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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 1970

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1787
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 3-5 compound photocathodes: A new family of photoemitters with greatly improved performance

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1788 - 1802
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1585 KB)  

    Recently developed 3-5 compound semiconductor photocathodes show promise of substantial advantages over conventional photocathodes in increased yield and longer wavelength response. This paper reviews the physical principles of operation, preparation, and activation of these new types of photocathode. Also discussed are current fabrication techniques, problem areas, practical difficulties, and operating characteristics of experimental cathodes. View full abstract»

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  • The synthesis of regulator logic using state-variable concepts

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1803 - 1811
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (609 KB)  

    This is a tutorial paper. It was written for technically knowledgeable people who are not specialists in automatic control. It might also be of some use in university courses in automatic control. Linear feedback of the state variables for stationary linear plants permits choice of the gains to place poles (eigenvalues) of the controlled system in desired locations. Continuous estimates of the state variables can often be made from one or more measurements of the output using a filter of the same (or lower) order as the plant called "an observer": the poles of the observer can be placed arbitrarily through choice of the observer gains. Combining an observer with state-variable feedback yields a "compensator" design; the poles of the controlled system are the poles of the observer plus the poles of plant with state-variable feedback, which greatly simplifies the design problem. View full abstract»

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  • A method of matrix addressing polarization rotating or retarding light-valve arrays

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1812 - 1818
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB)  

    A geometrical arrangement is described that allows matrix-addressed arrays of light valves to be built out of optically active materials which do not possess a switching threshold. Such arrays can be used for optical selectors, composers, and displays. Unlike classical coincident matrix addressing, this new scheme does not impose any limitation on addressing speed nor is it critically dependent on uniformity of switching properties within the material. The basic scheme consists of forming the rows of the matrix on one piece of material, the columns on another, and separating the two pieces with suitably oriented polarizers. This scheme can be applied to ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and electrooptic solids and optically active liquids. A modified form of the separated matrix scheme, employing no polarizers, can be used with light scattering, absorbing, or reflecting materials which have no switching threshold. View full abstract»

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  • Theory and design of electronic relays

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1818 - 1828
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A unified theory on the principles and characterizations of electronic relays is presented. A basic realization scheme is shown to consist of a cascade connection of an isolation box, an analog-to-binary converter, and an electronic switch. A total of eight canonic realizations are given for synthesizing each of the four types of electronic relays. In conclusion the design of two complete practical electronic relays is presented and the actual performance is verified through experimental measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "Linear-motion electrical machines"

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1828
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  • Neuristor analysis techniques for nonlinear distributed electronic systems

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1829 - 1837
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Neuristor propagation analysis techniques apply to a wide variety of nonlinear distributed electronic devices and wave propagation phenomena. This paper brings together and reviews these techniques. A specific example, the superconductive tunnel junction stripline, is modeled by a distributed equivalent circuit described by nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations. The neuristor pulse propagates at constant velocity with a fixed waveshape; mathematically, this reduces the partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations which are solved by phase-plane topology analysis. Poincaré's index rule and Bendixson's negative criterion prescribe the pulse velocity and waveform. Analytical results agree with experiment. Pulse waveform stability is studied using eigenfunction expansion of the perturbation equations and Lyapunov theory, but complete results are not obtained. Lyapunov theory provides estimates of excitation thresholds for launching a neuristor pulse, which are consistent with experiment. Determining the nature of pulse interactions may for some systems be accomplished using the Bäcklund transformation or perturbation series techniques, but generally requires complete computer solution of the dynamical equations. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "The radar radiometer"

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1837
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  • A note on multirate Z transforms

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1840 - 1841
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (158 KB)  

    The conventional input-output relation for linear sampled-data systems whose output is sampled at an integer multiple of the input sampling rate is shown to give incorrect results if the system transfer function contains time delays that are integer multiples of the basic sampling interval T. The correct input-output relation is developed. View full abstract»

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  • Stability of linear time-invariant discrete systems

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1841 - 1843
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The Fundamental stability theorem giving the input-output properties of linear time-invariant discrete systems is extended to include multiple poles on or outside the unit circle and to include properties of the error coefficients. The engineering significance of some of the assumptions is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic wave propagation along a conducting wire in a general magnetoplasma

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1843 - 1844
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The propagation constant of the electromagnetic wave along a very thin conducting wire immersed in a magnetoplasma is obtained explicitly for a general case where the dc magnetic field is applied with an arbitrary inclination with respect to the wire. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized proof of Shockley's positive conductance theorem

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1844 - 1845
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    Shockley's theorem states that a semiconductor with a negative differential mobility and a well-behaved cathode contact, has a positive differential conductance. The proof of this theorem is generalized to arbitrary impurity distributions and geometries. View full abstract»

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  • Nonohmic contacts for microwave devices

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1845 - 1846
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB)  

    Theoretical and experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the microwave properties of a nonohmic contact can be superior to those of an ohmic contact. Reactive (Schottky-barrier) contacts have been employed successfully on GaAs IMPATT diodes, where 2.0 watts, CW, have been obtained at 4.5 GHz with 10 percent efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Design curves for linear systems using Hurwitz determinants

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1846 - 1848
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    By using Hurwitz determinants, boundary curves (α and ζ diagrams) are constructed according to specified stability constraints. From these diagrams, the dominant roots to be used for design purposes can be located. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic radiation from heterogeneous plasma

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1848 - 1849
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    It was found that the electromagnetic radiation frequency, strength, and waveforms from a heterogeneous plasma were independent of the circuit but were influenced by the material of the electrodes. Using the same circuit for various electrodes, radiation ranging from 10 to 50 MHz, power from 0.5 to 200 mW, and sinusoidal to spiked waves were observed. View full abstract»

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  • Bulk lifetime determination using an MOS capacitor

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1849 - 1850
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A simple method is described for the determination of minority carrier lifetime from the large-signal response time of an MOS capacitor in deep inversion. The method consists of monitoring the change of MOS capacitance as a function of time. A graph is presented to expedite easy extraction of lifetime from the transient waveform. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided determination of two-port noise parameters (CADON)

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1850 - 1851
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    With a desk computer the noise and gain parameters of a two-port can be determined with high speed and reasonable accuracy from a well-known noise figure measurement process. View full abstract»

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  • Bulk switching of an amorphous semiconductor

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1852
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    Bulk switching of a Si3Ge4As38Te55amorphous semiconductor is reported. Even though the contacts are separated by 1 mm, a delay time of only 10 µs is observed. This is attributed to an active region of only 0.1-mm thickness near the positive electrode. The threshold voltage is 250 volts at room temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of the phase constant along a conducting wire in a magnetoplasma

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1852 - 1854
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB)  

    The phase constant of the electromagnetic wave along a conducting wire in a plasma magnetized in parallel or perpendicularly to the wire has been measured. Fairly good agreement is found between the measured results and the theoretical prediction when the effect of the surrounding ion sheath is taken into account. View full abstract»

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  • Minimum length for distributed oscillators

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1854 - 1855
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)  

    Lyapunov stability theory predicts a minimum line length for the existence of active oscillations on a distributed circuit model of the superconductive tunnel junction strip line. Experiments on a lumped ladder-line model give close quantitative agreement with this prediction. View full abstract»

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  • Bipolar operation of paired log transistors

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1855 - 1856
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Computer simulation of synthesizing images by digital phased arrays

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1856 - 1858
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    A method of synthesizing images by digital phased arrays is proposed. Following this method a numerical experiment of image synthesis is conducted to simulate arrays of 64 × 64 by computer. Each array element is assigned a binary digit, that is, it is either excited or nonexcited. View full abstract»

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  • Synthetic end-fire hologram radar

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1858 - 1859
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  

    The extension of broadside synthetic-aperture radar to an end-fire configuration is suggested. Its possible application to the detection of small targets and clear-air turbulence is noted. View full abstract»

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  • A spectral frequency synthesizer

    Publication Year: 1970 , Page(s): 1859 - 1860
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    The spectral digital frequency synthesizer has extremely low battery power consumption. A model, providing two ×460 radio channels in the VHF range, was developed and packaged. View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University