 - 1527
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB)

    A high-speed adder employing Gunn diodes is proposed. The system is constructed by using the threshold logic technique for high-speed carry propagation. Since all inputs of n stages with each weight are simultaneously applied to the anode of each Gunn diode to generate the nth carry at once, the operating speed of the adder should be considerably improved. View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University