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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 11 • Nov. 1968

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 73
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1761 - 1762
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Design of electronic scanning radar systems (ESRS)

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1763 - 1771
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (819 KB)

    A format is presented for the design of Electronic Scanning Radar Systems (ESRS). Theoretical and practical design considerations unique to ESRS are emphasized. An introductory discussion of the role electronic scanning technology plays in fulfilling modern radar requirements is followed by a brief description of the generic types of electronic scan available to the radar designer. The system para... View full abstract»

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  • Optimum scannable planar arrays with an invariant sidelobe level

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1771 - 1778
    Cited by:  Papers (48)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB)

    This paper presents two alternative methods for determining the current distribution in the elements of a scanning rectangular array which is optimum in the sense that its radiation pattern has a constant sidelobe level and a narrowest beamwidth in all directions. Exact formulas for both even and odd numbers of elements are given. The dependence of the main-lobe beamwidth on the total number of el... View full abstract»

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  • Useful approximations for the directivity and beamwidth of large scanning Dolph-Chebyshev arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1779 - 1787
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (922 KB)

    Approximate but accurate formulas are presented in a closed form that makes possible an easy examination and computation of directivity and beamwidth for large scanning Dolph-Chebyshev arrays. Array length, number of elements, spacing of the elements, sidelobe level, and angle of scan are parameters. Element spacings less than λ/2 are included. Comparisons between exact and approximate theory... View full abstract»

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  • Collimation of row-and-column steered phased arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1787 - 1790
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB)

    An optically fed phased array must be provided with a means of collimation as well as with a beam steering function. The same phase shifters which are used to steer the beam can be used to collimate the beam. The use of row-and-column phase commands, while greatly simplifying the beam steering function over that required for commanding individual elements, precludes the attainment of exact collima... View full abstract»

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  • Non-orthogonal beam steering commands for array antennas

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1791 - 1794
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (295 KB)

    The steering of a phased-array antenna requires the generation of specific calculated values of phase for each active radiating element in the array. These phase values are generally derived by a special-purpose computer which receives basic steering data from a general-purpose system computer. The system computer transfers two basic steering commands which permit positioning the beam in two dimen... View full abstract»

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  • Granularity of beam positions in digital phased arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1795 - 1800
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (426 KB)

    Many phased arrays are designed to use digital or digitalized phase shifters in which the phase shift varies in discrete steps rather than continuously. In such cases, the beam can be steered only in discrete steps. Granularity, defined as the finest realizable increment between adjacent beam positions, is an important parameter in the description of the performance of a phased array antenna using... View full abstract»

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  • Phased-array beam steering by multiplex sampling

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1801 - 1811
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1014 KB)

    One approach to phased-array antenna beam forming and steering is to multiplex the element signals into a single channel. Appropriate "sampling" of the resulting multiplexed signal can provide electronically steered and shaped beams. This paper describes four practical system concepts for linear and ring arrays based on this approach and discusses significant interrelationships between the various... View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of triangular lattice arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1811 - 1817
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (597 KB)

    Triangular lattice arrays fed uniformly are found similar in their radiation characteristics to linear tapered arrays. In addition, they direct most of their energy in the forward direction with relatively low side-lobe level. The maximum nominal directivity is in general higher numerically than the total number of elements in the array. A universal amplitude contour map is found capable of handli... View full abstract»

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  • Multibeam planar arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1818 - 1821
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB)

    The application of general N-port Butler matrices to the generation of multiple beams-from planar arrays is described. It is shown that the array must satisfy a "covering" condition. The interconnection of array and matrix is derived. The method, for determination of beam position is developed and applied to rectangular arrays to improve beam crossover level. Examples are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Element pattern nulls in phased arrays and their relation to guided waves

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1822 - 1836
    Cited by:  Papers (54)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1479 KB)

    In recent years, unusual dips or nulls have been observed in the element patterns of certain phased-array antennas at angles closer to broadside than that for which an endfire grating lobe exists. These nulls are known to bear a direct and simple relation to a total reflection condition which occurs when all elements of the array are excited. The purposes of this paper are to investigate the basic... View full abstract»

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  • A generalized approach to the analysis of infinite planar array antennas

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1837 - 1851
    Cited by:  Papers (44)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1450 KB)

    In this paper a generalized expression for the complex power radiated by an element in an infinite planar array antenna is derived. Since this power formula applies to a large class of phased array antennas where the aperture field distribution can be completely specified (in normal mode form), it proves to be a powerful, unifying principle. The utility of this approach is illustrated by the simpl... View full abstract»

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  • A design procedure for matching volumetrically scanned waveguide arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1851 - 1860
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (878 KB)

    The impedance of a phased array of waveguides arranged in a triangular lattice and fitted with H-plane corrugated plates is analyzed using a scattering matrix method. The principal result is a virtually exact equivalent network consisting of three interconnected three-ports, each derived in terms of physical dimensions and scan angles for any volume or plane of scan limited only by grating lobes. ... View full abstract»

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  • Design criteria for linearly polarized waveguide arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1861 - 1872
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB)

    The influence of the waveguide aperture size on the admittance variation with scan angle of a waveguide phased array is presented. It is shown that certain size waveguide apertures can cause zero radiation directions. Design criteria which yield the maximum waveguide size to minimize or eliminate this condition are derived. View full abstract»

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  • On the asymptotic decay of coupling for infinite phased arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1872 - 1880
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB)

    The asymptotic decay of coupling with distance from a single excited element it an infinite linear array has been analyzed for several special cases and is shown to behave according to exp (-jkr)/r3/2where r is the distance from the excited element. This behavior is also characteristic of propagation over a lossy surface. By geometric extrapolation one would expect an asymptotic decay o... View full abstract»

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  • Modal analysis of periodic planar phased arrays of apertures

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1881 - 1892
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1011 KB)

    A general method is established for the evaluation of the driving point admittance of a radiating aperture, fed by a waveguide of the same cross section as the aperture, in an infinite periodic planar phased array. The array may have an arbitrary element lattice and it may be covered by a dielectric layer. The coefficients of the waveguide modal expansion and of the Floquet series representing the... View full abstract»

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  • Infinite phased dipole array

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1892 - 1900
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (627 KB)

    By means of a Poisson sum formula and an integral-equation technique, an accurate solution for an infinite phased dipole array is obtained. The elements of the array are spaced uniformly and are excited with increasing phases. The technique can be applied to an infinite collinear array and to an infinite planar array either in free space or over a ground plane. The integral equation is solved both... View full abstract»

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  • Mutual coupling and element efficiency for infinite linear arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1901 - 1907
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)

    A formulation is presented of the interrelationship among mutual coupling element efficiency, active impedance, and element radiation patterns for infinite linear (uniformly spaced) arrays. Numerical results are obtained for element efficiency and mutual coupling when the array elements are elementary dipoles. A new lower upper bonnd is obtained on element efficiency. This upper bound is expressed... View full abstract»

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  • Microwave components for wide-band phased arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1908 - 1923
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3018 KB)

    The bandpass characteristic required for wide instantaneous bandwidth microwave components for phased arrays is described. One of the primary error considerations in the bandpass characteristic is the error effect on a compressed, frequency-chirped signal, the errors producing spurious time sidelobes and pulse broadening. Following this the design and performance of five types of microwave compone... View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "Sea echo at laser wavelengths"

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s): 1923
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  • Review of semiconductor microwave phase shifters

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1924 - 1931
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2691 KB)

    The electronically controlled phased array radar antenna has received considerable attention in the last decade. Requiring no mechanical motion for steering, it can scan in microseconds or, with some phase control elements, in nanoseconds. Even multiple beams can be formed electronically. In the future, for almost every antenna steering application, the electrically steered array will be desired p... View full abstract»

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  • Application of reciprocal latching ferrite phase shifters to lightweight electronic scanned phased arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1931 - 1939
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (837 KB)

    This paper reviews the operating principles of four types of reciprocal latching ferrite phase shifters and compares them with respect to normalized phase shift and RF insertion loss. The effects of frequency and temperature on the phase shift are also discussed. Consideration is given to size and weight, as well as RF power handling, important factors in an array intended for field-environment co... View full abstract»

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  • A systematic approach to the design of a radiator element for a phased-array antenna

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1940 - 1951
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1231 KB)

    A planar phased-array antenna presents a reflection at its face which varies greatly with phasing for wide-angle steering of the beam. A radiator element for an array of many elements may be designed on the basis of an infinite array, simulated in waveguide for measurements or expressed in terms of the "grating-lobe series" for computation. Neither of these techniques is sufficient by itself, but ... View full abstract»

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  • Multimode phased array element for wide scan angle impedance matching

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1951 - 1959
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (866 KB)

    A method of achieving a matched radiating element in both a phased linear array and a phased two-dimensional array over wide ranges of scan angle has been developed. This method uses two or more propagating modes in each array element such that the reflections of these modes from the array aperture produce a cancellation effect at the element driving terminal. An experimental 32-element linear arr... View full abstract»

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