Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 2 • Feb. 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 51
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s): 113
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Lasers in industry

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):114 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (12)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (14356 KB)

    Lasers can now be regarded as practical and economic tools with unique properties which have been utilized effectively in several applications in industry. Major applications of the laser are in thermal processes and measurements. Large amounts of concentrated energy allow microdrilling, welding, cutting, and fracturing to be simply effected in even the hardest materials. The coherence properties ... View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of probabilities and correlations with a storage tube

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):147 - 159
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4529 KB)

    A new approach to the measurement of the statistical characteristics of physical data is presented. This approach exploits a novel use of a storage oscilloscope of the bistable type to display equiprobability lines on the oscilloscope screen. The first- and second-order probability density and distribution functions and the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions of stationary random proce... View full abstract»

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  • The interchange of time and frequency in television displays

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):160 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2015 KB)

    The paper discusses the properties of display systems using frequency rather than time coding of the individual image elements. Various coding techniques, all making use of a dispersive delay line, are compared by means of time-frequency diagrams showing the nature of the coding operation. A detailed analysis is given of one such technique used in conjunction with an acoustic light diffraction cel... View full abstract»

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  • Heat stress due to RF radiation

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):171 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)

    The radiation protection guide (RPG) number of 10 mW/cm2is generally accepted for normal environmental conditions. For conditions of moderate to severe heat stress, the guide number should be appropriately reduced. A proposal to reduce the guide number one mW/cm2for every temperature-humidity-index (THI) point above 70 (until 1 mW/cm2is reached) is examined in term... View full abstract»

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  • The piezoelectric crystal unit—Definitions and methods of measurement

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):179 - 201
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2026 KB)

    The properties of a piezoelectric crystal unit as a circuit element are characterized and defined, in terms of a general equivalent circuit that is valid at any frequency up to and including the lower UHF ranges but reduces to the conventional equivalent circuit if the parameters are properly redefined. The characteristic values such as resonance frequency and resistance, parallel resonance freque... View full abstract»

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  • Generalized paired-echo analysis for bandpass systems

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):204 - 205
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB)

    A generalized form of paired-echo analysis suitable for application to bandpass systems has been developed. This method is suitable for digital-computer application and provides an efficient technique for wave-form computation. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation and reduction of aerosol backscatter in optical systems

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):205 - 206
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (182 KB)

    Backscatter reduction by receiver time gating and transceiver geometry is estimated for an idealized transmitter-receiver system. A transition range, equal to the distance at which the receiver subtends an angle equal to its acceptance angle, is discussed. It is found that half of the total backscatter occurs before this transition range. A nomogram and a design chart for backscatter computation a... View full abstract»

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  • Transient response of an operational amplifier with logarithmic feedback

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):206 - 208
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB)

    An analytic closed-form expression for the transient response of an analog operational amplifier with a logarithmic feedback element is derived. The characteristic response function for a step input, in the limit of vanishingly small step size, approaches an exponential with a signal amplitude factor in the "time constant." View full abstract»

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  • Germanium radiation detectors compensated by irradiation defects

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):208 - 209
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (247 KB)

    A method is described for the preparation of room-temperature-stable germanium radiation detectors. Some preliminary observations are presented concerning the role of materials and fabrication parameters in detector performance. View full abstract»

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  • On electrical analogs for flow networks

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):209 - 210
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB)

    A combinatoric argument is used to derive a diode-source analog for minimum cost flow problems. View full abstract»

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  • Dipolar resonance in the plane-wave scattering by an axially magnetized ferrite cylinder

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):210 - 211
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (221 KB)

    The scattering of E-polarized plane waves by an infinitely long axially magnetized ferrite cylinder is investigated for the case in which the radius of the cylinder is small in comparison with the wavelength of the incident wave. The scattering amplitude is found to have a maximum at a single resonant frequency whose approximate expression in terms of the physical parameters is deduced. View full abstract»

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  • A geometrical stability criterion, similar to the Popov criterion, for time-varying, nonlinear, continuous systems

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):212 - 214
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    A stability criterion, applicable in the analysis of a class of single-loop control systems, is derived. The loop of a system from this class of systems consists of a tandem connection of a time-varying gain; a memoryless, time-invariant, nonlinear operator; and an operator which satisfies an inner product inequality. When the operator, satisfying the inner product inequality is a linear, causal, ... View full abstract»

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  • Injection-locked avalanche diode oscillator FM receiver

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):214 - 215
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)

    An injection-locked-oscillator FM receiver has been built in X-band waveguide using an avalanche diode oscillator. Measurements of the output voltage as a function of peak frequency deviation of the input signal were made and compared with theoretical values. Good agreement between theoretical and measured performance indicates that the avalanche diode is adequately described by the van der Pol mo... View full abstract»

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  • A wide-band 4-GHz Esaki-diode injection-locked oscillator

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):215 - 216
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (185 KB)

    A locking figure of merit larger than 2 was achieved with 4-GHz Esaki-diode oscillators with microstrip-line structure. A typical oscillator gave a locking bandwidth of 720 MHz at a gain of 20 dB. View full abstract»

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  • SHF tunnel diode switching-mode frequency divider

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):216 - 217
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (157 KB)

    A tunnel-diode switching circuit has been developed which can halve the frequency of signals over a 50 percent fractional bandwidth at center frequencies of at least 4 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • The relation between the current constriction and the area of a transistor

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):218 - 219
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (176 KB)

    The relationship between rate of current change and temperature change in the small thermally weak region of a transistor, which is caused by thermal feedback mechanism, was discussed by Scarlett and Shockley [1] and Bergmann and Gerstner [2]. This relationship is given quantitatively as a function of the total area and stabilizing resistance of a transistor. View full abstract»

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  • Small-signal and saturation characteristics of an X-band cyclotron-resonance oscillator

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):219 - 220
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (215 KB)

    Design information and operating characteristics are given for an experimental X-band cyclotron-resonance oscillator. Saturated power levels near 3 watts, at 0.8 percent efficiency, are reported. Qualitative agreement with theory has been observed under small-signal, zero-space-charge conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Computer simulation of multifrequency LSA oscillations in GaAs

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):220 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB)

    The use of transmission lines in an equivalent circuit as suggested by Copeland [1] (instead of the usual lumped circuit elements) has resulted in computer simulation of the multiple-frequency operation associated with LSA oscillation in GaAs [2]. This technique is useful in determining design parameters for eliminating the low-frequency subharmonic and/or maximizing efficiency. For mobilities of ... View full abstract»

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  • A SiC backward diode

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):221 - 222
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB)

    SiC backward diodes which operate between 77°K and 1000°K have been developed. Figures of merit (γ√R) of 19 300, 3960, and 15 at 12.5 MHz, 50 MHz and 8.8 GHz, respectively, have been measured with detector area on the order of 10-5cm2. These results are compatible with a prior analysis which predicted an upper frequency limit of between 0.1 and 1.0 GHz fo... View full abstract»

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  • A simple circuit using FETs for fading audio signals in and out exponentially in time

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):222 - 224
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB)

    This letter describes a simple fading circuit for low frequencies, using the FET as a control element. The logarithm of the output voltage is a linear function of time. Distortion is considerably reduced through a linearization circuit. The fading process can be interrupted at any moment and the rate of attenuation for each signal is maintained without change for several minutes. View full abstract»

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  • The sonic region for propagation in a parametric medium with harmonic pump modulation

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):224 - 225
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Computation of the inverse Hessian matrix using conjugate gradient methods

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):225 - 226
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (157 KB)

    A method is presented to compute the inverse of the Hessian matrix in an optimization problem using the conjugate gradient algorithm of Hestenes and Stiefel [1]. It is shown how this may be used to refine the solution by a Newton-Raphson iteration for both finite and infinite dimensional optimization problems. View full abstract»

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  • A stability criterion for periodically time-varying systems

    Publication Year: 1969, Page(s):226 - 227
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (154 KB)

    A generalized stability criterion for a periodically time-varying system is derived. It is shown that a time-varying system with the time-varying parameters having period T is stable if and only if the eigenvalues µiof the state transition matrix at t = T, i.e., Φ(T), satisfy the condifio |µ1| < 1. The simple testing procedure is illustrated with the help of... View full abstract»

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H. Joel Trussell
North Carolina State University