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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 3 • March 1970

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 60
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):289 - 291
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  • Future demand for air traffic services

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):292 - 299
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (879 KB)

    Forecasts of the demand for air transportation indicate continued growth in that demand throughout the next 25 years. This paper translates those demand forecasts into measures of air traffic activity--flights, airport operations, and numbers of aircraft airborne at peak periods. Total air traffic activity in this country is projected to increase four-fold between 1968 and 1995. Most aircraft flyi... View full abstract»

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  • Increasing runway capacity

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):300 - 307
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (797 KB)

    Today's major urban airport operates at saturation too frequently but can be upgraded to increase substantially aircraft movement rates by means of a number of system changes. These changes provide for reduced separations between aircraft, use of additional parallels, and more precise control of terminal traffic. There are incremental steps which can be taken to improve the current situation. Howe... View full abstract»

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  • Capacity and noise relationships for major hub airports

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):307 - 313
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    The conflicting goals of increasing capacity at an airport and reducing the noise exposure around that airport are examined. Basically, airport capacity is directly related to aircraft noise exposure such that an increase in capacity means an increase in the noise exposed area surrounding the airport. Several technological and operational noise reduction methods are discussed and it is shown that ... View full abstract»

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  • Correction to 1969 index

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s): 313
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (75 KB)

    Eentries for two letters appearing in the November issue were omitted: Gronson, Harry M.; An impulse scattering range (Ltr.); Gagnon, Ralph J.; PROC 69 Nov 2093-2094, PROC 69 Nov 2094. Further comments, with author??s reply, on Grimes, D.M. ; The acceleration magnetic field of a steadycurrent loop (Ltr.); PROC 68 Sep 1592-1593. The author index entry for the 1968 letter by D.M. Grimes should have ... View full abstract»

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  • Collision and missed approach risks in high-capacity airport operations

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):314 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (782 KB)

    A study is made to develop a risk model for airport landing operations. Particular emphasis is placed on simultaneous use of closely spaced parallel runways and on reduction of longitudinal separation on final approach. Based upon certain simplifying assumptions, the missed approach and collision rates are evaluated. For the parameters considered it is found that a safe separation distance for par... View full abstract»

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  • Laser-Doppler system for detection of aircraft trailing vortices

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):322 - 326
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2322 KB)

    This paper reviews the results of a test program utilizing a CW CO2laser-Doppler velocimeter system that has demonstrated the capability of detecting wing tip vortices by the measurement of Doppler shifted back scatter from atmospheric aerosols naturally suspended in the atmosphere. The velocity signatures of vortices generated by a C-47 aircraft making low altitude cooperative flybys a... View full abstract»

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  • An estimate of the power required to eliminate trailing vortices by suction

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):326 - 327
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (174 KB)

    The feasibility of reducing the hazards of trailing vortices on closely spaced parallel runways is examined. The proposed solution involves the application of suction along the runways. A simplified computer simulation indicated that the application is feasible and that the required horsepower is modest. View full abstract»

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  • Terminal air traffic flow and collision exposure

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):328 - 336
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB)

    The actual incidence of midair collisions and near midair collisions in terminal areas between controlled and uncontrolled traffic can be expected to depend on the number of aircraft operations, the relative location and utilization of airports and runways in each terminal, the restrictions on the use of the terminal airspace imposed by topographical features and arrival/departure routes, the inci... View full abstract»

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  • Separation of air traffic by visual means: An estimate of the effectiveness of the see-and-avoid doctrine

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):337 - 361
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2593 KB)

    Using the 1968 FAA near midair collision data and Howell's flight test data on visual detection of aircraft from other aircraft, an estimate is made of the effectiveness of the see-and-avoid doctrine as a function of closing speed in today's air traffic environment. It is estimated that at present about 95 percent of potential collisions are avoided at low closing speeds; this effectiveness of see... View full abstract»

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  • Intermittent positive control

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):361 - 369
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1050 KB)

    The concept of intermittent positive control is to issue commands to normally uncontrolled aircraft only when it is necessary to avoid a hazardous midair circumstance. This concept would depend on a hardware environment which provides reliable location and identification of all aircraft in the protected airspace. A digital computer would use this track and ID information to detect potential confli... View full abstract»

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  • Separation theory in air traffic control system design

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):369 - 376
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (693 KB)

    A general treatment of collision hazard is developed which expresses the relationship between separation standards, velocity and acceleration limits, surveillance accuracy, communication delays, sampling frequency, maneuver severity, and intervention frequency. An example of separation standards achievable through the use of an upgraded beacon system is given. The relations presented permit optimi... View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "Error analysis of digital filters realized with floating-point arithmetic"

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s): 376
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  • Aircraft density and midair collision

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):377 - 381
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB)

    The frequency of near midair collisions under visual flight rules (VFR) as a function of aircraft density is derived from a model which correlates closely with recent experience. Examples are given which indicate the degree of air traffic control (ATC) needed for safe separation at various levels of aircraft density for both unordered and ordered flight. It is argued that loose forms of ATC such a... View full abstract»

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  • The effect of airspace loading by controlled air traffic on the air traffic control system

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):381 - 391
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1615 KB)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine briefly the amount of traffic which air controllers can manage with varying levels of automation. It is shown that automated aids to the controller expand his capacity to handle traffic by a factor of 2-3. The use of area navigation and rerouting can increase his traffic handling capacity by another factor of 2-3. Application of both techniques will be neces... View full abstract»

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  • A projection of future ATC data processing requirements

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):391 - 399
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1019 KB)

    Forecast traffic growth for the 1980-1995 time period will exceed the capacity of the present airport and air traffic control automation system in high-density areas. If traffic growth is to be accommodated, higher levels of automation are required. The Department of Transportation Air Traffic Control Advisory Committee (September 1968-August 1969) established a computer sizing group to determine ... View full abstract»

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  • System capability of air traffic control radar beacon system

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):399 - 407
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (874 KB)

    The air traffic control radar beacon system problems and solutions to these problems are discussed. Residual problems, their extent, and their impact on future systems are described. The results of a system model are related to the possible fixes. View full abstract»

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  • Beacon target processing for air traffic control

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):408 - 412
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB)

    The beacon subsystem is one of many sources providing information to the air traffic control system. In automatic systems, various types of target information are derived from the beacon replies in a special purpose computer known generally as a processor. An important aspect of processor performance is its ability to detect targets in a noisy environment and to accurately determine the location o... View full abstract»

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  • An improved ATC radar beacon system

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):413 - 422
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1125 KB)

    This paper summarizes the work of the Beacon Systems Panel of the Air Traffic Control Advisory Committee. View full abstract»

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  • Multipath tolerant ranging and data transfer techniques for air-to-ground and ground-to-air links

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):422 - 429
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB)

    This work addresses data acquisition problems associated with an improved air traffic control system. A mathematical theory of scattering which describes the multipath process is developed. From this model, the optimum signal structure required for ranging and communicating data through the multipath propagation medium is derived. It is shown that the Reed-Solomon Codes have near optimum propertie... View full abstract»

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  • VOR/DME system improvements

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):430 - 437
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (986 KB)

    The VOR/DME/TACAN system of short distance navigation in the United States has provided service over the past decade to all civil and military air traffic. Improvements have been incorporated which have been in the nature of refinements, assuring adequate performance for all current aircraft needs. Recent analyses indicate that continued use of VOR/DME to meet increased civil air traffic demands t... View full abstract»

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  • A satellite system to support an advanced air traffic control concept

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):438 - 447
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (852 KB)

    This paper describes an advanced air traffic control surveillance and data system concept. The system is based on the use of satellites in 24-hour inclined, elliptical orbits for both communication and aircraft position determination and communications. Emphasis in the selection of this system was placed on the minimization of user aircraft equipment costs and the centralization of information pro... View full abstract»

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  • North atlantic aeronautical satellite system development

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):448 - 455
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (929 KB)

    The Systems Research and Development Service of the Federal Aviation Administration is actively supporting study and experimental programs that will enable the United States, in conjunction with other participating countries, to achieve by the late 1970's an operational North Atlantic air traffic control system using satellites. No single program or system has been decided upon; however, the follo... View full abstract»

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  • An optical radar pilot warning indicator

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):456 - 461
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)

    A proposed pilot warning instrument based upon the principle of an optical radar is described. Target cross section enhancement, through the use of a passive retroreflector, allows a small semiconductor light-emitting laser diode to act as transmitter. A split scanning beam together with integrated circuit signal processing gives the "tau" time of each target thus providing an alarm only in the ca... View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University