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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 6 • Date June 1971

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 62
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 820 - 821
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Education for change [Invited Editorial]

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 822
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The major problems facing engineering education

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 823 - 828
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    Engineering education has been much studied during the past fifty years. One of the first major studies, known as the Wickenden Report in its trial version recommended that engineering education be at the graduate level. However, this was later amended to say that engineering education should be an undergraduate study, but should be followed by an internship in which one's further education would be guided by the engineering colleges, industry, and the engineering societies working together. The dilemma of engineering education has been that we have tried to combine a broad general education with some engineering in a sort of liberal science education, instead of offering professional education with a very strong technological stem. Since we have chosen the former path, we find ourselves confronted by other unresolved questions. Should we teach science or engineering practice? How much emphasis should there be on design and how much on theory and analysis? How broad should the curriculum be and how much of the humanities should it contain? How much should we depend on graduate work to train an engineer? Now in addition to these dilemmas we find ourselves confronted with the problem of finding sufficient time to cover the material considered necessary. It is obvious that many of our constraints, schedules, credits, fifty-minute periods, lectures, laboratories, and lock-step methods must be replaced by new methods and systems designed to teach more efficiently. This offers an opportunity for cooperation among industry, the colleges, and the professional societies. View full abstract»

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  • Historical perspective for electrical engineering education

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 828 - 833
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Engineering education as we know it is quite recent. Although engineers have been important for millenia, schools were not needed until the eighteenth century. Then France and Germany began to train engineers on the university level. In the early nineteenth century, the ideas and methods of those countries were introduced by the United States in institutes of technology. Soon after the middle of the nineteenth century, the German plans for technical education began to be grafted onto our literary universities, which had largely followed the English model. American activity was heightened by the Land Grant Act passed by Congress and signed by Lincoln in 1862. Specialization within engineering had led to a separation of mechanical engineering from "civil" soon after the development of the steam engine. Electrical engineers split from mechanical engineers in the late nineteenth century. College curricula appeared and the AIEE was organized. The concepts of electricity held by such men as Faraday, Henry, and Maxwell are traced through the centuries. Henry's telegraph was followed by lights, motors, and generators. After Thompson's discovery of electrons, the thermionic valve and the audion appeared. The IRE was formed, and the "electronics" options appeared in college curricula. Both World Wars led to growths of technology which were rapidly absorbed into peacetime developments. Expansion continues. The AIEE and the IRE merged into the IEEE, indicating an interdependence, and the undergraduate college curricula show the same unity of concept between electrical power and information systems. Postgraduate curricula, on the other hand, show continually greater specialization. For the future, a general culture will surely require education in science and its applications. We must continue to train the practitioners of engineering, and in addition we must help educate all serious students. This double responsibility lies before us. View full abstract»

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  • Manpower trends in electrical engineering in the United States

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 834 - 838
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Electrical engineering is the largest branch of the U. S. engineering profession. Employment has been affected significantly by the growth in electronics since 1945, but electrical engineers are employed in a variety of industry groups. About 11 000 bachelor's degrees have been earned each year since 1959, and the number of master's and doctor's degrees has increased steadily practically every year. In the last few years, however, electrical engineering degrees have decreased slightly as a percentage of all engineering degrees. Statistical sources do not agree in definitions or criteria, and may therefore include varying percentages of nondegree holders in the total number of electrical engineers reported. There are about 270 000 people currently employed in the field according to the U. S. Department of Labor, with 10 000 to 12 500 new requirements each year. Although manufacturing industry will continue to employ the majority of electrical engineers, rapid growth is envisioned in business, professional, educational, and government services. View full abstract»

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  • The federal government and graduate education in engineering

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 839 - 842
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    The shift in national goals that this country has undergone in the past few years is described. Recommendations of how best to modify our engineering curricula to accommodate to these shifts are made. Finally some federal programs which encourage this shift in emphasis are described. View full abstract»

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  • Efficiency ratios for engineering schools

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 843 - 848
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    The results of a study of parameters which can be used to evaluate the quantitative performance of engineering schools and departments are presented. A set of parameters which should be useful in measuring efficiency consists of the major outputs of the unit divided by either its budget or faculty size. Curves of the latter parameters versus time are presented for several example schools, along with the average figures based on the four annual Directories of Engineering College Research and Graduate Study. An efficient format for evaluating and monitoring these parameters and a discussion of their limitations are presented. To study the effect of size on various performance parameters, a computer program was used to calculate statistical averages for the schools in the 1970 Directory. For most parameters there is a distinct increase with size, but the large degree of scatter indicates that smaller schools can be efficient. View full abstract»

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  • Michigan multioption program in electrical engineering

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 848 - 853
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A multioption (three) program in electrical engineering is proposed to meet the needs of a rapidly advancing technology and a wide range of student interests and objectives. A specific program is described which includes a wide range of technical electives outside of electrical engineering, and also features a novel treatment of advanced mathematics for electrical engineering students in both the systems and science areas. An integrated humanities-social sciences program is additionally described. View full abstract»

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  • An undergraduate computer engineering option for electrical engineering

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 854 - 860
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Computer engineering is concerned with the organization, design, and utilization of digital processing systems. These may be general purpose computers or more specialized digital systems that are concerned with communications, control, information processing, etc. The rapidly expanding application areas for digital processing techniques require increasing numbers of properly trained engineers, and it is the responsibility of electrical engineering education to provide the necessary educational opportunities. A means for doing this is an undergraduate computer engineering option within electrical engineering. The curriculum for such an educational program would be both hardware and software oriented, as described. View full abstract»

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  • Electric power systems engineering education in a modern curriculum

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 860 - 868
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The nature, size, extent, and growth rate of modern electric power systems are discussed along with examples to illustrate the large number of concepts and techniques used and to indicate the variety of technological challenges faced by electric power systems engineers. The discussion then turns to the need for a variety of educational programs to cover the breadth required, to the qualifications for faculty members who staff these programs, and to the ways in which these programs should interact with the power industry. Finally, the electric power systems engineering education program at MIT is discussed in terms of faculity, students, course offerings, and research projects. View full abstract»

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  • Education in biomedical engineering

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 868 - 879
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The interface between electrical engineering and the life sciences has grown enormously over the past three decades, nearly keeping pace with the expanding disciplines themselves. In an era when one finds engineers applying automata theory to genetic control systems, coupled-oscillator theory to the growth of yeast or the synchronizing of circadian rhythms, control theory to the cardiovascular system, communication theory to sensory systems, and network theory to food chains, one is no longer justified in holding a stereotyped view of the "Bio-Medical Engineer," or in providing a specialized education to correspond to that stereotype. It is proposed that the undergraduate education of a bioengineer should introduce him to the breadth of that interface along which he eventually must choose a niche. Thus early specialization, both in engineering and in the life sciences is undesirable. View full abstract»

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  • A unified approach for teaching basic nonlinear electronic circuits to sophomores

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 880 - 886
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The philosophy, mechanics, and syllabus of a unified sophomore course in nonlinear electronic circuits are offered as a possible solution to the dilemma, long faced by teachers of electronic circuit theory, of a decreasing amount of time in which to present circuits containing an increasing variety of nonlinear electronic devices. The logic and feasibility of teaching the unified principles of nonlinear circuit analysis which are independent of the devices and their internal physical principles of operation, and which require no prerequisite other than elementary calculus, are illustrated with typical examples of various practical large signal electronic circuits actually taught in the course. The necessity to teach only a few fundamental unifying concepts and techniques, and the high motivational value of the proposed approach are shown to be the overriding factors which led-to-the success of this sophomore course at Purdue University. View full abstract»

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  • Electric and magnetic fields

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 887 - 894
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The content of the first of the two courses in electro-magnetic fields offered by the electrical engineering department at MIT to its juniors is summarized. The course deals with electroquasi-statics and magnetoquasistatics throughout, treating electrostatic and magnetostatic phenomena as special cases. This method of presentation allows the introduction of many more engineering examples into lecture demonstrations and homework than is possible in a treatment of statics followed by a treatment of the full dynamic equations, or by an overemphasis on static phenomena with only a belated discussion of quasistatic ideas. Details on several lecture demonstrations and examples are given, and it is shown how they are integrated into the "flow" of ideas. Further, our treatment of magnetization differs from the conventional one and the advantages of this treatment are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Classroom experiments for the teaching of physical insight in electrical engineering

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 895 - 899
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    An approach to teaching science and engineering that was developed to maximize a student's opportunity to gain physical insight into a subject without a corresponding laboratory is described. The approach is based on the principle that theory and experiment should receive approximately equal attention in the development of both the basic concepts and their most important applications. Experimental facts are introduced through a series of quantitative experiments which the lecturer performs as a part of his classroom development of concepts. The experiments also form a central part of the out-of-class learning experience of each student. View full abstract»

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  • A project directed laboratory curriculum

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 900 - 907
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    Recent changes in the electrical engineering curriculum at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Brooklyn, N. Y., require every undergraduate to build up his skills, self-confidence, and independence by a graded laboratory program beginning with demonstrations and supervised exercises and terminating with an independent or group project. At the same time, each graduate student is offered an opportunity to take a graduate laboratory course consisting of all-day projects, under a teacher's supervision, easing his transition to independent research. By combining the two programs with respect to project work, the department has been able to generate considerable thrust and thereby secure grants and gifts for new equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Undergraduate digital laboratories

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 908 - 915
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Digital circuits are rapidly replacing analog circuits in many areas of electrical engineering. The undergraduate curriculum in electrical engineering has reflected these changes by including more course work in the digital area. The availability of low cost integrated circuit logic elements and minicomputers has made it possible to provide a digital system laboratory program that allows the student to undertake the design of realistic digital systems. This paper discusses the organization of such a laboratory program and the facilities needed to carry out this program. View full abstract»

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  • An extensive experience with the problem-oriented approach to learning

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 915 - 920
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    Typically, educational procedures emphasize the transmission of textbook content to the mind of the student. Many persons question the merit of this approach, and believe that a problem-oriented emphasis promises to be better. A four-year experience with problem-oriented approaches to electrical engineering undergraduate instruction is described. Here the learner searches for principles, concepts, facts, and techniques in solving a contiguous set of problems developed by the instructor. The monologue of the lecture is deemphasized in favor of dialogue in small groups. The learner uses all resources (texts, lectures, laboratory, computer, classmates, student advisors) to find his best solution to each problem, but ultimately he must justify his solution in a small group discussion. The experience described indicates that problem-oriented approaches can be simultaneously more effective and less expensive than the lecture approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Engineering education and practice: The need for a consistency of outlook

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 920 - 923
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Engineering education has been unduly influenced by attitudes more appropriate to the natural sciences. It should instead acknowledge the ultimate concern of the engineer for design rather than analysis, for systems rather than constituent components, and for value to the community in place of mere increase of knowledge. Advocacy of an engineering education which is consistent with engineering practice is supported by suggestions concerning curriculum structure, syllabus content, and educational methods. View full abstract»

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  • The man-made world: A trend in education

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 924 - 932
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    "The Man-Made World" is a secondary school course developed by the Engineering Concepts Curriculum Project (ECCP) with NSF support over the past five years. The goal is an introduction to technological literacy: an understanding of the concepts underlying modern technology in order to appreciate the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of that technology, especially as it interfaces with people and social institutions. The course has also been adapted for college offering. View full abstract»

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  • A freshman engineering concepts course

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 932 - 934
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A college-level modification of the Engineering Concepts Curriculum Project (ECCP) course, "The Man Made World," is described, and its use as a framework for a computer-communication based education system is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Engineering students and the education of the disadvantaged—The dartmouth experience

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 935 - 940
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    The current interest of college students in helping to solve society's problems is attacked in two novel programs at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. Both undergraduate and graduate engineering students are involved in teaching, learning, and working at off-campus sites for a term. One group is in Jersey City, N. J., where they help to teach the ECCP developed "Man-Made World" (MMW) to inner-city high school seniors while working for the city government. Another group is at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, where they help to teach a novel freshman engineering course based on the MMW as well as attend regular classes. Results of the programs are discussed and future plans are indicated. View full abstract»

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  • A program for education of minority group students in electrical engineering

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 940 - 945
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    A program operating at Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., in which minority group students who have succeeded in demonstrating high professional skills in their field of interest are admitted to the university with the direct objective of obtaining a master's degree is described. The basic design of the program is described under the following subheadings: initial evaluation of candiates; industrial participation; admission procedures; tutors and their responsibilities; operation and monitoring of the program. View full abstract»

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  • Technical and economic factors in university instructional television systems

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 946 - 953
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    An overview of technical and economic factors which need to be considered in university ITV systems is presented. Cost data are presented which should be useful in planning and decision making. The data can be extrapolated for at least three to five years by adding about five percent per year to all costs. View full abstract»

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  • Talkback TV at southern methodist university: Four years of experience

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 954 - 960
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    During the past four years several thousand professional employees of industries within a 60-mi radius of the Southern Methodist University (SMU) campus at Dallas, Tex., have participated fully as degree-seeking students in SMU's on-campus engineering graduate courses--without leaving their places of employment. The "talkback TV" system through which this is accomplished is described and evaluated from the standpoint of the students, the professor, the educational administrator, and the industrial employer. Inclusion of neighboring liberal arts colleges among course recipients and originators offers a further dimension of program enrichment at the undergraduate level. View full abstract»

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Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University