Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 2 • Feb. 1971

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 57
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):116 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Satellite spacing and frequency sharing for communication and broadcast services

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):118 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB)

    Satellite relays complicate the problem of sharing a limited frequency spectrum that is in great demand. This paper reviews the problem and outlines a general approach for efficient use of orbits and spectrum. The protection of received signals, the equipment capabilities, and systems considerations pertinent to the problem are reviewed before systematically examining the principal direct and scat... View full abstract»

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  • Satellite communications for manned spacecraft

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):128 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1169 KB)

    Future manned spaceflight programs may require continuous real-time communications between the spacecraft and the mission control center. This paper examines the feasibility of relay satellite (RS) systems to meet these requirements. Anticipated requirements range from voice and low-speed data for the Skylab and Space Shuttle to television for the Space Station. Frequencies in S, C, X, and K bands... View full abstract»

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  • Satellite communications to mobile platforms

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):139 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (3755 KB)

    This paper describes a program carried out by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of satellite communications to mobile platforms, particularly aircraft. The VHF/UHF 225-400-MHz band was selected to permit the use of simple, hemispherical coverage aircraft antennas. Experiments were carried out in 1965-1966 to establish initial feasibility by measuring the electromagnetic ... View full abstract»

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  • Global morphology of ionospheric scintillations

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):159 - 172
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1433 KB)

    Amplitude fluctuations produced by small irregularities in electron density in the F layer of the ionosphere can be a problem to communication and navigation systems in the very-high frequency-ultra-high frequency (VHF-UHF) range. Recent measurements are shown with emphasis on high and equatorial latitude observations. At high latitudes an irregularity region exists whose lower boundary reaches 57... View full abstract»

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  • Propagation phenomena affecting satellite communication systems operating in the centimeter and millimeter wavelength bands

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):173 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (98)
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    The theories describing the effects of the troposphere on satellite communication systems operating in the microwave region are reviewed. The results of computations based upon the theories and atmospheric models are presented and compared with available experimental data. From the model computations it is seen that rain causes the major propagation problems for the frequency bands allocated to or... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of precipitation on 15.3- and 31.65-GHz earth—Space transmissions with the ATS-V satellite

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):189 - 205
    Cited by:  Papers (27)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (2223 KB)

    The increased communications demands of a rapidly expanding technology are requiring the systems designer to look to higher frequency bands to support high data rate communications links. Virtually all terrestrial and satellite communications systems presently in service operate in bands below 10 GHz. The frequency band from 10 to 300 GHz, commonly called "millimeter waves," offers the potential f... View full abstract»

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  • Applications technology satellites F and G communications subsystem

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):206 - 212
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (746 KB)

    The communications subsystem comprises the 30-ft parabolic reflector, the composite feed system, and the multiple frequency transponder. For high reliability, redundancy is used as required in these assemblies. The high effective radiated power (ERP) provided by this subsystem allows it to function as part of the experiments, in addition to performing as the interface between the spacecraft and th... View full abstract»

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  • Intermodulation distortion in frequency multiplexed satellite repeaters

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):213 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)

    Expressions have been derived that describe the output spectra (i.e., signal plus distortion) of a saturating amplifier when the input consists of a large number of independent carriers whose amplitudes, bandwidths, and center frequencies may be independently specified. The resulting equations have been programmed on the GE 635 computer using the fast Fourier transform algorithm, permitting rapid ... View full abstract»

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  • Multiple-access techniques for commercial satellites

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):218 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (14)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1223 KB)

    The unique multipoint interconnection capabilities of satellite communication networks place a burden on the communications system designer to achieve highly efficient transmission capacity in the face of a very wide range of network requirements. The ability of various types of multiple-access systems to meet these requirements is the subject of this paper. INTELSAT, recognizing that the frequenc... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of intermodulation, AM-PM conversion, and additive noise in multicarrier TWT systems

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):230 - 238
    Cited by:  Papers (110)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (665 KB)

    The intermodulation due to the traveling-wave tube (TWT) is analyzed for the case where arbitrarily modulated carriers and Gaussian noise are amplified through the TWT. Both AM-PM conversion effects and nonlinear amplification in the TWT are considered. The possibility of reducing intermodulation for system improvement is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Communication satellite processing repeaters

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):238 - 252
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1565 KB)

    Two kinds of processing repeaters which may find application on communication satellites in the near future are described. The type I repeater allows access only if the transmitted signal contains a predetermined code structure. This serves three purposes: first, unauthorized users are excluded, second, co-channel interfering signals are not retransmitted on the downlink, so as not to waste a port... View full abstract»

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  • A variable-coverage satellite antenna system

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):252 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (41)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1030 KB)

    A multibeam antenna system and-combiner switch capable of producing a variable-coverage radiation pattern are described. The antenna consists of a waveguide lens illuminated by a 19-element feedhorn array. The combiner switch consists of a corporate arrangement of variable power dividers; the latter is made up of two phase shifters and two conventional hybrid power-dividers. An earth-coverage radi... View full abstract»

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  • Photovoltaic solar arrays for communication satellites

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):263 - 271
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1866 KB)

    Photovoltaic solar arrays are the principal means of converting solar energy to electrical energy for satellites. Array configurations depend on the spacecraft stabilization concept, orbit, and power requirements. The current generation of communication satellites are spin-stabilized in synchronous equatorial orbits; their arrays are spinning cylinders. As satellite power requirements increase, it... View full abstract»

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  • A pulsed electric thruster for satellite control

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):271 - 277
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    The research performed on a solid Teflon pulsed plasma thruster (PPT), four of which are currently providing east-west stationkeeping for the Lincoln Laboratory LES-6 communications satellite, is presented. A detailed description of the thruster operation supported by diagnostic measurements is given. First a circuit model was developed for the thruster which accurately predicted impulse bit (W... View full abstract»

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  • General energy relations for Josephson junctions

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):282 - 283
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (194 KB)

    The Josephson junction acts as a nonlinear lossless inductor and can be applied for mixing and parametric amplification in the microwave region. Since an alternating current can be generated in the junction by an applied dc voltage, a dc power flow must be taken into consideration. Energy relations for the Josephson junction are derived which are similar to the Manley-Rowe equations but with an ad... View full abstract»

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  • Techniques for minimizing MOSFET gate leakage current

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):283 - 284
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    Measurements made on the gate current of one side of a dual MOSFET show that special packaging and circuit techniques result in a substantial reduction in gate leakage by almost entirely eliminating header leakages. Gate currents as low as 20×10-18A have been measured during the investigation. Details of the measuring techniques are also given. View full abstract»

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  • RC active bandpass filter synthesis using a voltage amplifier

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):284 - 285
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (166 KB)

    An active RC filter employing a voltage amplifier as the active element has been chosen. The root sensitivity of the filter with respect to change in the gain of the amplifier has been calculated and minimized to establish a method of synthesis for achieving stability of center frequency and bandwidth. View full abstract»

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  • Techniques for edge detection

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):285 - 287
    Cited by:  Papers (26)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (274 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Symmetry properties of linear broadside arrays

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):287 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (225 KB)

    Optimality properties are proved for arrays that exhibit symmetry about their geometric centers. Specifically, a symmetric array has smaller sidelobes than a nonsymmetric one; this is true not only for exact realization but, in the worst case, for inexact realization as well. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave characterization of the properties and performance of GaAs Schottky barrier mixer diodes

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):288 - 289
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (242 KB)

    Microwave measurements have been made of the equivalent circuit parameters and performance characteristics of unpackaged GaAs Schottky barrier mixer diodes. The dependence of mixer performance on series inductance, junction capacitance, and series resistance is delineated. Performance of mixer diodes in packaged and unpackaged form is compared. View full abstract»

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  • A helical infinite Yagi structure

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):289 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (255 KB)

    An approximate expression is derived for the phase velocity of wave propagation along an infinite Yagi structure with its conventional constituent dipoles replaced by short helices operating in their normal mode. It is theoretically predicted that the proposed infinite Yagi structure acts as a slow wave structure. View full abstract»

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  • Boundary control of the one-dimensional wave equation

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):291 - 292
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    Through the method of characteristics, literal-form expressions are derived for the one- and two-boundary controls of the one-dimensional wave equation. These formulas offer a basis for solution of a number of optimal control problems. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of quadrature crosstalk in bandpass signals

    Publication Year: 1971, Page(s):292 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (218 KB)

    An analysis of crosstalk between the quadrature components of a bandpass signal when passed through a bandpass filter is presented. The crosstalk interference ratio (CIR) is defined and used as an evaluation criterion. View full abstract»

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