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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 1970

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 51
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1407 - 1409
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Optical communications—A decade of preparations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1410 - 1418
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1179 KB)

    This paper, an introduction to this first Special Issue on Optical Communications, follows some of the arguments that have prevailed for and against optics as a viable communications medium for terrestrial and space applications, and assesses the present state of the art of optics devices, systems, and theory, based on discussions with scientists and engineers who have been specializing in the opt... View full abstract»

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  • Coherent optical sources for communications

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1419 - 1439
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5239 KB)

    The development of coherent optical sources, producing usable amounts of power, has provided a stimulus for communications research. Coherent sources in the form of lasers and parametric oscillators are available at wavelengths which span the entire optical spectrum. This paper reviews the state of the art of coherent optical sources with major emphasis on the most highly developed sources. View full abstract»

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  • Modulators for optical communications

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1440 - 1457
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1918 KB)

    This paper reviews the field of high-speed small-aperture modulators for applications in optical communications, with emphasis on electrooptic modulation. The capabilities and limitations of electrooptic modulators are discussed based on a review of the physical origin of the electrooptic effect. Thermal and photoconduction phenomena, which may severely limit the operation of practical devices, ar... View full abstract»

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  • Direct modulation of semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1457 - 1465
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1091 KB)

    Methods for direct modulation of semiconductor lasers are reviewed with the objective of indicating the advantages and limitations of each method. Techniques for producing amplitude, pulse, and frequency modulation of the optical wave are included. The modulation capabilities of present pulsed lasers are analyzed with special attention given to their operation at room temperature. In addition, sev... View full abstract»

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  • Photodetectors for optical communication systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1466 - 1486
    Cited by:  Papers (101)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2368 KB)

    The characteristics of high-sensitivity photodetectors suitable for wide bandwidth optical communication systems are summarized. Photodiodes, photomultipliers, and photoconductive detectors for wavelengths from 0.3 µm to 10.6 µm are covered. The use of internal current gain by means of avalanche and electron multiplication and by means of optical heterodyne detection to increase sensitiv... View full abstract»

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  • Subnanosecond gating properties of the dynamic cross-field photomultiplier

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1487 - 1490
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1754 KB)

    Experimentally measured characteristics of the sampling function in the dynamic cross-field photomultiplier are presented. A self-mode-locked He-Ne laser with a pulse-repetition rate nearly equal to the photomultiplier sampling rate is used to determine the sampling characteristics of this device. Experiments with a device with two regions in which different dc fields can be established are also r... View full abstract»

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  • Optical components and technology in laser space communications systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1491 - 1503
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1919 KB)

    Passive linear optical components play a primary role in an optical communications system for use in space applications. The important functions of acquisition, tracking, transmit-beam off-set, and background-noise discrimination may be efficiently implemented using passive optical elements. These specific system functions are discussed with reference to a representative system in order to identif... View full abstract»

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  • Integrated optical circuits

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1504 - 1512
    Cited by:  Papers (39)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1722 KB)

    Research on optical communication systems indicates the future need for a compact, rugged, and economical medium for circuit realization. Encapsulated planar arrays of rectangular dielectric waveguides are attractive for this purpose. The individual guides would have dimensions on the order of a few micrometers while the planar arrays might cover an area of a few square centimeters. Integrated cir... View full abstract»

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  • Optical waveguide transmission

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1513 - 1522
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2322 KB)

    As optical communication systems are being studied in more detail, the need for many different types of optical waveguides becomes apparent. The applications range from miniature optical circuit connections to long-distance high-capacity transmission links. The requirements with respect to cost, attenuation, dispersion, or flexibility are vastly different. As different as the specifications are th... View full abstract»

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  • A survey of clear-air propagation effects relevant to optical communications

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1523 - 1545
    Cited by:  Papers (204)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2349 KB)

    The theory and observations of the optical propagation effects of the clear turbulent atmosphere are reviewed, with particular attention to those characteristics most important to the designer of an optical communication system. Among the phenomena considered are the variance, probability distribution, spatial covariance, aperture smoothing, and temporal power spectrum of intensity fluctuations, a... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of the average structural characteristic of the atmospheric refractive index

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1546 - 1547
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB)

    Measurements of the square of the structure constant of the atmospheric refractive index averaged over a 25-km propagation path are presented. The daily behavior of this parameter Cn2for 4 days in July, 1969, are shown. The measured values are in the range from 0.5 to 4×10-17cm-2/3. View full abstract»

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  • The optical scatter channel

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1547 - 1563
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2370 KB)

    The scatter fields experimentally observable at the image plane of an optical receiver are modeled in a way that is consistent with the concepts and notations of both radiative transfer theory and the probability-computing receiver. Transient response and Doppler effect are considered. Single-particle scattering and its relationship to multiple scatter as treated by radiative transfer theory are r... View full abstract»

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  • Some experiments on the propagation of light pulses through clouds

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1564 - 1567
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1317 KB)

    This paper describes a facility for measuring the spatial and temporal impulse response of a cloud to a pulse of light from a Q-switched ruby laser, and presents some experimental results. No single simple model adequately describes the transient response of real clouds in the variety of situations observed. View full abstract»

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  • Laser-Raman radar for air pollution probe

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1568 - 1571
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB)

    As an experimental verification of a novel application of the laser-Raman radar, frequency-shifted Raman components of a Q-switched ruby-laser pulse from atmospheric molecular gases and from chemicals in an oil plume, such as CO2, CO, SO2, O2, and N2, were analyzed selectively. These results demonstrate the practical usefulness of this new optical system... View full abstract»

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  • Background noise in optical communication systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1571 - 1577
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1712 KB)

    The origin and magnitude of the several kinds of background noise that perturb optical communication receivers are discussed, including background radiation sources viewed directly, radiation reflected from background objects, and radiation scattered by the atmosphere into the receiver field of view. An extensive bibliography on this topic is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum-mechanical communication theory

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1578 - 1598
    Cited by:  Papers (50)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2453 KB)

    This paper is concerned with the problem of finding the structure and performance of the receiver that yields the best performance in the reception of signals that are described quantum-mechanically. The principles of statistical detection and estimation theory are discussed, with the laws of quantum mechanics taken into account. Several specific communication systems of practical interest are stu... View full abstract»

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  • Steady-state quantum analysis of linear systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1599 - 1611
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1278 KB)

    A rigorous basis for the quantum analysis of the steady state of linear distributed systems is established. The analysis of a distributed system of finite length requires, for self-consistency, that excitations be stated at the boundaries of the system even in the absence of externally applied excitations. The commutators of the amplitudes at the boundaries are stated and a useful analogy with the... View full abstract»

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  • Communication theory for the free-space optical channel

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1611 - 1626
    Cited by:  Papers (34)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1562 KB)

    The current understanding of quantum detectors, the noise mechanisms which limit (are basic to) their operation, and their application to optical communications (theory) is summarized. In this context, we are considering channels in which the electromagnetic field is not subjected to any propagation effects other than a geometric loss. (Such a channel would exist between satellites.) Consequently,... View full abstract»

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  • Communication theory for the turbulent atmosphere

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1626 - 1650
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2746 KB)

    This paper is concerned with an examination of how statistical communication theory can be used to combat the effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical communication systems. The objective is to provide a framework to be used in discussing and relating the analytical results presently available in the literature as well as some new, or at least not widely known, results and in motivating and gu... View full abstract»

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  • Communication through optical scattering channels: An introduction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1651 - 1665
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3576 KB)

    The theoretical possibilities of communicating through scattering channels are considered in the context of digital communication. Direct-detection, heterodyne, and optimum receivers are discussed and the near optimality of direct-detection systems is noted. It is found that the error probability depends only upon the total received signal energy if certain noise thresholds are exceeded; below the... View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band optical communication systems: Part I—Time division multiplexing

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1666 - 1683
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1941 KB)

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the theoretical error performance of several digital formats suitable for use with a mode-locked laser source, to discuss the problems of implementing these formats, and to consider the design of an illustrative system. Several techniques for time multiplexing are also described. It is assumed that the transmission medium introduces only additive noise and ... View full abstract»

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  • Wide-band optical communication systems: Part II—Frequency-division multiplexing

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1683 - 1690
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (801 KB)

    Frequency-division multiplexing techniques offer means for circumventing the bandwidth limitations of optical modulators and detector. Practical broad-band long-distance optical communication system of this type appear feasible and some possible embodiments are described. Calculations are made to determine the approximate information capacity and other characteristics of several 4000-mile repeater... View full abstract»

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  • Atmospheric optical communications systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):1691 - 1709
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2032 KB)

    The increasing sophistication of optical (and infrared) components and techniques, combined with rapidly expanding communication requirements, suggests that optical systems operating partly or entirely within the atmosphere may soon represent desirable solutions to real communications problems. The design of such systems will be strongly influenced by considerations of atmospheric turbulence, mole... View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University