By Topic

Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 4 • April 1971

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 50
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s): c1
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):436 - 438
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Principles of arc motion and displacement

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):439 - 449
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2866 KB)

    It is shown that the motion of an arc being described as a temperature cloud can be divided into two parts, one being the relative velocity of the arc phenomenon with respect to the mass flow and the other the mass motion itself. The first relative motion is determined by the equation for the change of internal energy with time, the second mass flow has to be calculated by means of the magnetohydr... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Effects of forced convection upon the characteristics of a steady-state cross-flow arc in the presence of an applied transverse magnetic field

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):450 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (777 KB)

    Experiments were conducted upon a 130-A 1.1-atm balanced argon arc over a range of velocities from 5.09 to 13.13 m/s; electrode spacing was 12.7 mm. Two stable modes of operation were found: the colinear mode, with arc attachments fix at the apexes of the electrodes, and the upstream mode, with arc attachments on the upstream sides of the electrodes. Below a critical velocity of about 5 m/s, the c... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comparison of lightning and a long laboratory spark

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):457 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2050 KB)

    Long laboratory sparks are often considered to be miniature lightning. The salient properties of 4-m sparks created by impulse breakdown between a negative rod and a grounded plane by the Westinghouse Trafford 6.4 MV impulse generator are compared with those properties of natural lightning. In particular, a comparison is made of the luminous processes associated with breakdown, the current, voltag... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Induced radial velocity in nonstationary electric arcs

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):466 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (729 KB)

    An analysis is presented of the effects of induced radial velocity on the thermal behavior of a nonstationary electric arc. An interrupted dc arc is simulated by treating the linearized equations for a cylindrical plasma, initially at a uniform temperature, when the wall temperature is suddenly changed by a small amount from the gas temperature. Due to compressibility, a radial wave motion is set ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Composition and transport properties of SF6and their use in a simplified enthalpy flow arc model

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):474 - 485
    Cited by:  Papers (187)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (979 KB)

    The equilibrium composition of SF6was calculated for temperatures from 1000 to 45 000°K and for pressures from 1 to 16 atm. The usual thermodynamic functions and transport properties were also computed. Considering the arc column in axially flowing gas as a plasma generator, the power balance and momentum conservation equations are formulated and solved with certain simplifying ass... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Investigations of the properties of SF6as an arc quenching medium

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):485 - 492
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1441 KB)

    The results of experiments on stationary and nonstationary arcs in SF6are summarized. High temperature gas properties, like the electrical and thermal conductivity as well as the theoretically predicted plasma demixing effects, are determined by electrical and spectroscopic measurements. Investigations on interrupted dc arcs give insight into the energy transport mechanism of the arcs. ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Some numerical solutions of the boundary layer equations for an SF6arc

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):493 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (664 KB)

    An approximate integral formulation of the thermal boundary layer equation is derived for a steady arc in a nozzle. This differential equation defines the constriction of the arc radius in terms of a heat transfer parameter γ which represents the ratio of all radial heat losses to axial convection. These radial losses include both optically thin radiation and turbulent heat transfer as estima... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The time constant of high voltage circuit breaker arcs before current zero

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):502 - 508
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB)

    It has been shown that the relative rate of decrease of conductance of the arc, in the following called RRDC, can be split in terms depending on the changing of the quantities: arc length, arc cross section, peak arc temperature and temperature profile, and the order of magnitude of the different terms has been estimated. For an experimental air blast breaker current and voltage near current zero ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Turbulence controlled high-power arcs with different electron and gas temperatures

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):508 - 517
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1512 KB)

    Experiments with high-power arcs interacting with a sonic high-pressure gas flow suggest an energy dissipation mechanism much more effective than thermal conduction and radiation. It is shown that the arc behavior is almost completely controlled by turbulence phenomena. By means of a phenomenological turbulence theory, an expression for the turbulent heat conductivity is derived which is used to s... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Study of the effects of gas flow on the performance of gas-blast circuit breakers

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):518 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1663 KB)

    Experiments were carried out at a Siemens laboratory with specially designed circuit breakers to investigate the relationship between gas flow and arc behavior for various shapes and arrangements of gas nozzles, as well as for different types of gas and pressure conditions. The current, post-arc current, and voltage measurements were supplemented by the employment of optical methods. By using a hi... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Refractory electrode region recovery following arc interruption

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):525 - 534
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1015 KB)

    Measurements are presented of the voltage fall across the electrode region of low-current carbon arcs when test current pulses are injected through the arc gap at some time (less than 100 µs) following rapid removal of the arc current. The results thus shed some light upon the thermal reignition phenomena of refractory electrodes. A model is proposed to describe the observed behavior at low i... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reverse current and arc-back in a single-gap mercury-arc valve

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):534 - 538
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (617 KB)

    Arc-backs produced by continuously raising the stress on a high-voltage single-gap single-anode mercury-arc valve are preceded by a change in reverse current before failure occurs. On the cycle at which arc-back occurs the reverse current rises rapidly to about 10 A at peak reverse voltage (140 kV maximum). Subsequently, the reverse current decreases and then rises again steadily for several hundr... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A means of raising the threshold current for anode spot formation in metal-vapor arcs

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):539 - 545
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1052 KB)

    Of the various processes occurring in an arc at high currents one of the most important with regard to application is the formation of an anode spot and the consequent melting associated with it. Vacuum arc devices depend for their operation on the formation of a high current transient metal-vapor arc. The limiting current in a particular design may be set by destructive melting at the anode. It i... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Vacuum arc ion currents and electrode phenomena

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):546 - 555
    Cited by:  Papers (115)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1402 KB)

    Properties of dc vacuum arcs between copper electrodes are studied in both a vacuum interrupter and a metal walled arc chamber. Maximum ion currents of ∼8 to 20 percent of the arc current (100 to 3000 A) are drawn from the diffuse arc plasma when the bounding metal wall or shield is biased negative. This maximum ion current is a fundamental arc property independent of wall diameter, anode di... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Kinetics of collisional-radiation recombination and ionization in low-temperature plasma

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):555 - 572
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1891 KB)

    A review is made of the approaches and approximations used by different authors to calculate coefficients of collisional-radiative ionization (β) and recombination (α). In calculating these quantities, consideration is given to a wide range of varying conditions in plasmas, and account is taken of different factors violating thermodynamic equilibrium, such as a possible departure from a ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Spectroscopic study of high current discharges

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):573 - 578
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1679 KB)

    A high current arc was developed between carbon electrodes in H2, SF6, He, Ar, and air at an initial pressure higher than 1 atm. The current peak was above 5 kA and the duration of the current was 250 µs. The temporal and spatial changes of plasma parameters were measured by time-resolved spectrography and high-speed framing camera. The electron density of the plasma was... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Influence of diffusion and nonequilibrium populations on noble-gas plasmas in electric arcs

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):578 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (789 KB)

    Measurements and calculations of temperatures, densities, and field-strength-current characteristics of cascade arcs burning in noble gases under atmospheric pressure are reported. The evaluation of measured arc data assuming Saha equilibrium [complete local thermal equilibrium (LTE)] is not in agreement with the detailed solution of the balance equations. The temperatures of electrons and heavy p... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The determination of transport properties from arc experiments: Methods and results

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):588 - 592
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)

    The electrical and thermal conductivities at atmospheric pressure of nitrogen and hydrogen as determined from arc experiments are reviewed for temperatures up to 26 000°K. First results of a high pressure argon program applying similar experimental and analytical techniques are included. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Experimental investigation of transport properties of low-temperature plasma by means of electric arc

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):592 - 601
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1011 KB)

    The results of experimental investigations into the transport properties of low-temperature plasma carried out since 1960 in the Institute for High Temperatures of the USSR Academy of Sciences are summed up. Serving as the source of plasma was a well-stabilized dc arc. Properties of argon, nitrogen, air, and carbon dioxide plasma were studied at atmospheric pressure and at temperatures ranging fro... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Form factor method yields thermal conductivity and radiated power of nitrogen arc

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):601 - 604
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB)

    The form factor method for the determination of thermal conductivity is applied to experimental results obtained with a cascade arc in nitrogen. Experimental and theoretical thermal conductivities agree, even at temperatures above 10000°K if rather high radiation losses are taken into account. This result does not change significantly when reabsorption is considered by means of an absorption ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurement of electron attachment processes in a high-temperature plasma

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):605 - 607
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (305 KB)

    An experimental technique has been developed for measuring rate constants of electron attaching reactions as well as ion-molecule reactions in plasma at 2000-3000°K. Reaction product ions are mass analyzed and rate constants are obtained from plots of the collected ion current. The rate constant for O-formation from N2O varies from about 3 to 9×10-9cm View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A helium plasma simulator

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):608 - 613
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)

    The results of an investigation of the plasma parameters generated by a large V-groove cathode discharge are presented. Stable plasmas with electron densities up to 2×1012cm-3have been obtained in a 30-cm diameter chamber. The electron temperature is about 1200°K and is independent of discharge current and gas pressure over the range, 0.3 to 0.9 torr. The discharge ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Some properties of radio frequency gas discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):613 - 616
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (865 KB)

    Measurements were made on steady-state gas discharges maintained by RF power in air at atmospheric pressure. The frequency range 1-30 MHz was covered. It was found that these discharges operate as either RF glow or RF arc discharges. The characteristics of each are very similar to those of the corresponding dc discharge types. These RF discharges are quenched after each half-cycle and must be reig... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University