Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 9 • Sept. 1968

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 72
  • [Front cover and table of contents]

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scanning the issue

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1407 - 1408
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Optimization studies on open-cycle MHD generators

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1409 - 1419
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB)

    An optimization theory is developed which predicts the variation of thermodynamic properties, duct shape, and electrical loading along an MHD generator for minimum duct length, duct surface area, or duct volume. The model is based on the one-dimensional flow equations including heat transfer and friction, and the analysis is developed for a fluid with arbitrary dependence of density, enthalpy, ele... View full abstract»

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  • MHD induction generator

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1420 - 1431
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1112 KB)

    This paper reviews, in some detail, the general theory of MHD induction generators. Several different approaches to the analysis of constant-velocity generators are summarized and compared, and a new mathematical model for a variable-velocity generator is presented, including digital computer solutions for the theoretical performance. The velocity distribution and boundary layer losses are conside... View full abstract»

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  • Disk generator

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1432 - 1437
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (535 KB)

    The use of the disk generator as a practical device for power generation is discussed and compared to a linear device in terms of maximum allowable electric fields, magnetic field utilization, and surface-to-volume ratio. The swirl induced by the azimuthal force acting on the radial current is found to be of prime importance for the generator's performance. For certain values of the inlet swirl op... View full abstract»

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  • An analysis of the operation and stability of the constant-velocity MHD hall generator

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1438 - 1448
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (697 KB)

    The constant-velocity Hall-type MHD generator with segmented transverse electrode is analyzed numerically to determine the steady-state operating characteristics and the stability with respect to axially propagating magnetoacoustic waves under a constant-current constraint. The electrical conductivity and Hall parameter are represented as functions of temperature and pressure. The variations of st... View full abstract»

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  • Variable-velocity MHD induction generator with rotating-machine internal electrical efficiency

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1449 - 1458
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (966 KB)

    A traveling-wave, MHD induction generator with varying fluid velocity between inlet and exit can have the same internal electrical efficiency as a rotating induction generator. The fraction of electric retarding work converted to electric output at each station in the flow channel is (1 + s)-1, where s is the local slip (U - Us)/Us, between the velocity of the flui... View full abstract»

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  • Transport properties of MHD-generator plasmas

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1458 - 1471
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1241 KB)

    The kinetic theory of partially ionized plasmas is applied to the calculation of transport properties for plasma conditions representative of MHD generators. Emphasis is placed on the accuracy of approximate formulas in comparision with the exact values. The exact values are obtained by means of spherical-harmonic expansions of the electron and heavy-particle Boltzmann equations, with the use of s... View full abstract»

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  • Some diagnostic techniques useful for MHD-generator plasmas

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1472 - 1475
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB)

    The plasma in an MHD generator is mainly defined by its electron density ne, its electrical conductivity σ, the temperatures of the gas and the electrons T0and Te, its velocity V, and the value of the Hall coefficient ωτ. In recent years, various diagnostic methods have been developed in order to determine and clarify the behavior of such generators,... View full abstract»

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  • Observations of large nonequilibrium conductivity in a closed-cycle MPD channel with applied electric and magnetic fields

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1476 - 1482
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1861 KB)

    Experiments have been performed it the International Research and Devlopment (IRD) Mk II helium-cesium MPD facility with simultaneously applied electric and magnetic fields. By increasing the total current density in the plasma from 2 mA/cm2to 440 mA/cm2the plasma impedance decreased by a factor of 100 owing to a nonequilibrium increase of the electron temperature and number ... View full abstract»

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  • An absolute immersion-type electrical plasma conductivity probe

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1483 - 1493
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1549 KB)

    The feasibility of measuring the spatial distribution of the electrical conductivity in plasmas by means of an immersed plasma probe has been examined. By solving the Maxwell-Heimholtz equations for the case of a coil inside a cylinder immersed in an electrically conducting medium, the change in coil impedance due to the presence of the medium is predicted. The exact solution is numerical but for ... View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of radio-frequency-generated plasmas in static magnetic fields

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1493 - 1502
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1110 KB)

    When plasmas are immersed in static magnetic fields a number of plasma instabilities are likely to develop. In turns out that in many cases the type of instability which occurs is in some way related to the method used to generate the plasma. One of the easiest and most common ways of generating a plasma is to pass a radio-frequency current through it. On the other hand, very little is known about... View full abstract»

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  • Effects of electrode and boundary-layer temperatures on MHD generator performance

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1502 - 1510
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB)

    Experiments were performed in a combustion-driven MHD generator to determine the effects of electrode temperature and boundary-layer temperature on its performance. The generator was a single electrode pair guarded to avoid end effects by two electrode pairs both upstream and downstream. However, end effects were found to be small, so the tests can be interpreted in terms of a five-electrode-pair ... View full abstract»

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  • Nonequilibrium MHD generator losses due to wall and insulator boundary-layer leakages

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1511 - 1519
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (779 KB)

    The current leakages through the channel walls, ground-loop paths, and insulator-wall boundary layers are examined, and simplified analytical models are developed for nonequilibrium Faraday MHD generators. The results indicate that high insulator wall resistance and high insulator boundary-layer resistance are considerably more important for supersonic generators employing nonequilibrium ionizatio... View full abstract»

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  • Electrode processes in MHD generators

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1519 - 1535
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1543 KB)

    Electrode processes strongly influence the performance and durability of an MHD generator. In this paper a theoretical analysis of these processes is made based on a model suggested by experimental work. According to these observations current transfer at the cathode usually occurs by means of small arc spots, while at the anode the discharge covers the electrode. The basic relations resulting fro... View full abstract»

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  • Electrical characteristics of a linear, nonequilibrium, MHD generator

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1535 - 1547
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1411 KB)

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the electrical performance of a linear, segmented electrode, MHD generator. Various noble gases were shock-heated to plasma conditions that allowed MHD generator operation with Hall parameters ωeτeranging from 1 to 20 and ratios of electron to static gas temperatures of 1 to 2.5. For Te/Tg... View full abstract»

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  • Electrical performance of a duct with segmented electrodes under various conditions

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1547 - 1555
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    An MHD duct with 56 electrode pairs has been tested on a 10-MW thermal test facility of Electricité de France. The cross section of the generator is constant and rectangular, the distance between electrodes facing each other is 13cm, and the length of the electrodes 7 cm. The insulating walk are of the peg wall type, and each electrode is made of nine small zirconia praseodymium oxide bricks ... View full abstract»

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  • MHD generators in two-terminal operation

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1555 - 1562
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (658 KB)

    Experimental results of a two-terminal-connected 60° diagonal conducting wall (DCW) generator and a Hall generator under identical channel entrance conditions are presented. The governing equations for two-terminal-connected MHD generators were derived under the assumption of homogeneous electrical properties and with corrections including the finite size of electrodes. A comparison of the ou... View full abstract»

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  • Experimental analysis of an MPD closed-cycle generator with quasi-equilibrium plasma

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1563 - 1573
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (939 KB)

    The first series of MPD experiments performed with the closed-cycle facility of the Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare (CNEN) are described. The entire facility, a blowdown loop capable of producing a high-purity noble gas, alkali-seeded plasma of 2 MW thermal power, has been thoroughly tested and has performed satisfactorily. The performance of a small-scale MPD generator with quasi-equili... View full abstract»

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  • Experimental study of diagonal conducting wall generators using solid propellants

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1574 - 1578
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB)

    The work reported here is the result of using a special solid fuel developed as a working fluid for MHD generators by Hercules Inc. Conductivity measurements of the combustion products were made using the electrodes of the Hall channel as floating potential probes. The experimentally determined values of the average conductivity for this type of propellant were found to be in the range between 40 ... View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "Recognition of handwitten numerical characters for automatic letter sorting"

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s): 1578
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  • An analysis of the annular induction MHD generator

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1584 - 1585
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB)

    The analysis is made for a constant-amplitude traveling magnetic field interacting with a constant-velocity fluid flowing in an annular channel. The expressions for input and output densities, electrical conversion efficiency, and generator phase impedance are given. The machine parameters and effects are included through the use of ac machinery concepts. The results are then compared with those f... View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis functions for circular arc arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1585 - 1586
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (205 KB)

    Orthogonal functions are given which can be used in the synthesis of circular arc arrays. These functions were obtained from the optimization of array beam efficiency which is expressed as the ratio of hermitian forms. View full abstract»

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  • A method for removing blindness in phased arrays

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1586 - 1588
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)

    In periodic phased arrays, due to the mutual coupling effect, there is a sharp dip in radiation at a certain scan angle, thus causing the so-called blindness phenomenon. It is shown that by using random (or other aperiodic) arrays, this adverse effect can be almost completely removed. View full abstract»

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  • Ring-geometry IMPATT oscillator diodes

    Publication Year: 1968, Page(s):1588 - 1589
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (212 KB)

    Ring-geometry IMPATT diodes have been developed which give 1.15 watts output power at 8.4 to 10 GHz, compared with 0.87 watt obtained from solid-circular-geometry diodes of the same basic design. The improved performance is due to better thermal dissipation in the ring structure. View full abstract»

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North Carolina State University